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Paradrymonia peltatifolia (Gesneriaceae), a Recently Discovered Species from Panama


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A recently discovered species is described from the Cobre mine site managed by Minera Panama S.A. in Colon Province (Donoso District) in central Panama near the Caribbean coast. The new species, Paradrymonia peltatifolia J. L. Clark & M. M. Mora (Gesneriaceae, Episcieae), is easily distinguished from congeners by the presence of peltate leaf blades, which is a vegetative characteristic that is rare in the Gesneriaceae.
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Paradrymonia peltatifolia (Gesneriaceae), a Recently Discovered
Species from Panama
John L. Clark and M. Marcela Mora
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 35487-0345,
ABSTRACT. A recently discovered species is de- Diagnosis. Differs from all congeners by the presence of
peltate leaf blades.
scribed from the Cobre mine site managed by Minera
´S.A. in Colo
´n Province (Donoso District) in Terrestrial herb with erect to creeping stems;
central Panama near the Caribbean coast. The new stems subwoody, subquadrate, sulcate, elongate
species, Paradrymonia peltatifolia J. L. Clark & M. with shoots to 30 cm long, each shoot with leaves
M. Mora (Gesneriaceae, Episcieae), is easily distin- apically clustered, light tan to rose-colored, hirsute;
guished from congeners by the presence of peltate internodes longer than broad, 3–6.5 cm long near
leaf blades, which is a vegetative characteristic that is base, more clustered at apex; adventitious roots
rare in the Gesneriaceae. present, pinkish. Leaves opposite, unequal in a
pair, the larger leaf in a pair with petioles (5–)13–
RESUMEN. Se describe una especie recientemente 40 cm, cross-section U-shaped, wine-red, densely
descubierta en la concesio
´n Cobre Panama
´manejada hirsute; the blade (9–)16–21 37–16 cm, peltate
por la Minera Panama
´S.A. en la provincia de Colo
´nwith petiole attached 2–5 cm above margin of the
(distrito de Donoso) en el centro de Panama
´cerca de leaf blade, ovate to orbiculate with dentate and
la costa Caribe. La nueva especie, Paradrymonia ciliate margins, apex long-acuminate, base rounded,
peltatifolia J. L. Clark & M. M. Mora (Gesneriaceae, dark green and glabrescent to puberulous above,
Episcieae), se distingue fa
´cilmente de conge
´neres por light green or purplish and hirsute along veins
la presencia de la
´minas peltadas, la cual es una below; the lateral pairs of veins 5 or 6, departing
ıstica vegetativa rara en las Gesneria
´ceas. midvein at a 508–608angle, tertiary veins distinct,
Key words: Gesneriaceae, IUCN Red List, Pan- reticulate; the smaller leaf strongly reduced, to 1 cm
ama, Paradrymonia.long, ovate to lanceolate, with serrate margins.
Inflorescence a reduced pair-flowered cyme with 2
Ongoing efforts to document and monitor plant to 4 flowers that appear in axillary clusters, the
biodiversity in the Colo
´n Province of Panama have prophylls oblong with ciliate margins, less than 10
resulted in the discovery of numerous new species. 31 mm, reddish green; the pedicels 1–4 cm long,
These efforts have been promoted through collabora- rose-colored, hirsute. Flowers with calyx lobes
tions between Minera Panama
´S.A. (MPSA) and the subequal, 1.5–2 30.5–1.1 cm, ovate to lanceolate,
Missouri Botanical Garden and are aimed at hirsute, pale green to rose, serrate; corolla posture
mitigating impacts of a large copper mining conces- oblique relative to the calyx, ca. 3.5–4.5 cm long,
sion. Here we describe a species that was discovered trumpet-shaped, spurred at base for 5 mm, white to
as a result of this collaboration. The new species, white suffused with pink, red streaks present in
Paradrymonia peltatifolia J. L. Clark & M. M. Mora, throat, sparsely sericeous, inside throat covered
is a terrestrial herb in the flowering plant family with glandular trichomes on upper surface, lobes 5,
Gesneriaceae. The current circumscription of Para- entire, subequal, ca. 10 310 mm, glabrous within;
drymonia Hanst. includes 38 species (Mora et al., androecium with 4 stamens, included, didynamous,
2012) and is the main focus of a Ph.D. dissertation the filaments adnate for ca. 3 mm to the base of
(M. Mora, in prep.). corolla tube, to 3 cm, white, glabrous, each anther
apically coherent to its homologous pair, each
Paradrymonia peltatifolia J. L. Clark & M. M. Mora, anther 2 31 mm, the thecae dehiscent by
sp. nov. TYPE: Panama. Colo
´n: Distr. Donoso, longitudinal slits; gynoecium with the ovary ovoid,
helipad ZP-P9, 88519599 N, 80840 91999 W, 391 m, 4–4.5 mm, densely sericeous with long reddish
20 July 2011 (fl.), J. L. Clark & L. Martinez trichomes, style ca. 2.1 cm, with sparsely distrib-
12550 (holotype, US; isotypes, E, K, MO, NY, uted pubescence, stigma capitate, disc of a single
PMA, SCZ, SEL, UNA). Figure 1. bilobed gland on dorsal surface, ca. 2.3 mm long,
NOVON 23: 18–20. PUBLISHED ON 8APRIL 2014. doi: 10.3417/2012079
entire, glabrous. Fruit a greenish yellow, bivalved, Distribution and habitat.Paradrymonia peltati-
semi-fleshy (not succulent) capsule appearing folia is endemic to Panama and is known only from
laterally compressed; seed fusiform, striate, black, the type locality in Colo
´n Province. The lowland
533 mm, embedded in a fleshy funicle. vegetation (i.e., below 500 m) of the Caribbean slope
Figure 1. Paradrymonia peltatifolia J. L. Clark & M. M. Mora. —A. Lateral view of flower. —B. Front view of corolla. —C.
Abaxial leaf surface showing peltate blade. —D. Immature fruit. —E. Habit showing clusters of leaves with peltate blades.
Images of field collections in A, B, and E are from J. L. Clark & L. Martinez 12550 (holotype, US), C from J. L. Clark & L.
Martinez 12578 (US), and D from J. L. Clark & J. De Gracia 12450 (US).
Volume 23, Number 1 Clark & Mora 19
2014 Paradrymonia (Gesneriaceae) from Panama
20 Novon
where P. peltatifolia thrives is classified as Tropical However, the holotype and isotypes (R. D. Metcalf &
Wet Forest (Holdridge, 1978). J. Cuatrecasas 30098)ofN. peltatus do not appear to
have peltate leaves, despite the specific epithet and
IUCN Red List category. The only known details provided in the description by Morton. Other
populations of Paradrymonia peltatifolia are located species with peltate leaves include Sinningia tuber-
inside a region that will be developed for a copper osa (Mart.) H. E. Moore from Brazil, Metapetrocosmea
mine by MPSA. Population sizes of 10 to 15 peltata (Merr. & Chun) W. T. Wang from China, and
individuals clustered along muddy streams were Cyrtandra peltata Jack from Sumatra.
observed by the first author in two different localities. Additional characters that differentiate Paradry-
Six days of fieldwork during the summer of 2011 monia peltatifolia from its congeners are ovate to
resulted in documenting one population near MPSA’s orbicular leaf blades (vs. elongate to broadly oblong)
Colina camp and a second population near helipad with dentate margins and white tubular corollas
ZP-P9 (J. L. Clark & L. Martinez 12578). There are suffused with pink (vs. uniformly white, yellow, or
no known populations outside the copper mine red).
concession, and therefore significant efforts are being
implemented by MPSA to cultivate and transplant P. Paratypes.PANAMA.Colo´n: Distr. Donoso, Consecio
peltatifolia. These conservation efforts are ongoing for de Minera Panama
´S.A., Quebrada Colina, sendero to Sinaı,
300–400 m from camp. Colina, 885099.499 N, 80839946.699 W,
P. peltatifolia and other species as a way to mitigate 200–220 m, 15 July 2011 (fl., fr.), J. L. Clark & J. De Gracia
the impacts to biodiversity when the mine is 12450 (MO, PMA, SCZ, SEL, UNA, US); Distr. Donoso,
implemented. According to the IUCN Red List Consec. Minera Panama
´S.A., helipad ZP-P9, 88519599 N,
criteria (IUCN, 2001) for limited geographic range 8084091999 W, 391 m, 20 July 2011 (fl.), J. L. Clark & L.
(B2a, less than 10 km
and known to exist at only a Martinez 12578 (MO, PMA, SEL, UNA, US); Teck Cominco
Mining Concession, Camp Colina, forests along Quebrada
single location) and considering the uncertain future Colina, 884995099 N, 8083993099 W, 152 m, 2 Mar. 2008 (fl.),
of the region, P. peltatifolia should be listed in the M. Merello & J. I. Gonzalez 3172 (MO).
category CR (Critically Endangered). Acknowledgments. This research was made pos-
Phenology.Paradrymonia peltatifolia has been sible through funding provided by the National
collected in flower in March and July and in fruit in Science Foundation to J. L. C. (DEB-0841958 and
July. DEB-0949169). Blanca M. Arau
´z Servello
´n and Jose
De Gracia from MPSA provided essential logistical
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from support to the Cobre mine site in Colo
´n Province
the Latin pelta, meaning shield; it refers to the petiole during the summer of 2011. Additional logistical
attachment near the center of the blade (Fig. 1C) support was provided by Alvin Zapata, Laurencio
instead of the more common attachment near the Martinez, and Alex Guevara. This discovery was
margin. A peltate leaf attachment is often associated greatly facilitated by initial work by Mary Merello,
with orbicular blades that appear shield-shaped. Pete Lowry, Peter P. Phillipson, and Gordon
McPherson from the Missouri Botanical Garden in
Discussion.Paradrymonia peltatifolia is distin- collaboration with MPSA. We gratefully acknowledge
guished from its congeners by the presence of peltate helpful reviews from Alain Chautems, Christian
leaves, in contrast to the more ubiquitous character Feuillet, and Laurence E. Skog.
state of blades that are attached at their basal margin
to the petiole. Paradrymonia peltatifolia is the only Literature Cited
known species of Paradrymonia with peltate leaves.
This unusual vegetative character is uncommon in Holdridge, L. R. 1978. Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science
the New World members of Gesneriaceae. It is also Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.
IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria,
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Nautilocalyx peltatus (C. V. Morton) Wiehler. Morton Morton, C. V. 1945. Seven new species of Gesneriaceae
(1945) noted in the description that the petiole is from Peru and Colombia. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 35: 126–
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... These efforts centered around different regions of the country. For example: a) the Panamanian Caribbean slopes (e.g., Ortiz 2014, 2015;Ortiz and Croat 2015a, 2015b, 2017aOrtiz et al. , 2018a; b) the district of Donoso in the Province of Colón in connection with the Minera Panamá Project (e.g., Clark and Mora 2014;Daly 2014;Daniel and McPherson 2014;Holst 2014;Kennedy 2014;Idárraga et al. 2015;Schatz et al. 2015;Barrie et al. 2016;Croat and Ortiz 2016;Grayum and De Gracia 2016;Kawasaki et al. 2016;Croat et al. 2017;Batista and Mori 2017;De Gracia et al. 2017;Almeda and Penneys 2018;Prance 2018); and c) La Amistad International Park located in the Cordillera of Talamanca between Costa Rica and Panama's border (e.g., Soto and Monro 2008;Monro 2009Monro , 2012Rodríguez et al. 2011;Santamaría et al. 2014Santamaría et al. , 2015Monro et al. 2017;Croat 2017a, 2017b;Ortiz et al. 2018b;Rodríguez and Solano-Peralta 2018). In addition, the Autonomous University of Chiriquí herbarium (UCH) and the Jardín Botánico Lankester of Costa Rica collected and thoroughly studied the orchid flora of Panama (Bogarín et al. 2013a(Bogarín et al. , 2013b(Bogarín et al. , 2014a(Bogarín et al. , 2014b(Bogarín et al. , 2017Serracín et al. 2013Serracín et al. , 2016. ...
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In the present study, we report 46 new records of vascular plants species from Panama. The species belong to the following families: Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Araceae, Bignoniaceae, Burseraceae, Caryocaraceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Lacistemataceae, Lauraceae, Malpighiaceae, Malvaceae, Marattiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Orchidaceae, Passifloraceae, Peraceae, Poaceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Solanaceae, and Violaceae. Additionally, the status of plant collections in Panama is discussed; we focused on the areas where we identified significant information gaps regarding real assessments of plant biodiversity in the country.
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Center, San José, Costa Rica. IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Seven new species of Gesneriaceae from Peru and Colombia
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Morton, C. V. 1945. Seven new species of Gesneriaceae from Peru and Colombia. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 35: 126– 131.