Article

Chronic hypoxia increases arterial blood pressure and reduces adenosine and ATP induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle in healthy humans

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the role played by adenosine, ATP and chemoreflex activation on the regulation of vascular conductance in chronic hypoxia. Methods: The vascular conductance response to low and high doses of adenosine and ATP was assessed in ten healthy men. Vasodilators were infused into the femoral artery at sea level and then after 8-12 days of residence at 4559 m above sea level. At sea level, the infusions were carried out while the subjects breathed room air, acute hypoxia (FI O2 = 0.11) and hyperoxia (FI O2 = 1); and at altitude (FI O2 = 0.21 and 1). Skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor protein expression was determined in muscle biopsies after 4 weeks at 3454 m by Western blot. Results: At altitude, mean arterial blood pressure was 13% higher (91 ± 2 vs. 102 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) than at sea level and was unaltered by hyperoxic breathing. Baseline leg vascular conductance was 25% lower at altitude than at sea level (P < 0.05). At altitude, the high doses of adenosine and ATP reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 9-12%, independently of FI O2 . The change in vascular conductance in response to ATP was lower at altitude than at sea level by 24 and 38%, during the low and high ATP doses respectively (P < 0.05), and by 22% during the infusion with high adenosine doses. Hyperoxic breathing did not modify the response to vasodilators at sea level or at altitude. P2Y2 receptor expression remained unchanged with altitude residence. Conclusions: Short-term residence at altitude increases arterial blood pressure and reduces the vasodilatory responses to adenosine and ATP.

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... Subsequent studies have generally confirmed this in humans investigated during acclimatization to high altitude for up to several weeks. [13][14][15] However, the plasma norepinephrine concentrations observed during hypoxic exposure may underestimate sympathetic activity as norepinephrine clearance is increased during hypoxemia. 16 This methodological shortcoming also makes norepinephrine measurements unsuited to determine the level of hypoxia necessary to elicit sympathoexcitation. ...
... Furthermore, oxygen breathing did not increase but rather lowered mean arterial pressure, suggesting that the level of sympathetic activity over-compensated for local vasodilation, and thus strongly argues against involvement of the arterial baroreflex in high-altitude sympathoexcitation, 7 although on the other hand, MAP was not reduced in a previous study when breathing pure O 2 . 13 In the same study, 7 the relative importance of cardiopulmonary and chemoreflexinduced sympathoexcitation was investigated by (a) rapid infusion of one liter of isotonic saline and (b) oxygen breathing (FiO 2 = 1.0). These interventions had minor effects on MSNA, and even 3 days after return to sea level MSNA, blood pressure and heart rate were still elevated. ...
... In a recent study, carotid body denervation prevented the expected hypoxia increase in sympathetic activation in a rodent model of chronic intermittent hypoxia, 37 whereas the effects of carotid body denervation on high-altitude sympathoexcitation are unknown. Taken together, these previous studies indicate that the peripheral chemoreceptors are important at least for initializing the hypoxia-induced sympathoexcitation, but the lack of response to oxygen during prolonged hypoxic exposure 13 suggests that continued activity of the chemoreceptor afferents is not a prerequisite for maintaining high-altitude sympathoexcitation. ...
Article
Combined results from different independent studies suggest that acclimatization to high altitude induces a slowly developing sympathetic activation, even at levels of hypoxia that cause no acute chemoreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. We here provide direct neurophysiological evidence for this phenomenon. In eight Danish lowlanders, we quantified mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), twice at sea level (normoxia and with acute hypoxic exposure to 12.6% O2) and twice at high altitude (after 10 and 50 days of exposure to 4100 m). Measurements were also obtained in eight Bolivian highlanders on one occasion at high altitude. Acute hypoxic exposure caused no increase in MSNA (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 bursts per min, respectively, and also MAP and HR remained stable). In contrast, from sea level to 10 and 50 days in high-altitude increases were observed in MAP: 72 ± 2 vs 78 ± 2 and 75 ± 2 mm Hg; HR: 54 ± 3 vs 67 ± 3 and 65 ± 3 beats per min; MSNA: 15 ± 2 vs 42 ± 5 and 42 ± 5 bursts per min, all P < .05. Bolivian subjects had high levels of MSNA: 34 ± 4 bursts per min. The simultaneous increase in MAP, HR, and MSNA suggests high altitude-induced sympathetic activity, which is sustained in well-acclimatized lowlanders. The high MSNA levels in the Bolivian highlanders suggest lifelong sympathetic activation at high altitude.
... In the last decades, several studies have investigated the effects of hypoxia on the human macrocirculation. According to current evidence, chronic hypoxia leads to a significant increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure by an overstimulation of the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin system 25,26 , as well as a downregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) 27 . Hence, long-term hypoxia is regarded a key precursor in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) 28 . ...
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Although acute hypoxia is of utmost pathophysiologic relevance in health and disease, studies on its effects on both the macro- and microcirculation are scarce. Herein, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the effects of acute normobaric hypoxia on human macro- and microcirculation. 20 healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Hypoxia was induced in a normobaric hypoxia chamber by decreasing the partial pressure of oxygen in inhaled air stepwisely (pO2; 21.25 kPa (0 k), 16.42 kPa (2 k), 12.63 kPa (4 k) and 9.64 kPa (6 k)). Macrocirculatory effects were assessed by cardiac output measurements, microcirculatory changes were investigated by sidestream dark-field imaging in the sublingual capillary bed and videocapillaroscopy at the nailfold. Exposure to hypoxia resulted in a decrease of systemic vascular resistance (p < 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.014). Concomitantly, we observed an increase in heart rate (p < 0.0001) and an increase of cardiac output (p < 0.0001). In the sublingual microcirculation, exposure to hypoxia resulted in an increase of total vessel density, proportion of perfused vessels and perfused vessel density. Furthermore, we observed an increase in peripheral capillary density. Exposure to acute hypoxia results in vasodilatation of resistance arteries, as well as recruitment of microvessels of the central and peripheral microcirculation. The observed macro- and microcirculatory effects are most likely a result from compensatory mechanisms to ensure adequate tissue oxygenation.
... Aryal et al [32] found that high altitude was associated with higher BP in participants of Tibetan origin but lower BP in participants of non-Tibetan origin. Calbet et al [33] reported that short-term residence at high altitude increased arterial BP, reduced vasodilatory response to adenosine and ATP, which may be caused by chronic hypoxia. A study by Wu et al [34] found that this short term elevation in BP returned to baseline levels within 3 months. ...
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Studies on hypertension (HTN) in Tibetans who live in high altitude areas are less and whether total homocysteine level (tHcy) is associated with blood pressure (BP) levels or HTN status in Tibetans is unknown.A total of 1486 Tibetans with complete information from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Lhasa Chengguan County of Tibet were included in this study. Demographic data, self-reported history of disease, and life styles were collected using a questionnaire. Blood tHcy, creatinine, fasting plasma-glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and BP were measured with equipment.The median tHcy level of the whole population was 14.60 (13.17-16.50) μmol/L, and the prevalence of HTN was 26.99%. Regression models, adjusted for possible covariates, showed that an average increase of 1 lnHcy (log transformation of tHcy level) was associated with an increase of 3.78 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP, P = .011) and 3.02 mmHg of diastolic BP (DBP, P = .003). The prevalence of HTN, levels of SBP and DBP in the third (OR for HTN: 1.60, P = .026; β for SBP: 3.41, P = .004; β for DBP: 2.57, P = .002) and fourth (OR for HTN: 2.19, P < .001; β for SBP: 5.08, P < .001; β for DBP: 3.09, P < .001) quartile of tHcy level were higher than those in the first quartile.THcy is associated with BP levels and HTN status among Tibetans. Both HTN management and tHcy level should be paid more attention in Tibetans.
... Unfortunately, direct evidence for the role of ATP in blood flow regulation is lacking because of the absence of a selective receptor antagonist for human use [5]. An interesting observation is that both physical training [43] and chronic hypoxia [44] reduce the vasodilator response to arterially infused ATP, suggesting that purinergic P2 receptor sensitivity and/or ATP degradation in plasma is altered with training and hypoxia. Type of training can influence the physiological mechanisms of ATP release and its influence on muscle vessel dilatation during incremental exercise. ...
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Circulating plasma ATP is able to regulate local skeletal muscle blood flow and 0 2 delivery causing considerable vasodilatation during exercise. We hypothesized that sport specialization and specific long-term training stimuli have an impact on venous plasma [ATP] and other nucleotides concentration. Four athletic groups consisting of sprinters (n=11; age range 21–30 yr), endurance-trained athletes (n=16; age range 18–31 yr), futsal players (n=14; age range 18–30 yr), and recreationally active individuals (n=12; age range 22–33 yr) were studied. Venous blood samples were collected at rest, during an incremental treadmill test, and during recovery. Baseline [ATP] was 759±80 nmol·l ⁻¹ in competitive athletes and 680±73 nmol·l ⁻¹ in controls and increased during exercise by ~61% in competitive athletes and by ~31% in recreationally active participants. We demonstrated a rapid increase in plasma [ATP] at exercise intensities of 83–87% of VO 2 max in competitive athletes and 94% in controls. Concentrations reported after 30 minutes of recovery were distinct from those obtained preexercise in competitive athletes ( P<0.001 ) but not in controls ( P=0.61 ). We found a correlation between total-body skeletal muscle mass and resting and maximal plasma [ATP] in competitive athletes (r=0.81 and r=0.75, respectively). In conclusion, sport specialization is significantly related to plasma [ATP] at rest, during exercise, and during maximal effort. Intensified exercise-induced plasma [ATP] increases may contribute to more effective vessel dilatation during exercise in highly trained athletes than in recreational runners. The most rapid increase in ATP concentration was associated with the respiratory compensation point. No differences between groups of competitive athletes were observed during the recovery period suggesting a similar pattern of response after exercise. Total-body skeletal muscle mass is indirectly related to plasma [ATP] in highly trained athletes.
... [8][9][10] The underlying mechanisms of this response include activation of the adrenergic system, increased arterial stiffness, endothelin (ET) release, and reduced vasodilatory responses ( Figure 2). 11,12 Additional mechanisms for this acute surge of BP will be reviewed in the following sections. Conversely, the only study that investigated changes of BP in white lowlanders exposed to H-ALT for >2 years demonstrated a reduction in systolic and diastolic BPs. 13 Different results have been described in highlanders. ...
... Future studies investigating the role of the SNS on endothelial function should consider using both non-selective αand β-adrenergic receptor blockades, along with a combined αand β-adrenergic receptor blockade. Second, we cannot exclude the possibility that the vascular response to changes in vasodilatatory substances is also altered (Calbet et al. 2014), and could hence influence our findings. Additionally, we achieved adequate power (>0.80) in nearly all of our measurements at sea level and high altitude. ...
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Key points: Our objective was to quantify endothelial function (via brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation) at sea level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m) at rest and following both maximal exercise and 30 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise with and without administration of an α1 -adrenergic blockade. Brachial endothelial function did not differ between sea level and high altitude at rest, nor following maximal exercise. At sea level, endothelial function decreased following 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and this decrease was abolished with α1 -adrenergic blockade. At high altitude, endothelial function did not decrease immediately after 30 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and administration of α1 -adrenergic blockade resulted in an increase in flow-mediated dilatation. Our data indicate that post-exercise endothelial function is modified at high altitude (i.e. prolonged hypoxaemia). The current study helps to elucidate the physiological mechanisms associated with high-altitude acclimatization, and provides insight into the relationship between sympathetic nervous activity and vascular endothelial function. Abstract: We examined the hypotheses that (1) at rest, endothelial function would be impaired at high altitude compared to sea level, (2) endothelial function would be reduced to a greater extent at sea level compared to high altitude after maximal exercise, and (3) reductions in endothelial function following moderate-intensity exercise at both sea level and high altitude are mediated via an α1 -adrenergic pathway. In a double-blinded, counterbalanced, randomized and placebo-controlled design, nine healthy participants performed a maximal-exercise test, and two 30 min sessions of semi-recumbent cycling exercise at 50% peak output following either placebo or α1 -adrenergic blockade (prazosin; 0.05 mg kg( -1) ). These experiments were completed at both sea-level (344 m) and high altitude (3800 m). Blood pressure (finger photoplethysmography), heart rate (electrocardiogram), oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry), and brachial artery blood flow and shear rate (ultrasound) were recorded before, during and following exercise. Endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured before, immediately following and 60 min after exercise. Our findings were: (1) at rest, FMD remained unchanged between sea level and high altitude (placebo P = 0.287; prazosin: P = 0.110); (2) FMD remained unchanged after maximal exercise at sea level and high altitude (P = 0.244); and (3) the 2.9 ± 0.8% (P = 0.043) reduction in FMD immediately after moderate-intensity exercise at sea level was abolished via α1 -adrenergic blockade. Conversely, at high altitude, FMD was unaltered following moderate-intensity exercise, and administration of α1 -adrenergic blockade elevated FMD (P = 0.032). Our results suggest endothelial function is differentially affected by exercise when exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. These findings have implications for understanding the chronic impacts of hypoxaemia on exercise, and the interactions between the α1 -adrenergic pathway and endothelial function.
... Using HIF-1alpha-knockout mice, it was shown that this transcription factor plays is important for the establishment of the oxidative fiber type and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle as well as exercise performance (59). In humans, HIF-1alpha influences mitochondrial volume density as well as vasodilation and thus has pivotal role in the integration of metabolism in skeletal muscle (12). ...
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The basement membrane (BM) surrounding capillaries in skeletal muscles varies physiologically in thickness according to age, physical fitness and anatomical site in humans. Furthermore, the peri-capillary BM thickness (CBMT) increases pathophysiologically during several common disease states, including peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus. This review on CBM-thickening in human skeletal muscles is two-pronged. Firstly, it addresses the advantages/disadvantages of grid- and tablet-based measuring and morphometric techniques that are implemented to assess the CBMT on transmission electron micrographs. Secondly, it deals with the biology of CBM-thickening in skeletal muscles, particularly its possible causes, molecular mechanisms and functional impact. CBM-thickening is triggered by several physical factors including diabetes-associated glycation, hydrostatic pressure and inflammation. Increased biosynthesis of type IV collagen expression or repetitive cycles in pericyte or endothelial cell degeneration/proliferation appear to be most critical for CBM accumulation. A thickened CBM obviously poses a greater barrier for diffusion, lowers the microvascular elasticity and impedes transcytosis of inflammatory cells. Our own morphometric data reveal the CBM-enlargement to be not accompanied by the pericyte coverage. Owing to an overlap or redundancy in the capillary supply, CBM-thickening in skeletal muscles might not be such a devastating occurrence as in organs with endarterial circulation (e.g. kidney and retina). CBM growth in skeletal muscles can be reversed by training or administration of anti-diabetic drugs. In conclusion, CBM-thickening in skeletal muscles is a microvascular remodeling process by which metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory forces are integrated together and which could play a hitherto underestimated role in etiology/progression of human diseases.
... Hypoxia is a key event in development of vascular beds in the normal development and also under pathological conditions such as tumor growth and is governed by gene regulatory mechanisms. The effect of high altitude induced hypoxia on blood pressure was investigated in humans by Calbet et al. (2014). The authors find an increase of arterial blood pressure by 13% at an altitude of about 4500 meters as compared to see level. ...
Article
High blood pressure plays a prominent role in the development of cardiovascular disease such as stroke and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, low blood pressure may also predict cardiovascular disease risk in sub-populations such as in haemodialysis patients (Anker et al., 2016) according to a recent study in almost 5000 patients in an European cohort. In the past researchers focused typically on knock out models when addressing genetic alterations in animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The vasodilatory effect of plasma ATP is not mediated by its breakdown product adenosine (Rongen et al. 1994;Mortensen et al. 2009a), and given the negative gradient across the vessel wall, it is unlikely that plasma ATP can act directly on smooth muscle cells. A puzzling observation is that both exercise training (Mortensen et al. 2012a(Mortensen et al. , 2014 and chronic hypoxia (Calbet et al. 2014) reduce the vasodilator response to arterially infused ATP (and adenosine), suggesting that purinergic P2 receptor sensitivity and/or ATP degradation in plasma is altered with training and hypoxia. A role for ATP release from erythrocytes is intriguing, given that the control of blood flow is sensitive to oxyhaemoglobin rather than to changes in arterial P O 2 (González-Alonso et al. 2001). ...
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In humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by an interaction between several locally formed vasodilators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. In plasma, ATP is a potent vasodilator that stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins and very importantly can offset local sympathetic vasoconstriction. ATP is released into plasma from erythrocytes and endothelial cells and the plasma concentration increases in both the feeding artery and the vein draining the contracting skeletal muscle. Adenosine also stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but the plasma adenosine concentration does not increase during exercise. In the skeletal muscle interstitium, there is a marked increase in the concentration of ATP and adenosine and this increase is tightly coupled to the increase in blood flow. The sources of interstitial ATP and adenosine are thought to be skeletal muscle cells and endothelial cells. In the interstitium, both ATP and adenosine stimulate the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but ATP has also been suggested to induce vasoconstriction and stimulate afferent nerves that signal to increase sympathetic nerve activity. Adenosine has been shown to contribute to exercise hyperaemia whereas the role of ATP remains uncertain due to lack of specific purinergic receptor blockers for human use. The purpose of this review is to address the interaction between vasodilator systems and to discuss the multiple proposed roles of ATP in human skeletal muscle blood flow regulation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Objectives: Altitude is one of the most demanding environmental pressures for human populations. Highlanders from Asia, America and Africa have been shown to exhibit different biological adaptations, but Oceanian populations remain understudied [Woolcock et al., 1972; Cotes et al., 1974; Senn et al., 2010]. We tested the hypothesis that highlanders phenotypically differ from lowlanders in Papua New Guinea, as a result of inhabiting the highest mountains in Oceania for at least 20,000 years. Materials and methods: We collected data for 13 different phenotypes related to altitude for 162 Papua New Guineans living at high altitude (Mont Wilhelm, 2,300-2,700 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and low altitude (Daru, <100m a.s.l.). Multilinear regressions were performed to detect differences between highlanders and lowlanders for phenotypic measurements related to body proportions, pulmonary function, and the circulatory system. Results: Six phenotypes were significantly different between Papua New Guinean highlanders and lowlanders. Highlanders show shorter height (p-value = 0.001), smaller waist circumference (p-value = 0.002), larger Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (p-value = 0.008), larger maximal (p-value = 3.20e -4) and minimal chest depth (p-value = 2.37e -5) and higher haemoglobin concentration (p-value = 3.36e -4). Discussion: Our study reports specific phenotypes in Papua New Guinean highlanders potentially related to altitude adaptation. Similar to other human groups adapted to high altitude, the evolutionary history of Papua New Guineans appears to have also followed an adaptive biological strategy for altitude.
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Key points: Hypoxia, a potent activator of the sympathetic nervous system, is known to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to the peripheral vasculature of native Lowlanders during sustained high altitude (HA) exposure. We show that the arterial baroreflex control of MSNA functions normally in healthy Lowlanders at HA, and that upward baroreflex resetting permits chronic activation of basal sympathetic vasomotor activity under this condition. The baroreflex MSNA operating point and resting sympathetic vasomotor outflow both are lower for highland Sherpa compared to acclimatizing Lowlanders; these lower levels may represent beneficial hypoxic adaptation in Sherpa. Acute hyperoxia at HA had minimal effect on baroreflex control of MSNA in Lowlanders and Sherpa, raising the possibility that mechanisms other than peripheral chemoreflex activation contribute to vascular sympathetic baroreflex resetting and sympathoexcitation. These findings provide a better understanding of sympathetic nervous system activation and the control of blood pressure during the physiological stress of sustained HA hypoxia. Abstract: Exposure to high altitude (HA) is characterized by heightened muscle sympathetic neural activity (MSNA); however, the effect on arterial baroreflex control of MSNA is unknown. Furthermore, arterial baroreflex control at HA may be influenced by genotypic and phenotypic differences between lowland and highland natives. Fourteen Lowlanders (12 male) and nine male Sherpa underwent haemodynamic and sympathetic neural assessment at low altitude (Lowlanders, low altitude; 344 m, Sherpa, Kathmandu; 1400 m) and following gradual ascent to 5050 m. Beat-by-beat haemodynamics (photoplethysmography) and MSNA (microneurography) were recorded lying supine. Indices of vascular sympathetic baroreflex function were determined from the relationship of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and corresponding MSNA at rest (i.e. DBP 'operating pressure' and MSNA 'operating point'), as well as during a modified Oxford baroreflex test (i.e. 'gain'). Operating pressure and gain were unchanged for Lowlanders during HA exposure; however, the operating point was reset upwards (48 ± 16 vs. 22 ± 12 bursts 100 HB-1 , P = 0.001). Compared to Lowlanders at 5050 m, Sherpa had similar gain and operating pressure, although the operating point was lower (30 ± 13 bursts 100 HB-1 , P = 0.02); MSNA burst frequency was lower for Sherpa (22 ± 11 vs. 30 ± 9 bursts min-1 P = 0.03). Breathing 100% oxygen did not alter vascular sympathetic baroreflex function for either group at HA. For Lowlanders, upward baroreflex resetting promotes heightened sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and maintains blood pressure stability, at least during early HA exposure; mechanisms other than peripheral chemoreflex activation could be involved. Sherpa adaptation appears to favour a lower sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity compared to Lowlanders for blood pressure homeostasis.
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This brief review addresses the regulation of cardiac output (Q) at rest and during submaximal exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia. To preserve systemic O2 delivery in acute hypoxia Q is increased by an acceleration of heart rate, whereas stroke volume (SV) remains unchanged. Tachycardia is governed by activation of carotid and aortic chemoreceptors and a concomitant reduction in arterial baroreflex activation, all balancing sympathovagal activity toward sympathetic dominance. As hypoxia extends over several days a combination of different adaptive processes restores arterial O2 content to or beyond sea level values and hence Q normalizes. The latter however occurs as a consequence of a decrease in SV whereas tachycardia persists. The diminished SV reflects a lower left ventricular end-diastolic volume which is primarily related to hypoxia-generated reduction in plasma volume. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may contribute by increasing right ventricular afterload and thus decreasing its ejection fraction. In summary, the Q response to hypoxia is the result of a complex interplay between several physiological mechanisms. Future studies are encouraged to establish the individual contributions of the different components from an integrative perspective.
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Adenosine has been proposed to be a locally produced regulator of blood flow in skeletal muscle. However, the fundamental questions of to what extent adenosine is formed in skeletal muscle tissue of humans, whether it is present in the interstitium, and where it exerts its vasodilatory effect remain unanswered. The interstitial adenosine concentration was determined in the vastus lateralis muscle of healthy humans via dialysis probes inserted in the muscle. The probes were perfused with buffer, and the dialysate samples were collected at rest and during graded knee extensor exercise. At rest, the interstitial concentration of adenosine was 220+/-100 nmol/L and femoral arterial blood flow (FaBF) was 0.19+/-0.02 L/min. When the subjects exercised lightly, at a work rate of 10 W, there was a markedly higher (1140+/-540 nmol/L; P<0.05) interstitial adenosine concentration and a higher FaBF (2.22+/-0.18 L/min; P<0.05) compared with at rest. When exercise was performed at 20, 30, 40, or 50 W, the concentration of adenosine was moderately greater for each increment, as was the level of leg blood flow. The interstitial concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP increased from rest (0.13+/-0.03, 0.07+/-0.03, and 0.07+/-0.02 micromol/L, respectively) to exercise (10 W; 2.00+/-1.32, 2.08+/-1.23, and 1.65+/-0.50 micromol/L, respectively; P<0.05). The present study provides, for the first time, interstitial adenosine concentrations in human skeletal muscle and demonstrates that adenosine and its precursors increase in the exercising muscle interstitium, at a rate associated with intensity of muscle contraction and the magnitude of muscle blood flow.
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The slow oxygen uptake (VO(2)) kinetics observed in COPD patients is a manifestation of skeletal muscle dysfunction of multifactorial origin. We determined whether oxygen supplementation during exercise makes the dynamic VO(2) response faster and reduces transient lactate increase. Ten patients with severe COPD (ie, mean [+/- SD] FEV(1), 31 +/- 10% predicted) and 7 healthy subjects of similar age performed four repetitions of the transition between rest and 10 min of moderate-intensity, constant-work rate exercise while breathing air or 40% oxygen in random order. Minute ventilation (VE), gas exchange, and heart rate (HR) were recorded breath-by-breath, and arterialized venous pH, PCO(2), and lactate levels were measured serially. Compared to healthy subjects, the time constants (tau) for VO(2), HR, carbon dioxide output (VCO(2)), and VE kinetic responses were significantly slower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (70 +/- 8 vs 44 +/- 3 s, 98 +/- 14 vs 44 +/- 8 s, 86 +/- 8 vs 61 +/- 4 s, and 81 +/- 7 vs 62 +/- 4 s, respectively; p < 0.05). Hyperoxia decreased end-exercise E in the COPD group but not the healthy group. Hyperoxia did not increase the speed of VO(2) kinetics but significantly slowed VCO(2) and E response dynamics in both groups. Only small increases in lactate occurred with exercise, and this increase did not correlate with the tau for VO(2). In nonhypoxemic COPD patients performing moderate exercise, the lower ventilatory requirement induced by oxygen supplementation is not related to improved muscle function but likely stems from direct chemoreceptor inhibition.
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To assess the role of nucleotide receptors in endothelial-smooth muscle signalling, changes in perfusion pressure of the rat arterial mesenteric bed, the luminal output of nitric oxide (NO) and guanosine 3′,5′ cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) accumulation were measured after the perfusion of nucleotides. The rank order of potency of ATP and analogues in causing relaxation of precontracted mesenteries was: 2-MeSADP=2-MeSATP>ADP>ATP=UDP=UTP>adenosine. The vasodilatation was coupled to a concentration–dependent rise in NO and cGMP production. MRS 2179 selectively blocked the 2-MeSATP-induced vasodilatation, the NO surge and the cGMP accumulation, but not the UTP or ATP vasorelaxation. mRNA encoding for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors, but not the P2Y4 receptor, was detected in intact mesenteries by RT–PCR. After endothelium removal, only P2Y6 mRNA was found. Endothelium removal or blockade of NO synthase obliterated the nucleotides-induced dilatation, the NO rise and cGMP accumulation. Furthermore, 2-MeSATP, ATP, UTP and UDP contracted endothelium-denuded mesenteries, revealing additional muscular P2Y and P2X receptors. Blockade of soluble guanylyl cyclase reduced the 2-MeSATP and UTP-induced vasodilatation and the accumulation of cGMP without interfering with NO production. Blockade of phosphodiesterases with IBMX increased 15–20 fold the 2-MeSATP and UTP-induced rise in cGMP; sildenafil only doubled the cGMP accumulation. A linear correlation between the rise in NO and cGMP was found. Endothelial P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors coupled to the NO/cGMP cascade suggest that extracellular nucleotides are involved in endothelial-smooth muscle signalling. Additional muscular P2Y and P2X receptors highlight the physiology of nucleotides in vascular regulation. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 136, 847–856. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704789
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Recent studies have generated a great deal of interest in a possible role for red blood cells in the transport of nitric oxide (NO) to the microcirculation and the vascular effect of this nitric oxide in facilitating the flow of blood through the microcirculation. Many questions have, however, been raised regarding such a mechanism. We have instead identified a completely new mechanism to explain the role of red cells in the delivery of NO to the microcirculation. This new mechanism results in the production of NO in the microcirculation where it is needed. Nitrite produced when NO reacts with oxygen in arterial blood is reutilized in the arterioles when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases and the deoxygenated hemoglobin formed reduces the nitrite regenerating NO. Nitrite reduction by hemoglobin results in a major fraction of the NO generated retained in the intermediate state where NO is bound to Hb(III) and in equilibrium with the nitrosonium cation bound to Hb(II). This pool of NO, unlike Hb(II)NO, is weakly bound and can be released from the heme. The instability of Hb(III)NO in oxygen and its displacement when flushed with argon requires that reliable determinations of red blood cell NO must be performed on freshly lysed samples without permitting the sample to be oxygenated. In fresh blood samples Hb(III)NO accounts for 75% of the red cell NO with appreciably higher values in venous blood than arterial blood. These findings confirm that nitrite reduction at reduced oxygen pressures is a major source for red cell NO. The formation and potential release from the red cell of this NO could have a major impact in regulating the flow of blood through the microcirculation.
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Nitrite anions comprise the largest vascular storage pool of nitric oxide (NO), provided that physiological mechanisms exist to reduce nitrite to NO. We evaluated the vasodilator properties and mechanisms for bioactivation of nitrite in the human forearm. Nitrite infusions of 36 and 0.36 micromol/min into the forearm brachial artery resulted in supra- and near-physiologic intravascular nitrite concentrations, respectively, and increased forearm blood flow before and during exercise, with or without NO synthase inhibition. Nitrite infusions were associated with rapid formation of erythrocyte iron-nitrosylated hemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, S-nitroso-hemoglobin. NO-modified hemoglobin formation was inversely proportional to oxyhemoglobin saturation. Vasodilation of rat aortic rings and formation of both NO gas and NO-modified hemoglobin resulted from the nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin and deoxygenated erythrocytes. This finding links tissue hypoxia, hemoglobin allostery and nitrite bioactivation. These results suggest that nitrite represents a major bioavailable pool of NO, and describe a new physiological function for hemoglobin as a nitrite reductase, potentially contributing to hypoxic vasodilation.
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Despite increases in muscle sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery increase during exercise in humans in proportion to the local metabolic demand, a phenomenon coupled to local reductions in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and concomitant increases in circulating ATP. We tested the hypothesis that circulating ATP contributes to local blood flow and O2 delivery regulation by both inducing vasodilatation and blunting the augmented sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. In eight healthy subjects, we first measured leg blood flow (LBF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during three hyperaemic conditions: (1) intrafemoral artery adenosine infusion (vasodilator control), (2) intrafemoral artery ATP infusion (vasodilator), and (3) mild knee-extensor exercise (approximately 20 W), and then compared the responses with the combined infusion of the vasoconstrictor drug tyramine, which evokes endogenous release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings. In all three hyperaemic conditions, LBF equally increased from approximately 0.5 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) at rest to approximately 3.6 +/- 0.3 l min(-1), with no change in MAP. Tyramine caused significant leg vasoconstriction during adenosine infusion (53 +/- 5 and 56 +/- 5% lower LBF and leg vascular conductance, respectively, P < 0.05), which was completely abolished by both ATP infusion and exercise. In six additional subjects resting in the sitting position, intrafemoral artery infusion of ATP increased LBF and leg vascular conductance 27 +/- 3-fold, despite concomitant increases in venous noradrenaline and muscle sympathetic nerve activity of 2.5 +/- 0.2- and 2.4 +/- 0.1-fold, respectively. Maximal ATP-induced vasodilatation at rest accounted for 78% of the peak LBF during maximal bicycling exercise. Our findings in humans demonstrate that circulating ATP is capable of regulating local skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery by causing substantial vasodilatation and negating the effects of increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity.
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Acute exposure to hypoxia causes chemoreflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system. During acclimatization to high altitude hypoxia, arterial oxygen content recovers, but it is unknown to what degree sympathetic activation is maintained or normalized during prolonged exposure to hypoxia. We therefore measured sympathetic nerve activity directly by peroneal microneurography in eight healthy volunteers (24 +/- 2 years of age) after 4 weeks at an altitude of 5260 m (Chacaltaya, Bolivian Andes) and at sea level (Copenhagen). The subjects acclimatized well to altitude, but in every subject sympathetic nerve activity was highly elevated at altitude vs. sea level (48 +/- 5 vs. 16 +/- 3 bursts min(-1), respectively, P < 0.05), coinciding with increased mean arterial blood pressure (87 +/- 3 vs. 77 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05). To examine the underlying mechanisms, we administered oxygen (to eliminate chemoreflex activation) and saline (to reduce cardiopulmonary baroreflex deactivation). These interventions had minor effects on sympathetic activity (48 +/- 5 vs. 38 +/- 4 bursts min(-1), control vs. oxygen + saline, respectively, P < 0.05). Moreover, sympathetic activity was still markedly elevated (37 +/- 5 bursts min(-1)) when subjects were re-studied under normobaric, normoxic and hypervolaemic conditions 3 days after return to sea level. In conclusion, acclimatization to high altitude hypoxia is accompanied by a striking and long-lasting sympathetic overactivity. Surprisingly, chemoreflex activation by hypoxia and baroreflex deactivation by dehydration together could account for only a small part of this response, leaving the major underlying mechanisms unexplained.
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Purinergic signaling plays important roles in control of vascular tone and remodeling. There is dual control of vascular tone by ATP released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline from perivascular sympathetic nerves to cause vasoconstriction via P2X1 receptors, whereas ATP released from endothelial cells in response to changes in blood flow (producing shear stress) or hypoxia acts on P2X and P2Y receptors on endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, which dilates vessels. ATP is also released from sensory-motor nerves during antidromic reflex activity to produce relaxation of some blood vessels. In this review, we stress the differences in neural and endothelial factors in purinergic control of different blood vessels. The long-term (trophic) actions of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides in promoting migration and proliferation of both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells via P1 and P2Y receptors during angiogenesis and vessel remodeling during restenosis after angioplasty are described. The pathophysiology of blood vessels and therapeutic potential of purinergic agents in diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia, thrombosis and stroke, diabetes, and migraine, is discussed.
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Article
Blood flow increases to exercising skeletal muscle and this increase is driven primarily by vasodilation in the contracting muscles. When oxygen delivery to the contracting muscles is altered by changes in arterial oxygen content, the magnitude of the vasodilator response to exercise changes. It is augmented during hypoxia and blunted during hyperoxia. Because the magnitude of the increased vasodilation during hypoxic exercise tends to keep oxygen delivery to the contracting muscles constant we have termed this phenomenon "compensatory vasodilation." In a series of studies we have explored metabolic, endothelial, and neural mechanisms that might contribute to compensatory vasodilation. These include the contribution of vasodilating substances like nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine along with altered interactions between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilation. We have also compared the compensatory vasodilator responses to hypoxic exercise with those seen when oxygen delivery to contracting muscles is altered by acute reductions in perfusion pressure. A synthesis of our findings indicate that NO contributes to the compensatory dilator responses during both hypoxia and hypoperfusion, while adenosine appears to contribute only during hypoperfusion. During hypoxia the NO-mediated component is linked to a β-adrenergic receptor mechanism during lower intensity exercise, while another source of NO is engaged at higher exercise intensities. There are also subtle interactions between α-adrenergic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilation that influence the responses to hypoxia, hyperoxia and hypoperfusion. Together our findings emphasize both the tight linkage of oxygen demand and supply during exercise and the redundant nature of the vasomotor responses to contraction.
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Based on pharmacological criteria, we previously suggested that in the mouse aorta endothelium-dependent relaxation by nucleotides is mediated by P2Y1 (ADP), P2Y2 (ATP) and P2Y6 (UDP) receptors. For UTP it was unclear whether P2Y2, P2Y6 or yet another subtype was involved. Therefore, in view of the lack of selective purinergic agonists and antagonists we used P2Y2-deficient mice to clarify the action of UTP. Thoracic aorta segments (width 2 mm) of P2Y2-deficient and wild type (WT) mice were mounted in organ baths to measure isometric force development and intracellular calcium signalling. Relaxations evoked by ADP, UDP and acetylcholine were identical in knockout and WT mice indicating that the receptors for these agonists function normally. P2Y2-deficient mice showed impaired ATP- and ATPS-evoked relaxation, suggesting that in WT mice ATP and ATPS activate predominantly the P2Y2-subtype. The ATP/ATPS-evoked relaxation and calcium signals in the knockout mice were partially rescued by P2Y1, since they were sensitive to 2′-deoxy-N6-methyladenosine3′,5′-bisphosphate (MRS2179), a P2Y1 selective antagonist. In contrast to ATP, the UTP-evoked relaxation was not different among knockout and WT mice. Moreover, the action of UTP was not sensitive to MRS2179. Therefore, the action of UTP is probably mediated mainly by a P2Y6 (like) receptor subtype. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ATP-evoked relaxation of the murine aorta is mainly mediated by P2Y2. But this P2Y2 receptor has apparently no major role in UTP-evoked relaxation. The vasodilator effect of UTP is probably mediated mainly by a P2Y6 (like) receptor.
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition where the upper airway collapses during sleep, is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Little is known how OSA affects the cerebral circulation. The goals of this study were (1) to develop a rat model of chronic OSA that involved apnea, and (2) to test the hypothesis that four weeks of apneas during the sleep cycle alters endothelial-mediated dilations in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). An obstruction device, which was chronically implanted into the trachea of rats, inflated to obstruct the airway 30 times/ hour for 8 hours during the sleep cycle. After four weeks of apneas, MCAs were isolated, pressurized, and exposed to luminally applied ATP, an endothelial P2Y2 receptor agonist, that dilates through endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). Dilations to ATP were attenuated ~ 30% in MCAs from rats undergoing apneas compared to those from a sham control group (p<0.04 group effect, n=7 and 10 respectively). When the NO component of the dilation was blocked to isolate the EDH component, the response to ATP in MCAs from the sham and apnea groups were similar. This data suggests that the attenuated dilation to ATP must have been through reduced NO. In summary, we have successfully developed a novel rat model for chronic OSA which incorporates apnea during the sleep cycle. Using this model, we demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction occurred by four weeks of apnea, likely increasing the vulnerability of the brain to cerebrovascular related accidents.
Article
Extracellular nucleotides play a crucial role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Stimulation of endothelial cell P2Y1 receptors evokes concentration-dependent full dilatation of resistance arteries. However, this GPCR can desensitize upon prolonged exposure to the agonist. Our aim was to determine the extent and nature of P2Y1 desensitization in isolated and pressurized rat small mesenteric arteries. The non-hydrolyzable selective P2Y1 agonist ADPbetaS (3 microM) was perfused through the lumen of arteries pressurized to 70 mmHg. Changes in arterial diameter and endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i) were obtained in the presence and absence of inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC). ADPbetaS evoked rapid dilatation to the maximum arterial diameter but faded over time to a much-reduced plateau closer to 35% dilatation. This appeared to be due to desensitization of the P2Y1 receptor, as subsequent endothelium-dependent dilatation to acetylcholine (1 microM) remained unaffected. Luminal treatment with the PKC inhibitors BIS-I (1 microM) or BIS-VIII (1 microM) tended to augment concentration-dependent dilatation to ADPbetaS (0.1-3 microM) and prevented desensitization. Another PKC inhibitor, Gö 6976 (1 microM), was less effective in preventing desensitization. Measurements of endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i) in pressurized arteries confirmed the P2Y1 receptor but not M(3) muscarinic receptor desensitization. These data demonstrate for the first time the involvement of PKC in the desensitization of endothelial P2Y1 receptors in pressurized rat mesenteric arteries, which may have important implications in the control of blood flow by circulating nucleotides.
Article
Aim: Recent studies suggest that adenosine (ADO) can be produced extracellularly in response to skeletal muscle contraction. We tested the hypothesis that a single muscle contraction produces extracellular ADO rapidly enough and in physiologically relevant concentrations to be able to contribute to the rapid vasodilation that occurs at the onset of muscle contraction. Methods: We stimulated four to five skeletal muscle fibres in the anaesthetized hamster cremaster preparation in situ and measured the change in diameter of arterioles at a site of overlap with the stimulated muscle fibres before and after a single contraction (stimulus frequencies: 4, 20 and 60 Hz; 250 ms train duration). Muscle fibres were stimulated in the absence and presence of non-specific ADO membrane receptor antagonists 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 10(-6) M) or xanthine amine congener (XAC, 10(-6) M) or an inhibitor of an extracellular source of ADO, ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor α,β-methylene adenosine 5'-diphosphate (AMPCP, 10(-5) M). Results: We observed that the dilatory event at 4 s following a single contraction was significantly inhibited at all stimulus frequencies by an average of 63.9 ± 2.6% by 8-PT. The 20-s dilatory event that occurred at 20 and 60 Hz was significantly inhibited by 53.6 ± 2.6 and 73.8 ± 2.3% by 8-PT and XAC respectively. Further, both the 4- and 20-s dilatory events were significantly inhibited by AMPCP by 78.6 ± 6.6 and 67.1 ± 1.5%, respectively, at each stimulus frequency tested. Conclusions: Our data show that ADO is produced extracellularly during a single muscle contraction and that it is produced rapidly enough and in physiologically relevant concentrations to contribute to the rapid vasodilation in response to muscle contraction.
Article
Ageing has been proposed to be associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that scavenge nitric oxide (NO). In eight young sedentary (23±1 years; Y), eight older lifelong sedentary (66±2 years; OS) and eight older lifelong physically active subjects (62±2 years; OA), we studied the effect of ROS on systemic and skeletal muscle NO bioavailability and leg blood flow by infusion of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Infusion of NAC increased the bioavailability of NO in OS, as evidenced by an increased concentration of stable metabolites of NO (NOx) in the arterial and venous circulation and in the muscle interstitium. In OA, infusion of NAC only increased NOx concentrations in venous plasma whereas in Y, infusion of NAC did not affect NOx concentrations. Skeletal muscle protein levels of endothelial and neuronal NO synthase were 32% and 24% higher, respectively, in OA than in OS. Exercise at 12 W elicited a lower leg blood flow response that was associated with a lower leg oxygen uptake in OS than in Y. The improved bioavailability of NO in OS did not increase blood flow during exercise. These data demonstrate that NO bioavailability is compromised in the systemic circulation and in the musculature of sedentary ageing humans due to increased oxidative stress. Lifelong physical activity opposes this effect within the trained musculature and in the arterial circulation. The lower blood flow response to leg exercise in ageing humans is not associated with a reduced NO bioavailability.
Article
Circulating ATP possesses unique vasomotor properties in humans and has been hypothesized to play a role in vascular control under a variety of physiological conditions. However, the primary downstream signaling mechanisms underlying ATP-mediated vasodilatation remain unclear. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether ATP-mediated vasodilatation is independent of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and occurs primarily via the activation of Na+/K+-ATPase and inwardly-rectifying potassium (KIR) channels in humans. In all protocols, young healthy adults were studied and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from forearm blood flow (measured via venous occlusion plethysmography) and intra-arterial blood pressure to quantify local vasodilatation. Vasodilator responses (%ΔFVC) during intra-arterial ATP infusions were unchanged following combined inhibition of NO and PGs (n=8; P>0.05) whereas the responses to KCl were greater (P<0.05). Combined infusion of ouabain (to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase) and barium chloride (BaCl2; to inhibit KIR channels) abolished KCl-mediated vasodilatation (n=6; %ΔFVC=134±13 vs 4±5%; P<0.05), demonstrating effective blockade of direct vascular hyperpolarization. The vasodilator responses to 3 different doses of ATP were inhibited on average 56±5% (n=16) following combined ouabain+BaCl2 infusion. In follow-up studies, BaCl2 alone inhibited the vasodilator responses to ATP on average 51±3% (n=6), which was not different than that observed for combined ouabain+BaCl2 administration. Our novel results indicate that the primary mechanism of ATP-mediated vasodilatation is vascular hyperpolarization via activation of KIR channels. These observations translate in vitro findings to humans in vivo and may help explain the unique vasomotor properties of intravascular ATP in the human circulation.
Article
1In anaesthetized rats we tested responses evoked by systemic hypoxia (breathing 8% O2 for 5 min) and adenosine (i.a. infusion for 5 min) before and after administration of a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), or a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM 241385. Arterial blood pressure, (ABP), heart rate (HR), femoral blood flow (FBF) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC: FBF/ABP) were recorded together with the K+ concentration in arterial blood ([K+]a) and in venous blood of hindlimb muscle ([K+]v) before and at the 5th minute of hypoxia or agonist infusion.2In 12 rats, DPCPX reversed the fall in ABP and HR and the increase in FVC evoked by the selective A1 agonist CCPA (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine; i.a. infusion for 5 min). DPCPX also reduced both the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia and that induced by adenosine; the control responses to these stimuli were comparable in magnitude and both were reduced by ∼50%.3In 11 rats, ZM 241385 reversed the fall in ABP and increase in FVC evoked by the selective A2A agonist CGS 21680 (2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride; i.a. infusion for 5 min). ZM 241385 also reduced the increase in FVC induced by adenosine by ∼50%, but had no effect on the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia.4In these same studies, before administration of DPCPX, or ZM 241385, hypoxia had no effect on the venous-arterial difference for K+ ([K+]v-a), whereas after administration of either antagonist, hypoxia significantly reduced [K+]v-a suggesting an increase in hypoxia-induced K+ uptake, or a reduction in K+ efflux.5These results indicate that both A1 and A2A receptors are present in hindlimb muscle and can mediate vasodilatation and that A1 and A2A receptors contribute equally to dilatation induced by infused adenosine. However, they suggest that endogenous adenosine released during systemic hypoxia induces dilatation only by acting on A1 receptors. Given previous evidence that adenosine can stimulate receptors on skeletal muscle fibres that are coupled to ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels so promoting K+ efflux, our results allow the proposal that KATP channels may be coupled to both A1 and to A2A receptors and may be stimulated to open by adenosine released during hypoxia, but indicate that, during systemic hypoxia, K+ efflux caused by either receptor subtype makes a very minor contribution to the muscle vasodilatation.
Article
The effects of P2Y receptor agonists on smooth muscle membrane potential in isolated ring segments of rat mesenteric artery were examined by intracellular microelectrodes. In the presence of inhibitors of nitric oxide-synthase and cyclo-oxygenase, the selective P2Y1 receptor agonist adenosine 5′-O-thiodiphosphate (ADPβS) induced endothelium-dependent membrane hyperpolarisations, which were abolished by a combination of the K+ channel inhibitors charybdotoxin and apamin, providing direct evidence that ADPβS releases endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF). 2-MethylthioATP and ATP, each which stimulates both endothelial P2Y receptors and P2X receptors on the smooth muscle cells, also elicited hyperpolarisation, but only after desensitisation of P2X receptors with αβ-methylATP indicating that simultaneous activation of P2X receptors may counteract the action of EDHF. In conclusion, activation of endothelial P2Y receptors induce release of EDHF.
Article
One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate the interaction and importance of these vasodilators in the 2 compartments. To this end, we performed experiments on humans using microdialysis technique in skeletal muscle tissue, as well as the femoral vein, combined with experiments on cultures of microvascular endothelial versus skeletal muscle cells. In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion of adenosine. The addition of adenosine to skeletal muscle cells increased NO formation (fluorochrome 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7-difluorescein fluorescence), whereas prostacyclin levels remained unchanged. The addition of adenosine to microvascular endothelial cells induced an increase in NO and prostacyclin levels. These findings provide novel insight into the role of adenosine in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation and vascular function by revealing that both interstitial and plasma adenosine have a stimulatory effect on NO and prostacyclin formation. In addition, both skeletal muscle and microvascular endothelial cells are potential mediators of adenosine-induced formation of NO in vivo, whereas only endothelial cells appear to play a role in adenosine-induced formation of prostacyclin.
Article
In this review we integrate ideas about regional and systemic circulatory capacities and the balance between skeletal muscle blood flow and cardiac output during heavy exercise in humans. In the first part of the review we discuss issues related to the pumping capacity of the heart and the vasodilator capacity of skeletal muscle. The issue is that skeletal muscle has a vast capacity to vasodilate during exercise [approximately 300 mL (100 g)(-1) min(-1)], but the pumping capacity of the human heart is limited to 20-25 L min(-1) in untrained subjects and approximately 35 L min(-1) in elite endurance athletes. This means that when more than 7-10 kg of muscle is active during heavy exercise, perfusion of the contracting muscles must be limited or mean arterial pressure will fall. In the second part of the review we emphasize that there is an interplay between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilation that limits blood flow to contracting muscles to maintain mean arterial pressure. Vasoconstriction in larger vessels continues while constriction in smaller vessels is blunted permitting total muscle blood flow to be limited but distributed more optimally. This interplay between sympathetic constriction and metabolic dilation during heavy whole-body exercise is likely responsible for the very high levels of oxygen extraction seen in contracting skeletal muscle. It also explains why infusing vasodilators in the contracting muscles does not increase oxygen uptake in the muscle. Finally, when approximately 80% of cardiac output is directed towards contracting skeletal muscle modest vasoconstriction in the active muscles can evoke marked changes in arterial pressure.
Article
Human studies, conducted in the presence of clinical conditions characterized by endothelial dysfunction, evidenced that endothelial cells, in response to different agonists and physical stimuli, become a source of endothelium-derived contracting factors (EDCFs), mainly cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostanoids. Their production has been documented in several human diseases, mostly in essential hypertension and aging. The EDCF production was at first identified as responsible for impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the forearm microcirculation of patients with essential hypertension. Subsequent studies demonstrated that COX-dependent EDCF products are also a characteristic of the aging process, and essential hypertension seems to only anticipate the phenomenon. Of note, in aging and hypertension, both indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, and vitamin C, an antioxidant, totally reverse the blunted vasodilation to acetylcholine by restoring NO availability, thus suggesting that EDCFs could be one of the major sources of oxygen free radicals. The presence of EDCFs was documented also in other clinical setting, such as coronary artery disease and estrogen deprivation. In conclusion, many human pathological conditions characterized by a decline in endothelial function are associated with a progressive decrease in NO bioavailability and increase in the production of EDCFs. The mechanisms that regulate the balance between NO and EDCFs and the processes transforming the endothelium from a protective organ to a source of vasoconstrictor, proaggregatory and promitogenic mediators, remain to be determined.
Article
We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (CIH) impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rats. To determine the time course of this response, rats were exposed to CIH for 3, 14, 28, or 56 days. Then, we measured acetylcholine- and nitroprusside-induced vasodilation in isolated gracilis arteries. Also, we measured endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitrotyrosine, and collagen in the arterial wall and urinary isoprostanes. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired after 2 weeks of CIH. Three days of CIH was not sufficient to produce this impairment and longer exposures (i.e. 4 and 8 weeks) did not exacerbate it. Impaired vasodilation was accompanied by increased collagen deposition. CIH elevated urinary isoprostane excretion, whereas there was no consistent effect on either isoform of nitric oxide synthase or nitrotyrosine. Exposure to CIH produces functional and structural deficits in skeletal muscle resistance arteries. These impairments develop within 2 weeks after initiation of exposure and they are accompanied by systemic evidence of oxidant stress.
Article
Hypoxia-induced hyperventilation is critical to improve blood oxygenation, particularly when the arterial Po2 lies in the steep region of the O2 dissociation curve of the hemoglobin (ODC). Hyperventilation increases alveolar Po2 and, by increasing pH, left shifts the ODC, increasing arterial saturation (Sao2) 6 to 12 percentage units. Pulmonary gas exchange (PGE) is efficient at rest and, hence, the alveolar-arterial Po2 difference (Pao2-Pao2) remains close to 0 to 5mm Hg. The (Pao2-Pao2) increases with exercise duration and intensity and the level of hypoxia. During exercise in hypoxia, diffusion limitation explains most of the additional Pao2-Pao2. With altitude, acclimatization exercise (Pao2-Pao2) is reduced, but does not reach the low values observed in high altitude natives, who possess an exceptionally high DLo2. Convective O2 transport depends on arterial O2 content (Cao2), cardiac output (Q), and muscle blood flow (LBF). During whole-body exercise in severe acute hypoxia and in chronic hypoxia, peak Q and LBF are blunted, contributing to the limitation of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max). During small-muscle exercise in hypoxia, PGE is less perturbed, Cao2 is higher, and peak Q and LBF achieve values similar to normoxia. Although the Po2 gradient driving O2 diffusion into the muscles is reduced in hypoxia, similar levels of muscle O2 diffusion are observed during small-mass exercise in chronic hypoxia and in normoxia, indicating that humans have a functional reserve in muscle O2 diffusing capacity, which is likely utilized during exercise in hypoxia. In summary, hypoxia reduces Vo2max because it limits O2 diffusion in the lung.
Article
Adenosine can induce vasodilation in skeletal muscle, but to what extent adenosine exerts its effect via formation of other vasodilators and whether there is redundancy between adenosine and other vasodilators remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine, prostaglandins, and NO act in synergy to regulate skeletal muscle hyperemia by determining the following: (1) the effect of adenosine receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia with and without simultaneous inhibition of prostaglandins (indomethacin; 0.8 to 1.8 mg/min) and NO (N(G)-mono-methyl-l-arginine; 29 to 52 mg/min); (2) whether adenosine-induced vasodilation is mediated via formation of prostaglandins and/or NO; and (3) the femoral arterial and venous plasma adenosine concentrations during leg exercise with the microdialysis technique in a total of 24 healthy, male subjects. Inhibition of adenosine receptors (theophylline; 399+/-9 mg, mean +/- SEM) or combined inhibition of prostaglandins and NO formation inhibited the exercise-induced increase in leg blood flow by 14+/-1% and 29+/-2% (P<0.05), respectively, but combined inhibition of prostaglandins, NO, and adenosine receptors did not result in an additive reduction of leg blood flow (31+/-5%). Femoral arterial infusion of adenosine increased leg blood flow from approximately 0.3 to approximately 2.5 L/min. Inhibition of prostaglandins or NO, or prostaglandins and NO combined, inhibited the adenosine-induced increase in leg blood flow by 51+/-3%, 39+/-8%, and 66+/-8%, respectively (P<0.05). Arterial and venous plasma adenosine concentrations were similar at rest and during exercise. These results suggest that adenosine contributes to the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow by stimulating prostaglandin and NO synthesis.
Article
Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in the vascular beds of contracting skeletal muscle in humans, presumably due to the action of vasoactive metabolites (functional sympatholysis). Recently, we demonstrated that infusion of ATP into the arterial circulation of the resting human leg increases blood flow and concomitantly blunts alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in a similar manner to that during moderate exercise. Here we tested the hypothesis that ATP, rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, induces vasodilatation and sympatholysis in resting skeletal muscle via activation of ATP/UTP-selective receptors. To this aim, we first measured leg blood flow (LBF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output , leg arterial-venous (a-v) O(2) difference, plasma ATP and soluble nucleotidase activities during intrafemoral artery infusion of adenosine, AMP, ADP, ATP or UTP in nine healthy males. Comparison of the doses of nucleotides and adenosine required for a similar increase in LBF from approximately 0.5 l min(-1) at baseline to approximately 3.5 l min(-1) (without altering MAP but increasing Q significantly) revealed the following rank order of vasoactive potency: ATP (100) = UTP (100) > adenosine (5.8) > ADP (2.7) > AMP (1.7). The infusions did not cause any shifts in plasma ATP level or soluble serum nucleotidase activities. Combined infusion of the vasodilatory compounds and the sympathetic vasoconstrictor drug tyramine increased plasma noradrenaline in all hyperaemic conditions, but only caused leg and systemic vasoconstriction and augmented O(2) extraction during adenosine, AMP and ADP infusion (LBF from 3.2 +/- 0.3 to 1.8 +/- 0.2 l min(-1); 3.7 +/- 0.4 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 l min(-1) and 3.3 +/- 0.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 l min(-1), respectively, P < 0.05). These findings in humans suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of exogenous ATP in the skeletal muscle vasculature are largely mediated via ATP itself rather than its dephosphorylated metabolites, most likely via binding to endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2) receptors. These data are consistent with a role of ATP in skeletal muscle hyperaemia in conditions of increased sympathetic nerve drive such as exercise or hypoxia.
Article
Five subjects exercised with the knee extensor of one limb at work loads ranging from 10 to 60 W. Measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake, heart rate, leg blood flow, blood pressure and femoral arterial-venous differences for oxygen and lactate were made between 5 and 10 min of the exercise. Flow in the femoral vein was measured using constant infusion of saline near 0 degrees C. Since a cuff was inflated just below the knee during the measurements and because the hamstrings were inactive, the measured flow represented primarily the perfusion of the knee extensors. Blood flow increased linearly with work load right up to an average value of 5.7 l min-1. Mean arterial pressure was unchanged up to a work load of 30 W, but increased thereafter from 100 to 130 mmHg. The femoral arterial-venous oxygen difference at maximum work averaged 14.6% (v/v), resulting in an oxygen uptake of 0.80 l min-1. With a mean estimated weight of the knee extensors of 2.30 kg the perfusion of maximally exercising skeletal muscle of man is thus in the order of 2.5 l kg-1 min-1, and the oxygen uptake 0.35 l kg-1 min-1. Limitations in the methods used previously to determine flow and/or the characteristics of the exercise model used may explain why earlier studies in man have failed to demonstrate the high perfusion of muscle reported here. It is concluded that muscle blood flow is closely related to the oxygen demand of the exercising muscles. The hyperaemia at low work intensities is due to vasodilatation, and an elevated mean arterial blood pressure only contributes to the linear increase in flow at high work rates. The magnitude of perfusion observed during intense exercise indicates that the vascular bed of skeletal muscle is not a limiting factor for oxygen transport.
Article
The effects of chronic hypoxia on carotid chemoreceptor afferent activity before and after sectioning the carotid sinus nerves (CSN) were studied in cats exposed to 10% O2 for 21-49 days in a chamber at sea level. For comparison, chronically normoxic cats at sea level were also studied. The cats were anesthetized, paucifiber preparation for the measurement of carotid chemosensory activity from a small slip of CSN was made, and their steady-state responses to 4-5 levels of arterial pressure of O2 (PaO2) at a constant PaCO2 and to 3-4 levels of PaCO2 in hyperoxia were measured before and after sectioning the CSN. The chemosensory response to hypoxia in the cats with intact CSN after chronic exposure to hypoxia was not reduced relative to the cats that breathed room air at sea level. Sectioning the CSN significantly augmented the chemosensory responses to hypoxia in all the chronically hypoxic but not significantly in the normoxic cats. The responses to moderate hypercapnia during hyperoxia were not significantly changed by cutting the CSN in either group. We conclude that there is a significant CSN efferent inhibition of chemosensory activity due to chronic hypoxia in the cat. This implies that without the efferent inhibition the hypoxic chemosensitivity is increased by chronic hypoxia.
Article
The endogenous nucleoside adenosine plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone, especially during ischemia. Experimental data derived from animal models suggest that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the vasodilator effect of adenosine. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the endothelial release of NO contributes to adenosine-induced vasodilation in humans. Venous occlusion plethysmography was used to assess the forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to graded intra-arterial infusions of adenosine (1.5 to 500 micrograms/min). Dose-response curves were constructed before and during intra-arterial infusion of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (2 mg/min, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). Before infusion of L-NMMA, adenosine caused a dose-dependent increase in FBF from 2.3 to 15.9 mL.min-1.dL-1. During concurrent infusion of L-NMMA, adenosine increased FBF from 1.7 to 10.0 mL.min-1.dL-1, and this change from baseline was significantly reduced compared with that before L-NMMA (P < .05). L-NMMA also attenuated the FBF response to adenosine when the basal constrictor effect of L-NMMA was prevented by coinfusion of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (n = 6, P < .01). In contrast, L-NMMA did not affect the FBF response to intra-arterial infusion of the endothelium-independent vasodilator verapamil (from 2.0 to 13.9 mL.min-1.dL-1 before L-NMMA and from 1.3 to 13.6 mL.min-1.dL-1 during L-NMMA; n = 6, P = NS). The second objective of this study was to determine whether the adenosine-induced release of NO is mediated by activation of endothelial potassium channels, putatively coupled to adenosine receptors. Thus, the FBF response to adenosine was measured before and during infusion of the ATP-dependent potassium channel blocker tolbutamide (1 mg/min, n = 6), or the potassium channel blocker quinidine (0.5 mg/min, n = 6). The adenosine-mediated increments in FBF were not attenuated by either potassium channel blocker. Adenosine-induced vasodilation in humans is mediated, at least in part, by endothelial release of NO. The transducing mechanism of this phenomenon is not known, but it does not appear to involve the activation of either ATP-dependent or quinidine-sensitive potassium channels.
Article
Four subtypes of adenosine receptors have recently been cloned from thyroid, brain and testis. In this review we have summarised properties of these purinergic receptors. The cloned A1 and A2 subtypes are probably similar or identical to receptors that exist on cardiac and vascular tissues, respectively. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of A1, A2a, and A2b receptors reveals several stretches of conserved amino acids that are unique to adenosine receptors, primarily in the membrane spanning regions. Species differences in A1 receptors indicate that minor changes in receptor structure can produce marked changes in ligand binding properties and may facilitate the identification of amino acids involved in ligand recognition. A confusing A1 receptor subclassification system of putative A1a, A1b, and A3 subtypes has emerged based on subtle rank order potency differences for various ligands among tissues. cDNAs corresponding to these A1 subtypes have not yet been isolated. Atrial A1 receptors activate K+ channels and inhibit adenylyl cyclase. These two pathways appear to be independently up and down regulated, suggesting the existence either of atrial A1 receptor subtypes or of differential regulation of the coupling of a single receptor to distinct GTP binding proteins. An adenosine receptor distinct from A1 and A2 receptors has been cloned from testis and designated TGPCR, or A3, although it differs from the pharmacologically defined A3 receptor. We suggest that the current A1/A3 receptor subtype nomenclature be abandoned and superseded by a nomenclature based solely on receptor cDNAs. In addition to the cloned adenosine receptors, a novel A4 subtype has been proposed based on pharmacological and electrophysiological criteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Essential hypertension is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Inactivation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by oxygen free radicals participates in endothelial dysfunction in experimental hypertension. To test this hypothesis in humans, we evaluated the effect of antioxidant vitamin C on endothelium-dependent responses in essential hypertensive patients. In 14 healthy subjects (47.1+/-4.8 years; blood pressure, 120.6+/-4.5/80.9+/-3.5 mm Hg) and 14 essential hypertensive patients (47.3+/-5.1 years; blood pressure, 153.9+/-7.1/102.3+/-4.1 mm Hg), we studied forearm blood flow (strain-gauge plethysmography) modifications induced by intrabrachial acetylcholine (0.15, 0.45, 1.5, 4.5, and 15 microg x 100 mL(-1) x min(-1)) or sodium nitroprusside (1, 2, and 4 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), an endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator, respectively, in basal conditions and during infusion of intrabrachial vitamin C (2.4 mg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute). In hypertensive patients but not in control subjects, vitamin C increased (P<0.01) the impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine, whereas the response to sodium nitroprusside was unaffected. Moreover, in another 14 hypertensive patients (47.1+/-5.2 years; blood pressure, 155.2+/-6.9/103.7+/-4.5 mm Hg), the facilitating effect of vitamin C on vasodilation to acetylcholine was reversed by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (100 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, suggesting that in essential hypertension superoxide anions impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation by nitric oxide breakdown. Finally, because in adjunctive 7 hypertensive patients (47.8+/-6.1 years; blood pressure, 155.3+/-6.8/103.5+/-4.3 mm Hg), indomethacin (50 microg/100 mL forearm tissue per minute), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, prevented the potentiating effect of vitamin C on vasodilation to acetylcholine, it is possible that in essential hypertension a main source of superoxide anions could be the cyclooxygenase pathway. In essential hypertensive patients, impaired endothelial vasodilation can be improved by the antioxidant vitamin C, an effect that can be reversed by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. These findings support the hypothesis that nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals contributes to endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension.
Article
1. In anaesthetized rats, we recorded arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), femoral blood flow (FBF) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC). We tested the effects of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor L-NAME (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), or the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide, on responses evoked by systemic hypoxia (breathing 8% O2 for 5 min) or i.a. infusion for 5 min of adenosine, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CCPA (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine) or the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 (2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadeno sin e hydrochloride). 2. L-NAME (10 mg kg-1 i.v.) greatly reduced the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia or adenosine, as we have shown before, but had no effect on the increase in FVC evoked by SNP. In addition, L-NAME abolished the increase in FVC evoked by CCPA and greatly reduced that evoked by CGS 21680. These results substantiate the view that muscle vasodilatation induced by systemic hypoxia and infused adenosine are largely NO dependent. They also indicate that muscle dilatation induced by A1 receptor stimulation is entirely NO dependent while that induced by A2A receptors is largely NO dependent; dilatation may also be induced by direct stimulation of A2A receptors on the vascular smooth muscle. 3. Glibenclamide (10 or 20 mg kg-1 i.v.) reduced the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia, preferentially affecting the early part (< 1 min). In addition, glibenclamide greatly reduced the increase in FVC induced by adenosine, but it had no effect on that evoked by SNP. Further, glibenclamide abolished the increase in FVC evoked by CCPA and greatly reduced that evoked by CGS 21680. These results substantiate the view that hypoxia-induced muscle vasodilatation is initiated by KATP channel opening. They also indicate that NO does not induce muscle vasodilatation by opening KATP channels on the vascular smooth muscle, but indicate that the dilatation induced by adenosine and by A2A receptor stimulation is largely dependent on KATP channel opening, while that induced by A1 receptor stimulation is wholly dependent on KATP channel opening. 4. These results, together with previous evidence that hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in skeletal muscle is largely mediated by adenosine acting on A1 receptors, lead us to propose that adenosine is released from endothelium during systemic hypoxia and acts on endothelial A1 receptors to open KATP channels on the endothelial cells and cause synthesis of NO, which then acts on the vascular smooth muscle to cause dilatation. During severe systemic hypoxia we propose that adenosine may also act on A2A receptors on the endothelium to cause dilatation by a similar process and may act on A2A receptors on the vascular smooth muscle to cause dilatation by opening KATP channels.
Article
The role of adenosine in exercise-induced human skeletal muscle vasodilatation remains unknown. We therefore evaluated the effect of theophylline-induced adenosine receptor blockade in six subjects and the vasodilator potency of adenosine infused in the femoral artery of seven subjects. During one-legged, knee-extensor exercise at approximately 48% of peak power output, intravenous (i.v.) theophylline decreased (P < 0.003) femoral artery blood flow (FaBF) by approximately 20%, i.e. from 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 2.9 +/- 0.5 L min(-1), and leg vascular conductance (VC) from 33.4 +/- 9.1 to 27.7 +/- 8.5 mL min-1 mmHg-1, whereas heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), leg oxygen uptake and lactate release remained unaltered (P = n.s.). Bolus injections of adenosine (2.5 mg) at rest rapidly increased (P < 0.05) FaBF from 0.3 +/- 0.03 L min(-1) to a 15-fold peak elevation (P < 0.05) at 4.1 +/- 0.5 L min(-1). Continuous infusion of adenosine at rest and during one-legged exercise at approximately 62% of peak power output increased (P < 0.05) FaBF dose-dependently to level off (P = ns) at 8.3 +/- 1.0 and 8.2 +/- 1.4 L min(-1), respectively. One-legged exercise alone increased (P < 0.05) FaBF to 4.7 +/- 1.7 L min(-1). Leg oxygen uptake was unaltered (P = n.s.) with adenosine infusion during both rest and exercise. The present findings demonstrate that endogenous adenosine controls at least approximately 20% of the hyperaemic response to submaximal exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. The results also clearly show that arterial infusion of exogenous adenosine has the potential to evoke a vasodilator response that mimics the increase in blood flow observed in response to exercise.
Article
High arterial blood oxygen tension increases vascular resistance, possibly related to an interaction between reactive oxygen species and endothelium-derived vasoactive factors. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant capable of reversing endothelial dysfunction due to increased oxidant stress. We tested the hypotheses that hyperoxic vasoconstriction would be prevented by vitamin C, and that acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation would be blunted by hyperoxia and restored by vitamin C. Venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography was used to measure forearm blood flow (FBF) in 11 healthy subjects and 15 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, a population characterized by endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The effect of hyperoxia on FBF and derived forearm vascular resistance (FVR) at rest and in response to intra-arterial acetylcholine was recorded. In both healthy subjects and CHF patients, hyperoxia-mediated increases in basal FVR were prevented by the coinfusion of vitamin C. In healthy subjects, hyperoxia impaired the acetylcholine-mediated increase in FBF, an effect also prevented by vitamin C. In contrast, hyperoxia had no effect on verapamil-mediated increases in FBF. In CHF patients, hyperoxia did not affect FBF responses to acetylcholine or verapamil. The addition of vitamin C during hyperoxia augmented FBF responses to acetylcholine. These results suggest that hyperoxic vasoconstriction is mediated by oxidative stress. Moreover, hyperoxia impairs acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation in the setting of intact endothelial function. These effects of hyperoxia are prevented by vitamin C, providing evidence that hyperoxia-derived free radicals impair the activity of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors.
Article
Adenosine, prostaglandins (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) have all been implicated in hypoxia-evoked vasodilatation. We investigated whether their actions are interdependent. In anaesthetised rats, the PG synthesis inhibitors diclofenac or indomethacin reduced muscle vasodilatation evoked by systemic hypoxia or adenosine, but not that evoked by iloprost, a stable analogue of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), or by an NO donor. After diclofenac, the A(1) receptor agonist CCPA evoked no vasodilatation: we previously showed that A(1), but not A(2A), receptors mediate the hypoxia-induced muscle vasodilatation. Further, in freshly excised rat aorta, adenosine evoked a release of NO, detected with an NO-sensitive electrode, that was abolished by NO synthesis inhibition, or endothelium removal, and reduced by ~50 % by the A(1) antagonist DPCPX, the remainder being attenuated by the A(2A) antagonist ZM241385. Diclofenac reduced adenosine-evoked NO release by ~50 % under control conditions, abolished that evoked in the presence of ZM241385, but did not affect that evoked in the presence of DPCPX. Adenosine-evoked NO release was also abolished by the adenyl cyclase inhibitor 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, while dose-dependent NO release was evoked by iloprost. Finally, stimulation of A(1), but not A(2A), receptors caused a release of PGI(2) from rat aorta, assessed by radioimmunoassay of its stable metabolite, 6-keto PGF(1alpha), that was abolished by diclofenac. These results suggest that during systemic hypoxia, adenosine acts on endothelial A(1) receptors to increase PG synthesis, thereby generating cAMP, which increases the synthesis and release of NO and causes muscle vasodilatation. This pathway may be important in other situations involving these autocoids.
Article
P2 receptors mediate the actions of the extracellular nucleotides ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP, regulating several physiologic responses including cardiac function, vascular tone, smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, platelet aggregation, and the release of endothelial factors. P2 receptor characterization has been hampered by the lack of selective antagonists. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of P2X and P2Y receptors in human SMC and in endothelial cells (EC). Smooth muscle cells were obtained from human mammary artery and EC from human umbilical vein. Using real-time PCR, the authors established quantitative mRNA assays. Protein expression was studied using Western blotting with recently developed antibodies. The P2X1 receptor was highly specific for human SMC, while the P2X4 was the highest expressed receptor in EC. The P2Y2 receptor was present in both SMC and EC. UTP-mediated effects in these cells are likely to be mediated by P2Y2 and not P2Y4 receptors since the latter had considerably lower expression. The P2Y6 receptor was expressed in both SMC and EC. The P2Y1 and surprisingly the P2Y11 receptors were the most abundantly expressed P2Y receptors in the endothelium. Overall, Western blotting confirmed the mRNA findings in most aspects, and most interestingly, indicated oligomerization of the P2Y1 receptor that may be important for its function. In conclusion, P2X1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 are the most expressed P2 receptors in SMC and are thus probably mediating the contractile and mitogenic actions of extracellular nucleotides. The P2X4, P2Y11, P2Y1, and P2Y2 are the most expressed P2 receptors in EC, and are most likely mediating release of nitric oxide, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and t-PA induced by extracellular nucleotides. These findings will help to direct future cardiovascular drug development against the large P2 receptor family.
Article
The present study was aimed at examining P2 receptor-mediated vasodilatation in human vessels. The isometric tension was recorded in isolated segments of the human left internal mammary artery branches precontracted with 1 μM noradrenaline. Endothelial denudation abolished the dilator responses. The selective P2Y1 agonist, 2-MeSADP, induced a potent vasodilatation (pEC50=6.9±0.1). The P2Y1 antagonist of 10 μM, MRS 2216, shifted the 2-MeSADP concentration-response curve 1.1 log units to the right. The combined P2Y1 and P2X agonist, 2-MeSATP, stimulated a dilatation with a potency similar to that of 2-MeSADP. Furthermore, MRS 2216 had a similar antagonistic effect on both 2-MeSATP and 2-MeSADP indicating that P2X receptors do not mediate vasodilatation. Both the P2Y2/4 agonist, UTPγS and the P2Y6 agonist, UDPβS, stimulated potent dilatations (pEC50=7.8±0.4 for UTPγS and 8.4±0.2 for UDPβS). The 2-MeSADP-induced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation was studied in the presence of 10 μM indomethacin, 50 nM charybdotoxin and 1 μM apamin. The involvement of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) was investigated in the presence of 0.1 mML-NOARG and indomethacin. The involvement of prostaglandins was investigated in the presence of L-NOARG, charybdotoxin and apamin. Both NO, EDHF and prostaglandins mediated 2-MeSADP dilatation with similar efficacy (Emax=25±5% for NO, 25±6% for EDHF and 27±5% for prostaglandins). In conclusion, extracellular nucleotides induce endothelium-derived vasodilatation in human vessels by stimulating P2Y1, P2Y2/4 and P2Y6 receptors, while P2X receptors are not involved. Endothelial P2Y receptors mediate dilatation by release of EDHF, NO and prostaglandins British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 138, 1451–1458. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705186
Article
Vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization of endothelial cells by adenosine 5′-[β-thio]diphosphate (ADPβS) and adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS) were studied in rat-isolated mesenteric artery. Effects from stimulation of P2X receptors were avoided by desensitization with α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate. ADPβS caused concentration- and endothelium-dependent relaxations of methoxamine-precontracted small (third generation) and main mesenteric artery. These were inhibited by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or a combination of apamin plus charybdotoxin (inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels); L-NAME, apamin and charybdotoxin applied together abolished the response. ATPγS induced limited relaxation (35% of methoxamine-induced tone at 10 μM) of small mesenteric artery, which was sensitive to L-NAME or endothelium denudation. However, it almost completely relaxed the main mesenteric artery over an extended concentration range (>6 orders of magnitude) in an endothelium-dependent manner. This relaxation was inhibited by either L-NAME or a combination of apamin with charybdotoxin, and abolished by a combination of all the three inhibitors. The P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (2′-deoxy-N6-methyladenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate; 0.3–3 μM) caused parallel rightward shifts of the concentration/relaxation curve to ADPβS (pA2=7.1). However, MRS 2179 did not inhibit, but potentiated, relaxant responses to ATPγS. MRS 2179 did not affect the contractile responses ATPγS in small mesenteric artery; ATPγS did not contract the main mesenteric artery. ADPβS hyperpolarized the endothelium of the main mesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner. This was unaffected by L-NAME but antagonized by MRS 2179. ATPγS also hyperpolarized the mesenteric artery endothelium in a concentration-dependent manner but, when ATPγS was applied at 10 μM, its effect was potentiated by MRS 2179 (3 μM). It is concluded that both relaxation and hyperpolarization to ADPβS are mediated by P2Y1 receptors and that the endothelial hyperpolarization is related to the L-NAME-resistant relaxation. Relaxation to the P2Y2 agonist ATPγS shows regional variation along the mesenteric vasculature. The mechanisms for potentiation of relaxation and hyperpolarization by ATPγS are unknown, but may indicate interactions between P2Y receptor subtypes. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 139, 661–671. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705271
Article
Chronic hypoxia is associated with elevated sympathetic activity and hypertension in patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease. However, the effect of chronic hypoxia on systemic and regional sympathetic activity in healthy humans remains unknown. To determine if chronic hypoxia in healthy humans is associated with hyperactivity of the sympathetic system, we measured intra-arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases, systemic and skeletal muscle noradrenaline (norepinephrine) spillover and vascular conductances in nine Danish lowlanders at sea level and after 9 weeks of exposure at 5260 m. Mean blood pressure was 28 % higher at altitude (P < 0.01) due to increases in both systolic (18 % higher, P < 0.05) and diastolic (41 % higher, P < 0.001) blood pressures. Cardiac output and leg blood flow were not altered by chronic hypoxia, but systemic vascular conductance was reduced by 30 % (P < 0.05). Plasma arterial noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline concentrations were 3.7- and 2.4-fold higher at altitude, respectively (P < 0.05). The elevation of plasma arterial NA concentration was caused by a 3.8-fold higher whole-body NA release (P < 0.001) since whole-body noradrenaline clearance was similar in both conditions. Leg NA spillover was increased similarly (x 3.2, P < 0.05). These changes occurred despite the fact that systemic O2 delivery was greater after altitude acclimatisation than at sea level, due to 37 % higher blood haemoglobin concentration. In summary, this study shows that chronic hypoxia causes marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system in healthy humans and increased systemic arterial pressure, despite normalisation of the arterial O2 content with acclimatisation.
Article
Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) protein was unaltered. The expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), determined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA levels did not significantly change during high-altitude hypoxia, although the data could not exclude a minor upregulation. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress response protein. In conclusion, our data indicate high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a good model for oxidative stress and that antioxidant genes are not upregulated in muscle tissue by prolonged hypoxia despite increased generation of oxidative DNA damage.
Article
Blood flow to skeletal muscle is a complex process designed to provide adequate, yet not excessive, amounts of oxygen to meet the ever-changing metabolic needs of the tissue. To accomplish this goal, a mechanism must exist that couples the oxygen needs of the tissue with the oxygen delivery system. A number of mechanisms have been investigated that have focused primarily on the vessel or tissue supplied. However, because none of these was able to adequately explain the precision inherent in oxygen supply, we began to investigate the potential role of the mobile oxygen carrier itself, the red blood cell. This review will provide evidence in support of the idea that the red blood cell is able to both sense oxygen need and evoke changes in blood flow to meet that need. In this scheme, as a red blood cell enters a region of increased metabolic demand relative to supply, the fall in hemoglobin oxygen saturation evokes the release of ATP, found within the red blood cell in mM amounts. The released ATP binds to purinergic receptors located on the vascular endothelium and induces a vasodilation that is conducted upstream increasing oxygen supply to the region of tissue supplied by the vessel. Although this mechanism is likely only one component of a complex system, which precisely regulates blood flow, we suggest that it plays a vital role in the regulation of perfusion distribution within tissue.
Article
The purine nucleotide adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) exerts pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanism of action of the vasodilator response to ATP in humans has not been elucidated yet. The proposed endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) were studied in a series of experiments, using the perfused forearm technique. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (0.2, 0.6, 6 and 20 nmol dl−1 forearm volume min−1) evoked a dose-dependent forearm vasodilator response, which could not be inhibited by separate infusion of the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin (5 μg dl−1 min−1, n=10), the blocker of Na+/K+-ATPase ouabain (0.2 μg dl−1 min−1, n=8), the blocker of KCa channels tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 0.1 μg dl−1 min−1, n=10), nor by the KATP-channel blocker glibenclamide (2 μg dl−1 min−1, n=10). All blockers, except glibenclamide, caused a significant increase in baseline vascular tone. The obtained results might be due to compensatory actions of unblocked EDRFs. Combined infusion of TEA, indomethacin and L-NMMA (n=6) significantly increased the baseline forearm vascular resistance. The ATP-induced relative decreases in forearm vascular resistance were 48±5, 67±3, 88±2, and 92±2% in the absence and 23±7, 62±4, 89±2, and 93±1% in the presence of the combination of TEA, indomethacin and L-NMMA (P<0.05, repeated-measures ANOVA, n=6). A similar inhibition was obtained for sodium nitroprusside (SNP, P<0.05 repeated-measures ANOVA, n=6), indicating a nonspecific interaction due to the blocker-induced vasoconstriction. ATP-induced vasodilation in the human forearm cannot be inhibited by separate infusion of indomethacin, ouabain, glibenclamide or TEA, or by a combined infusion of TEA, indomethacin, and L-NMMA. Endothelium-independent mechanisms and involvement of unblocked EDRFs, such as CO, might play a role, and call for further studies. British Journal of Pharmacology (2004) 141, 842–850. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705589
Article
Adenosine and nitric oxide (NO) are important local mediators of vasodilatation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adenosine receptor-mediated NO release from the endothelium. In studies on freshly excised rat aorta, second-messenger systems were pharmacologically modulated by appropriate antagonists while a NO-sensitive electrode was used to measure adenosine-evoked NO release from the endothelium. We showed that A1-mediated NO release requires extracellular Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel activation whereas A2A-mediated NO release requires extracellular Ca2+ and Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels. Since our previous study showed that A1- and A2A-receptor-mediated NO release requires activation of adenylate cyclase (AC), we propose the following novel pathways. The K+ efflux resulting from A1-receptor-coupled KATP-channel activation facilitates Ca2+ influx which may cause some stimulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). However, the increase in [Ca2+]i also stimulates PLA2 to liberate arachidonic acid and stimulate cyclooxygenase to generate prostacyclin (PGI2). PGI2 acts on its endothelial receptors to increase cAMP, so activating protein kinase A (PKA) to phosphorylate and activate eNOS resulting in NO release. By contrast, the K+ efflux resulting from A2A-coupled KCa channels facilitates Ca2+ influx, thereby activating eNOS and NO release. This process may be facilitated by phosphorylation of eNOS by PKA via the action of A2A-receptor-mediated stimulation of AC increasing cAMP. These pathways may be important in mediating vasodilatation during exercise and systemic hypoxia when adenosine acting in an endothelium- and NO-dependent manner has been shown to be important.