A review of risk factors and patterns of motorcycle injuries

Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan, ROC.
Accident; analysis and prevention (Impact Factor: 1.65). 08/2009; 41(4):710-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.010
Source: PubMed


Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcycle riders have a 34-fold higher risk of death in a crash than people driving other types of motor vehicles. While lower-extremity injuries most commonly occur in all motorcycle crashes, head injuries are most frequent in fatal crashes. Helmets and helmet use laws have been shown to be effective in reducing head injuries and deaths from motorcycle crashes. Alcohol is the major contributing factor to fatal crashes. Enforcement of legal limits on the blood alcohol concentration is effective in reducing motorcycle deaths, while some alcohol-related interventions such as a minimal legal drinking age, increased alcohol excise taxes, and responsible beverage service specifically for motorcycle riders have not been examined. Other modifiable protective or risk factors comprise inexperience and driver training, conspicuity and daytime headlight laws, motorcycle licensure and ownership, riding speed, and risk-taking behaviors. Features of motorcycle use and potentially effective prevention programs for motorcycle crash injuries in developing countries are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future motorcycle-injury research are made.

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    • "In the context of risk factors for motorcyclists, Lin and Kraus (2009) referred to inexperience, risk-taking behavior, and excessive speed, among others, as human factors that increase the risk of accidents, particularly those with high-severity injury outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present research was to compare different methods of training for safe moped use, especially focusing on physiological reactions during risky experiences. By recording skin conductance response (SCR), we investigated whether training that requires active riding behavior in different risky situations through the use of the Honda Riding Training (HRT) simulator leads to different physiological reactivity, which, in turn, might lead to better learning outcomes. Results indicated that participants who rode actively through the HRT showed higher percentages of SCRs than participants who simply observed risky road scenes to spot hazards. SCR percentage was higher in scenes with no accident. Overall, SCR amplitude was greater when accidents occurred than in scenes with no accidents. Implications for the effectiveness of inexperienced riders training with riding simulators were also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Transportation Research Part F Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
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    • "So , first of all , the trainer had to intervene just before the hazard became a real possibility , and this might prevent the complete elaboration of the elements of the scene that should , in the following on - road experience , be recognized autonomously by the novice rider . Second , in the on - road practice , the majority of typical hazard scenarios are never encountered by the novices before getting their license , and this represents a serious element of inexperience that , in turn , is considered one of the human factors that concurs in determining the risk of crashes ( Lin and Kraus , 2009 ) . This is why efforts devoted to demonstrating the efficacy of other training modalities of riding training that allow familiarization with as many typical risky situations as possible through riding simulators ( Isler et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group one year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training—one year before—is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Psychology
    • "Prevalence and correlates of exposure to PTW transport differ starkly between Asian and Western countries. PTW represent only 2% of registered motor vehicles in the US, compared with 95% of all registered vehicles in Vietnam, 63% in mainland China, and 67% in Taiwan (Lin and Kraus, 2009). According to the international transport forum, Taiwan has the highest rate of PTW ownership in the world ( 600 units per 1000 persons); in comparison, rates of PTW ownership are far lower in the US ( o35 units per 1000 persons) or even Vietnam (o250 units per 1000 persons) (Rogers, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: In Taiwan, indigenous persons are three times as likely to die of transport-attributed causes as non-indigenous Taiwanese. One contributing factor may be exposure to powered-two wheelers (PTW). Despite its high fatality rate relative to cars, PTW remain an economical and popular mode of transport used disproportionately by people of lower education and income throughout Asia. This study tests (1) indigenous ethnicity as a predictor of PTW usage, and (2) educational attainment and personal income as mediators between indigenous ethnicity and PTW usage. Based on data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (n=2209), results indicated that most indigenous respondents reported PTW as their primary mode of transport (73%), and that odds of PTW usage among indigenous persons were 2.80 times higher than non-indigenous Taiwanese. The association between indigenous ethnicity and PTW usage was significantly mediated by educational attainment. Lower educational attainment and personal income were correlated with PTW usage. Indigenous Taiwanese appear to have greater exposure to PTW, and by extension, greater risk for transport-attributed injury or death. Ethnic differences in decisions pertaining to mode of transport are complex and unlikely the simple function of education or personal income. Community-led initiatives are needed to understand and address transport-attributed mortality among indigenous populations dependent on PTW.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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