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Point of View: 3D Printing Disrupts Manufacturing: How Economies of One Create New Rules of Competition

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Abstract

Before the Industrial Revolution, goods were produced by local artisans and craftsmen relying primarily on locally available materials and selling primarily to local customers. These artisans conceived of and then made products, and they sold these products in their own small shops or out of their homes. In this environment, the customer was directly linked to the producer; there was no middleman and no supply chain. The Industrial Revolution ushered in an era of innovation in production methods, mining methods, and machine tools that enabled mass production and allowed the replacement of labor with machines and of traditional energy sources such as wind, water, and wood with coalpowered (and later gas-powered) machines. In the past 200 years, the elements of production have been refi ned, but the underlying economics have remained: competitive advantage goes to the company or companies (organized into a supply chain) that can produce the highest quality part at the lowest cost. Fixed costs—infrastructure and machinery—became separate from variable costs—those expenditures that increased on a per-unit production basis, such as labor and materials. Economies-of-scale production models meant that high-volume production reduced the contribution of the fi xed-cost portion of the cost equation, thus reducing the per-unit cost. Simply put, high throughput and effi ciency yielded higher profi ts ( Pine 1993 ). Today we are entering an era many believe will be as disruptive to the manufacturing sector as the Industrial Revolution was—the age of 3D printing and the digital tools that support it ( Koten 2013 ). At a EuroMold fair in November 2012, 3D Systems used one of its 3D printers to print a hammer. The Economist (2012) used this example to compare the traditional supply chain design-build-deliver model with the emerging 3D printing model:

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... In essence, future manufacturers will be governed by two sets of rules: Economies of scale for interchangeable parts produced at high volumes and economies of one for highly customizable products that can be built layer by layer. Each model brings its own sources of competitive advantage and economic factors ( Table 1) [12]. ...
... Economies of scale and economies of one will continue to coexist, but they will not be used for the same things. Companies based on economies of scale will still support commodity and high-volume production, but in instances where end-user customization is highly desirable, where production is single unit or very small volume, or where the end product requires features that cannot be manufactured by traditional means, 3D printing and additive manufacturing will become a viable and competitive option [12], [14]. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the patient's awareness of additive manufacturing and their opinion about the price and application of 3D-printed products in dentistry. ...
... Economies of scale versus economies of one[12] ...
Article
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Introduction: Additive manufacturing or 3D printing technology creates the object layer by layer. Its development in dentistry has been particularly rapid over the last ten years and covers more and more dental fields. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the patient’s awareness of additive manufacturing and their opinion about the price and application of 3D printed products in dentistry. Materials and methods: The survey was distributed to a total of 111 patients, of whom 49.5% were men and 50.5% were women. The majority of respondents have higher education. Their age varies from 34 to 76. Students do not participate in the survey. More than half of the respondents (55.5%) are retired. Results and conclusion: Patients are mainly informed by dentists but consider themselves insufficiently informed. 3D printed versions are rarely offered, especially for temporary constructions. Patients rate the price as too high, but would not give up treatment only for that reason. They are hesitant in their choice for treatment with a classic or 3D printed technique.
... The emergence of 3D printing is having a major disruptive impact of global manufacturing and supply chains. The disruptive impacts can be summed up in terms of the observation that 3D printing has replaced the economies of scale that underpin traditional manufacturing with the "economies of one" that is driving 3D printing (Chan et al., 2018;Petrick & Simpson, 2013). This has significant implications in three key areas. ...
... 3D printing allows for the use of materials such as sand, powder polymers, ceramics, wax and various composite materials (Veronneau et al., 2017). Secondly, 3D printing eliminates the need for large inventory stocking, instead supporting end-user customisation and direct interaction between the local consumer and producer (Petrick & Simpson, 2013). Because items can be produced fairly quickly on demand, there is no need for excessive inventory stocking in response to uncertain demand-the so-called "Bullwhip Effect" (Chan et al., 2018). ...
... It also provides the opportunities for the emergence and contributions of "prosumers", that is consumers who are able to produce items from their homes (Halassi et al., 2019). Finally, the economies of one create new rules of competition, in a way similar to how the industrial revolution was a game changer against the local artisan (Petrick & Simpson, 2013). Traditional manufacturing, under the design-build-deliver model, relies on reducing or eliminating variation in design to enable cost-effective production of parts at high volume. ...
Article
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The protracted disruption of Covid-19 pandemic on global supply chains has renewed calls for a new model of manufacturing that removes the need for centralised high-volume production and large inventory stocking. Drawing ideas from the Triple Helix model of university-industry-government innovation, this paper analyses the prospects for a 3D manufacturing revolution in Africa, a continent which has been disproportionately affected in the latest round of international border restrictions imposed in response to the Omicron variant of the virus. Taking a conceptual approach supported with case illustrations, the paper reviews the evolution of 3D printing technologies, the disruptive impact they have had on the traditional supply chain and the global expansion of the 3D printing market. Highlighting the favourable conditions for technological leapfrogging within the African context, the paper proposes a new integrative framework that explains how the emergence of new hybrid organisations from the Triple Helix can drive a promising manufacturing future for the continent -with small and medium enterprises playing a key role.
... In other words, such impacts can lead to increased SC capabilities such as higher flexibility in dealing with time and demand risk factors Dolgui and Ivanov, 2020) as well as increased SC risks and vulnerabilities, e.g., "industrial espionage, IP leakage, or even production sabotage" (Tang and Veelenturf, 2019). AM is an advanced computer technology capable of digitizing SCs (Verboeket and Krikke, 2019), which produces objects layer-by-layer using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software and models (Berman, 2012;Petrick and Simpson, 2013). In their research, Durach et al. (2017) point out that the adoption of AM technology for different applications, e.g., rapid prototyping, production tooling, end-use parts production, and spare parts production, impacts the structure and capabilities of SCs, which consequently affect SCR. ...
... Also, by facilitating the outsourcing of production processes to external sources, AM allows producers to protect themselves against potential unionized labor activities, e.g., strikes. Another possibility is to use the existing printer hubs (Petrick and Simpson, 2013) to pool the dispersed production capacity (i.e., capacity pooling/sharing) available in different locations (Kietzmann et al., 2015) to promote distributed manufacturing (aka localized production) and avoid the concentration of capacity in one geographical location. However, when firms outsource the production of parts to external entities, their control over tracing the quality of the input material becomes somewhat limited. ...
... (Achillas et al., 2017) • Increased equipment utilization • Increased lowvolume part production • Increased production efficiency "3D printing has been used for more than two decades, primarily for rapid part prototyping and small run production in a variety of industries." (Petrick and Simpson, 2013) • Tool-less production "This is possible since AM is a tool-less manufacturing approach, with no or very limited setup times." (Sgarbossa et al., 2021) • Increased production efficiency • Reduced capital investments in facilities and equipment • Reduced changeover and setup times • Reduced manual operations ...
Article
As a disruptive digital technology, adopting additive manufacturing impacts the state and structural dynamics of supply chains, thus affecting their capability to be resilient. Supply chain resilience is essential for business continuity and dealing with unforeseen disruptions such as the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, no research has exclusively investigated the implications of adopting additive manufacturing technology for supply chain resilience, and this study aims to overcome this knowledge gap by using the existing literature and drawing on the dynamic capabilities view. Hence, a systematic search of the literature followed by a critical review of the gathered evidence from 87 peer-reviewed journal papers is performed leading to the generation of propositions on how additive manufacturing adoption impacts the state of the supply chain, thus influencing certain supply chain capabilities and vulnerabilities that affect supply chain resilience. These propositions provide a research agenda to empirically examine how adopting different processes and applications of additive manufacturing technology can affect supply chain resilience in different industries. Additionally, this study puts forward a detailed framework that indicates how and to what extent adopting additive manufacturing can influence the supply chain capabilities and vulnerabilities that underlie supply chain resilience. While the results suggest that additive manufacturing adoption is expected to improve supply chain resilience by enhancing the state of the supply chain and positively influencing certain supply chain capabilities, it can also cause certain supply chain vulnerabilities to arise, which seem to be interrelated with some of the present additive manufacturing adoption barriers.
... AM technologies become effective when they can leverage their flexibility to produce a small batch of standard components (Berman, 2012;Holmstr€ om et al., 2010;Eyers et al., 2018;Beltagui et al., 2020), or when they can enhance these components with customization (Petrick and Simpson, 2013;Bogers et al., 2016;Steenhuis and Pretorius, 2016). Moreover, these technologies can be useful in developing an OI process in order to quickly improve a given design (Raasch et al., 2009;Bogers et al., 2016;Steenhuis and Pretorius, 2016;Dalenogare et al., 2018) as they create an open-source design that may be improved by other such as users, printing companies and competitors as well. ...
... The case-study is consistent with the theoretical model by Tatham et al. (2018), when correctly managed, as in the Isinnova case, these characteristics help to create a "hub and spoke" supply chain model, where design and testing take place in a central facility (the hub) and the product is locally manufactured in-field (the spokes). Adopting this model, companies may overcome these technologies limitations that, when compared with conventional subtractive manufacturing or with the conventional injection molding production process (Atzeni and Salmi, 2012;Petrick and Simpson, 2013;Gao et al., 2015). ...
... The Isinnova case gives some interesting suggestions to both managers of design and consultant services and to hospital management as well. This technology has proven to be a viable alternative for producing small batches of some standard components (Petrick and Simpson, 2013;Shukla et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, also known as three-dimensional printing (3DP), is a technological breakthrough that have the potential to disrupt the traditional operations of supply chains. They open the way to a supply chains innovation that can significantly benefit hospitals and health-related organizations in dealing with crises or unexpected events in a faster and more flexible way. In this study the authors identify the boundary of this potential support. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopt a case study approach to understand the dynamics behind a well-known best practice to identify the main opportunities and the main pitfalls that AM may pose to health-related organizations wanting to leverage them. Findings The case highlights that it is possible to increase hospital flexibility using AM and that by leveraging the Internet it is possible to spread the benefits faster than what it would be normally possible using traditional supply chain processes. At the same time the case highlights that leveraging these technologies needs buy-in from all the relevant stakeholders. Originality/value The paper is one of the first, to the best of the authors' knowledge, to highlight the main opportunities and difficulties of implementing 3DP technologies in hospital supply chain management.
... Pressure from external stakeholders (clients, suppliers) alongside the desire to match adoption behaviors of key competitors likely also influences organizational technology adoption decisions. Acceptance of 3DPT as a production standard as well as the accurate integration of the technology among multiple supply chains seems to represent a crucial element in the 3DPT adoption process (Petrick and Simpson, 2013). Further, acceptance and alignment among trading partners complying with new manufacturing standards constitutes a powerful environmental mediator in the success of the adoption process Yeh and Chen, 2018). ...
... Qualitative studies performed by Yeh and Chen (2018) and Oettmeier and Hofmann (2016) further corroborate that the effective use of 3DPT depends on the extent and state of existing utilization of the technology among trade partners. Interestingly, 3DPT can be applied in different production modes, some of which require the compatibility of production processes among the entire supply chain (Petrick and Simpson, 2013) We subsequently hypothesize that resource-dominant trade partners in the Mexican footwear industry exert coercive pressure on potential adopters either to achieve compliance with production and technology standards or to increase firm performance in terms of speed, quality, or cost. ...
Article
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Radical technologies such as 3DPT (3D printing technology) continue to disrupt traditional manufacturing processes, perhaps even offering the key to long-term organizational survival. These radical forces appear to increase the pressure on internal and external organizational stakeholders to recognize, adopt and adapt to new technologies in order to sustain organizational competitiveness. This research subsequently investigates the key drivers in the organizational adoption of 3DPT to identify whether adoption is driven by a desire for homogeneity, or by a purely rationalistic evaluation of the perceived intrinsic value of the technology for the organization. This research surveyed 114 manufacturing firms operating in the Mexican footwear cluster to identify the impact of complex institutional forces on the adoption of radical 3DPT technologies. Data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling, concluding that mimetic, alongside normative, isomorphic pressures, exerted a substantial impact on the 3DPT adoption decision. While competitor behavior appeared to represent significant driver for adoption, our results also indicated that normative forces acted decisively on evaluations of the technology's perceived value. We found no evidence of coercive pressures, also noting a negative relationship between low adoption rates and institutional potential. The study concludes with an observation that isomorphism can be leveraged to actuate adoption rates, with recommendations for further research identified and research limitations addressed.
... While some authors identify a relationship between unit cost and quantity Ruffo and Hague, 2007;Baumers et al., 2017) other investigations appear to suggest that economies of scale are non-existent in AM (Hopkinson and Dickens, 2003;Atzeni and Salmi, 2012;Berman, 2012;Weller et al., 2015;Ben-Ner and Siemsen, 2017). Emphasizing the perceived absence of a cost-quantity relationship in AM, Petrick and Simpson (2013) coined the term "economies of one" as a way of describing the suitability of AM for markets characterized by low volume and highly customizable needs. Similarly, Weller et al. (2015) argued that decreased product changeover cost is an inherent characteristic of AM, suggesting the availability of economies of scope as opposed to economies of scale, denoting a pattern of decreasing unit costs as the variety of products generated by an organisational unit increases. ...
... cost per part) (Carlino, 2012). This phenomenon, however, does not relatively manifest itself in parts fabricated by AM due to the lack of tooling (Petrick and Simpson, 2013), which is amortised over production quantity in other conventional manufacturing technologies, such as IM in this case. In this study, the effect of different maximum possible production volumes ( GH> ) on volume flexibility level and its corresponding manufacturing unit cost is analyzed. ...
Article
Additive Manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing as it is frequently known, is an umbrella term for a collection of manufacturing technologies that enables products to be manufactured layer-by-layer from three-dimensional digital data. While the costs associated with AM represents a barrier to its wider adoption, its benefits outweigh its costs when considered in some contexts. Few studies have investigated the costs and benefits of this technology from a supply chain perspective, particularly in market environments characterized by demand uncertainty. In this type of scenario, it becomes necessary to adopt higher levels of internal competencies, find the optimal way to manage inventories and flexibly respond to sudden market requirements. This thesis therefore aims to address this gap by examining three key aspects: the learning effects offered by AM, the impact of AM on inventory-related costs and the impact of AM on the critical capability of flexibility. To assess learning in AM, this thesis focuses on the experimental measurement of AM operator time and improvement in operator effectiveness as a result of learning. Learning is thus assessed by measuring the reduction of labour time through operator learning within a series of build repetitions and estimates a progress ratio which captures the learning effect within this series. To assess the impact of AM on inventory-related costs, this thesis develops a conceptual model that matches possible AM scenarios with demand volume level and severity of stockout penalty. It also conducts a case study to obtain insights into the resulting model which has been developed. In this case study, an interprocess comparison is undertaken by simulating a supply chain based on data collected from a plastic products manufacturing company that produces pipe fittings using Injection Moulding (IM) technology. The simulation model produced has been built using the Arena software package for three distinct scenarios: the current configuration with IM only, iii a proposed configuration with AM only, and a proposed configuration that combines AM with IM. To evaluate the impact of AM on flexibility, a conceptual model has also been constructed that maps certain AM characteristics relevant to flexibility to key market disruption scenarios faced by managers. This aspect is also highlighted through the case study which assesses the impact of AM on four distinct supply chain flexibility types: volume, delivery, mix and new product using metrics obtained from the literature. The results obtained on learning in AM suggest that AM exhibits a learning effect for both the novice and the expert operator with progress ratios of 67.73% and 80.42% respectively. Further, results on the impact of AM on inventory-related costs revealed that utilizing IM alone showed the lowest supply chain unit cost (€0.90) compared to utilizing AM as a stand-alone (€2.72) or in a combined approach (€0.94). With regards to AM’s impact on flexibility, the supply chain employing IM showed greater volume and delivery flexibility levels (i.e. 65.68% and 92.8% for IM compared to 58.70% and 75.35% for AM, respectively). However, AM showed higher mix and new product introduction flexibility level, indicated by the lower changeover time and cost of new product introduction to the system (i.e. 0.33 hrs and €0 for AM compared to 4.91 hrs and €30,000 for IM, respectively). It is anticipated that these results can be used to inform practitioners and scholars on various contexts where AM can create value and the appropriate and timely investments needed to unlock that value.
... Waller and Fawcett (2013) postulated that AM will make conventional business models and supply chains antique and emphasized the disruptive aspects of AM: no more economies of scale, consistent quality, less capital investment required to start producing a broad range of different goods, or the maker movement where consumers become product designers and producers. Petrick and Simpson (2013) called such people prosumers. To understand why AM, despite the higher cost, is considered by many to be the next manufacturing revolution, Baumers, Dickens, Tuck, and Hague (2016) pointed at history: AM originated from the need to create prototypes faster, a requirement not focused on cost but speed. ...
... Besides the safety, security, and military challenges AM brings, Garrett expected 3DP to cause substantial social and geopolitical impact. Similarly, AM has the potential to positively affect society by enabling lighter and therefore higher fuel-efficient transportation, enhanced medical treatments (Brown et al., 2013;Petrick & Simpson, 2013). Chiu and Lin (2016) mentioned the sustainability benefits of AM by referring to the US Department of Energy that estimated this technology could save energy up to 50% and material up to 90%. ...
Book
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Additive manufacturing (AM), also called 3-dimensional printing (3DP), emerged as a disruptive technology affecting multiple organizations’ business models and supply chains and endangering incumbents’ financial health, or even rendering them obsolete. The world market for products created by AM has increased more than 25% year over year. Using Christensen’s theory of disruptive innovation as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this multiple case study was to explore the successful strategies that 4 individual managers, 1 at each of 4 different light and high-tech manufacturing companies in the Netherlands, used to adopt AM technology into their business models. Participant firms originated from 3 provinces and included a value-added logistics service provider and 3 machine shops serving various industries, including the automotive and medical sectors. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, member checking, and analysis of company documents that provided information about the adoption of 3DP into business models. Using Yin’s 5-step data analysis approach, data were compiled, disassembled, reassembled, interpreted, and concluded until 3 major themes emerged: identify business opportunities for AM technology, experiment with AM technology, and embed AM technology. Because of the design freedom the use of AM enables, in combination with its environmental efficiency, the implications for positive social change include possibilities for increasing local employment, improving the environment, and enhancing healthcare for the prosperity of local and global citizens by providing potential solutions that managers could use to deploy AM technology.
... There is a growing consensus that digitalised manufacturing profoundly affects business model innovation and society [16][17][18]. AM is considered a disruptive technology in the manufacturing sector [19] and has the potential to replace the economies-of-scale production model, which has lesser fixed costs than in economies-of-one production. As AM and 3D printing become more available, changes in business strategies, production processes, supply chains, logistics, and product life cycles are expected [20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... This paradigm shift in manufacturing technology will influence the way manufacturers think and consumers behave [27]. Petrick et al. [19] expressed that 'manufacturing digiproneurship will allow anyone to return to the garage and make things that satisfy the needs of one or a very few customers.' This emphasises the widespread use of AM technology and the revolution in the way products are manufactured and dispatched. ...
Article
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is the most common metal additive manufacturing technique. Following pre-programmed designs, it employs a high-power density laser source to melt pre-alloyed or mixed powders layer by layer, allowing for complex metallic component fabrication. This technique has recently been utilised to produce superior, near-full-density three-dimensional functional parts for various industrial applications. As the LPBF technology matures, ongoing research is being conducted to increase its viability as a sustainable solution in achieving digital transformation in metallic materials and qualifying new metallic materials for digital products. This review focuses on recent developments in the LPBF technique in terms of process parameters, defects, microstructure evolution, related metallurgical phenomena, and microselective laser melting processing for miniaturised part production. First, considerable attention is given to the related parameters that affect the LPBF process, that is, powder-related and laser-related properties. Second, the metallurgical imperfections related to the LPBF products are described in terms of their types, formation mechanisms, and suppression strategies for these defects. Third, the solidification behaviour, phase transformation, and precipitation during the LPBF processing were systematically investigated. Fourth, the materials implemented in microselective laser melting for three-dimensional microfeature production on various metals are summarised. Finally, the results from this review are summarized, and future research addressing existing difficulties and promoting technical advancements are recommended.
... Intellectual Property (IP) appreciates creative intellects of individuals and though considered intangible; its significance has grown with a paradigm shift in favour of intangible assets over tangible assets from 17% to 84% over 1975-2015(Ocean Tomo 2017. Nevertheless, there have been ongoing concerns about the impact of AM on existing IP and SC structures, due to AM's ability to elude IP constraints built into conventional manufacturing methods and the possibility of uncontrollable digitally distribution (Petrick andSimpson 2013, Hornick 2015). Gartner's prediction for over $100bn losses from AM use in SCs due to IP compromise by 2018, gave credibility to this concern (Hornick 2015, Anusci 2018). ...
Article
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Additive manufacturing underpins Industry 4.0 and is often identified as having potential applications in replacement part supply chains; however, it also introduces complex challenges for existing governance structures, especially those linked to intellectual property security concerns. This paper quantitatively surveyed views of experts in management, engineering, and academic roles about their concerns regarding intellectual property security of additive manufacturing applications in replacement part supply chains. The findings reveal that despite the often-cited benefits there remain significant concerns about this technology's application from management and security perspectives within the Industry 4.0 era.
... With the evolution of technologies and research on the subject, new models of robots were built, among them the robot builder that is already a reality in German industry and in other countries (Melenbrink et al., 2020;WANG et al., 2020). With 3D printing it is possible to develop customized robots, with the material specified in specialist software and the trained professional to develop the robot's construction plan (Petrick & Simpson, 2013), another important point to be highlighted is about the research addressed by Xia et al. (2020), he explains about the processes of using the digital twin to train a deep reinforcement learning agent for factories in a factory environment with interfaces and computational intelligence. ...
Article
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It is apparent the industrial processes transformations caused by industry 4.0 are in advance in some countries like China, Japan, Germany and United States. But, in return, the developing countries, as the emergent Brazil, seem like to have a long way to achieve digital era. Considering manufacturing processes as the starting point the rise of industry 4.0, this research aims to show a review about the most important technologies used in smart manufacturing, including the main challenges to implement it at Brazil. The papers were collected from Web of Science (WoS), comprising 114 articles and 2 books to underpin this study. This exploratory research resulted in the presentation of some challenges faced by Brazilian industry to join the new industrial era, such as poor technological infrastructure, besides lack of investment in technologies and training of qualified people. Even though the primary motivation of this research was to present a panorama of smart manufacturing for Brazil, this study results contributes to the most of emergent countries, bringing together general concepts and addressing practical applications developed by several researchers from the international academic community.
... Finally, it can be concluded that given the forecasted and expected enhancements in AM, this new manufacturing technology will gain more and more ground, and the performances of EMs could be considerably enhanced. New designs of EMs of a high degree of complexity and customization are also expected soon [187]. ...
Article
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There is a strong general demand for the permanent improvement of electrical machines. Nowadays, these are at their near maximum potential, and even small further improvements can only be achieved with great effort and high cost. The single solution should be a paradigm shift in their development, by using radically new approaches to topology, materials, and fabrication. Therefore, the application of diverse 3D printing techniques for advanced fabrication in this field is inevitable. Therefore, these new approaches are receiving a great deal of attention among electrical machines designers. In the paper, the possible applications of these new fabrication technologies in the field of electrical machines are surveyed. The focus is set on emphasizing the advancement over the traditional manufacturing approaches.
... A 3D printer can generate a prototype more efficiently than a conventional metal mold-based method. In addition, it has the side effect of disrupting manufacturing [10,11] by enabling consumers to generate end-products with the manufacturer's needs. Figure 1 shows the flowchart of a typical fused deposition modeling (FDM)-type 3D printing procedure. ...
Preprint
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This study proposes a simple geometric algorithm for predicting the total mass of support structures in PLA-based fused-deposition-modeling-type three-dimensional (3D) printing. The total printing time and filament mass, especially for large objects, can be reduced by finding in advance the optimal orientation at which the support structure mass is minimal. The main idea is based on the shadow-casting analogy, which assumes that the volume of the support structure is similar to the shadow from virtual sunlight. We modify our previous method to make the proposed algorithm computationally more efficient than the g-code generation of conventional slicing software. First, the triangular elements of the target object are converted to pairs of integer-based normal vectors and coordinates via vertically sparse voxelization. Second, each voxel's center point is designated as a pixel, and pixels at the same X and Y coordinates are stored in the same group designated as a slot. The pixels in each slot are classified into several groups, and their noise is suppressed using a specially designed noise-filtering algorithm called slot-pairing. The final support structure volume information is rendered as a two-dimensional (2D) figure similar to a medical X-ray image. Thus, we named our method modified support structure tomography. Our algorithm showed an error range of not more than 1.6% with exact volumes and 6.8% with slicing software. Moreover, the calculation time was only several minutes for tens of thousands of mesh triangles. The algorithm was verified for several meshes, such as the cone, sphere, Stanford bunny, and human manikin.
... This is particularly the case for the engagement of customers, who become makers and have a larger role in the innovation processes of firms. Through 3D printing, for example, the firm may be particularly interested in collaborating with customers to involve them in product development so that customers can become the drivers and main actors in production (Bogers et al., 2016;Petrick & Simpson, 2014). In this perspective, relying on smart manufacturing technologies enables a high level of integration within the organization and toward customers and suppliers. ...
Article
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There is a great expectation that Industry 4.0 technologies will enable better circular economy (CE) results at firms. However, it is unclear how these technologies might contribute to CE. We hypothesize that Industry 4.0 technologies are positively related to the level of integration among actors along the supply chain and within the firm supply chain integration (SCI), which, in turn, explains superior CE results. By employing partial least square structural equation models on original survey data based on a sample of more than 1200 Italian manufacturing firms and almost 200 adopters, we find that disentangling for the type of technologies is essential to understanding both their direct and indirect role toward CE. Smart manufacturing technologies have a stronger impact on CE outcomes than data processing technologies; the mediating effect of SCI is verified for the former but not for the latter type, questioning the possibility for those technologies to support sustained CE performance in the long run.
... Currently, these technologies are used for various applications in the engineering industry, but also in other areas such as medicine, architecture, education, and several handcrafted segments (Wohlers Associates, 2014). This category includes highly flexible and adaptable machinery leveraging on digital production technique enabling reduced material consumption and wastes as compared to 'traditional' subtracting methods (Achillas et al., 2015;Atzeni & Salmi, 2012;Chekurov et al., 2018;Tuck et al., 2008), technically enhanced and highly customised products (Atzeni & Salmi, 2012;Diegel et al., 2010;Khorram Niaki & Nonino, 2017;Mellor et al., 2014;Petrick & Simpson, 2013), as well as fewer manufacturing steps, especially reducing assembly operations (Cuellar et al., 2018;Sandström, 2016;Singamneni et al., 2019;Weller et al., 2015). Additive manufacturing (also referred to as 3D printing) techniques work by following a reversed logic than traditional manufacturing processes (Attaran et al., 2017), adding or melting subsequent 2D layers of material to generate the final product. ...
Article
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The investigation of the adoption of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies and its implications, both at the macro and micro level, has attracted growing interest in the recent literature. Most studies have looked at the production and diffusion of related innovations and knowledge, but what do we know about the adoption of these technologies over time and across countries? In this paper, we look at three I4.0 technologies and present a new empirical perspective able to overcome the limitations of existing attempts at measuring their adoption, generally based on small-scale and country-specific studies. Our study provides a methodology that allows measuring adoption across countries for a relatively long time period. In so doing, we build on the well-established idea in the international economics literature that trade of capital goods captures technology diffusion, and so adoption across countries. We provide preliminary and comprehensive evidence on the adoption of these I4.0 technologies in Europe and set the premise for monitoring its evolution and implications on a large scale and over time.
... While some authors identify a relationship between unit cost and quantity (Ruffo et al., 2006;Ruffo and Hague, 2007;Baumers et al., 2017) other investigations appear to suggest that economies of scale are nonexistent in AM (Hopkinson and Dicknes, 2003;Atzeni and Salmi, 2012;Berman, 2012;Weller et al., 2015;Ben-Ner and Siemsen, 2017). Emphasizing the perceived absence of a cost-quantity relationship in AM, Petrick and Simpson (2013) coined the term "economies of one" as a way of describing the suitability of AM for markets characterized by low volume and highly customized products. Similarly, Weller et al. (2015) argued that decreased product changeover cost is an inherent characteristic of AM, suggesting the availability of economies of scope as opposed to economies of scale, identifying a pattern of decreasing unit costs as the variety of products generated by an organisational unit increases. ...
... There is growing interest in the implications of 3DP, and it has been identified as a disruptive technology that will transform manufacturing processes, supply chains, and consumer behavior (19). Additionally, this technology can be adopted by manufacturers or retailers and, therefore, enables the supply chain to become more responsive to demand (20). ...
Article
Trends in logistics and more broadly across technology and energy are resulting in changes to the traditional business models and functions of ports. Because the port ecosystem is going to be considerably different in the following two decades, decision-makers need to have a “port vision” for the year 2040 to prioritize investments and build a strategic plan. This paper seeks to analyze the current trends that have an impact on ports and the subsequent changes in their roles. The impacts are identified by means of Delphi methodology, which is applied to the Port Community of Barcelona. The results of this paper will contribute to the vision of ports of the future by identifying the main trends that will have an impact on ports in the long term (2040). The research has been able to identify the key drivers that will transform ports: green measures to decarbonize maritime transport and supply chains; 3D printing hubs for production or customization on site and available on demand in or next to port areas; new physical and digital infrastructures for automated and connected vehicles and port terminals; and finally, full digitalization to offer new services (track and trace, call optimization, etc.) as well as an optimized supply chain oriented to e-commerce’s exigent and flexible final clients.
... Research in other academic disciplines also provide valuable insights into positive societal outcomes of digital IGGs. Representative substantive issues and digital IGGs that are the focus of research studies in other academic disciplines include (a) modeling the diffusion of low-cost tablet computers as a disruptive innovation for school education (Raman et al., 2014), (b) barriers to the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture (Long, Vincent, & Coninx, 2015), (c) new rules of competition in an era of 3D printing technology-enabled manufacturing economies of one (Petrick & Simpson, 2013), (d) drone-aided healthcare service provision for people living in rural areas (Kim et al., 2017), (e) assessment of human health and nutrition response to environmental change using satellite remote sensing and household survey data (Brown et al., 2014), and (6) soil sampling with drones and augmented reality in precision agriculture (Huuskonen & Oksanen, 2018). ...
Article
During the past quarter-century, digital technologies-based innovations for creating, communicating, and delivering products of value to customers have significantly risen in importance to the competitiveness of firms. Digital technologies-based innovations have been transformational in numerous ways, such as the impact on firms’ marketing behaviors, consumers’ search and buying behaviors, and the structural characteristics of markets and industries. Against this backdrop, this article provides a perspective on the evolution of research and practice in digital product innovations and digital marketing innovations. Specifically, this article focuses on (a) innovations for the greater good in the domain of the former and (b) direct and mediated communications through social media platforms and omnichannel marketing in the domain of the latter. Regarding each of the above, this article also provides an overview of the evolution and current state of the field, highlights certain current issues and the trajectory of the field, and proposes directions for future research.
... To reach this target, the engineered blood vessel must be biocompatible, degradable, have sufficient mechanical properties and permeability and being of variable size depending on the tissue or organ. To meet these requirements, different methods have emerged in recent years, such as sheet rolling, direct scaffolding, matrix molding and 3D bioprinting (Berman, 2012;Petrick and Simpson, 2013;Douglas, 2014;Schubert et al., 2014;Attaran, 2017). These approaches allow to mimic the necessary structure of large blood vessels for in vitro biological experiments and in vivo applications (Bajaj et al., 2014;Kang et al., 2016). ...
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Since the emergence of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering more than half a century ago, one obstacle has persisted: the in vitro creation of large-scale vascular tissue (>1 cm ³ ) to meet the clinical needs of viable tissue grafts but also for biological research applications. Considerable advancements in biofabrication have been made since Weinberg and Bell, in 1986, created the first blood vessel from collagen, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The synergistic combination of advances in fabrication methods, availability of cell source, biomaterials formulation and vascular tissue development, promises new strategies for the creation of autologous blood vessels, recapitulating biological functions, structural functions, but also the mechanical functions of a native blood vessel. In this review, the main technological advancements in bio-fabrication are discussed with a particular highlights on 3D bioprinting technologies. The choice of the main biomaterials and cell sources, the use of dynamic maturation systems such as bioreactors and the associated clinical trials will be detailed. The remaining challenges in this complex engineering field will finally be discussed.
... Such a nature empowers manufacturers to produce fully customized (i.e. personalized) products without time and cost penalties (Petrick and Simpson, 2013;Weller et al., 2015). It can facilitate producing parts with the lattice structures to simultaneously reduce the weight and keep their strength (Achillas et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose This paper presents a contingency analysis of additive manufacturing's (AM) impacts, proposes a novel form of AM-enabled competitive capabilities and explores manufacturing contexts (including product-operation-organization-related factors) influencing those capabilities. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical model incorporating manufacturing competitive capabilities and contingency concepts is developed and validated using an empirical study on 105 manufacturing firms using AM. Structural equation modeling is applied for statistical data analysis. Findings The results indicate that the production volume and material type have contingency effects on AM-enabled product quality, cost reduction and green capabilities. Besides, it has been demonstrated that the degree of a country's economic development and the firm's experience have contingency impacts on AM's capabilities as well. Research limitations/implications The contextual settings employed in this study are limited. A future contingency analysis requires further exploration of other factors (e.g. different AM technologies or application sectors) through in-depth case studies. Future studies can also be built upon the proposed framework to generalize the model for analyzing other emerging manufacturing technologies. Practical implications Uncertainties around AM implementation and its consequences place the context of evaluation as an essential facet. The derived insights aid practitioners in aligning the firm's internal characteristics (i.e. manufacturing and organizational contexts) with AM's promising competitive capabilities. Originality/value The study is among the first analysis to empirically and rigorously establishes the contingency effects of manufacturing and organizational factors on competitive capabilities related to AM, using a representative sample of manufacturers spanning different countries, firm sizes and other investigated manufacturing contexts.
... Traditionally this is the task of a designer who converts the requirements and ideas of a product with CAD software (Gibson et al., 2015). In the case of already existing parts, it is possible to generate a digital product model by reverse engineering such as scanning the original part (Petrick and Simpson, 2013). The de-facto industry-standard file format is STL as the interface between the design and pre-processing phase. ...
Conference Paper
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Despite the increasing managerial awareness for ecosystems to organize complex value propositions, little is known about how different roles can establish their business models (BM) in ecosystems. AM drives innovations in the product design and manufacturing fields predominantly across companies, indicating the eco-systemic organization of value creation without orchestrating and dominant keystone actors yet. This paper explores ecosystem determinants by analyzing the dynamic additive manufacturing (AM) paradigm. We conduct an empirical study with companies from the AM domain to visualize their value activities and define generic roles in the interdependent value creation process, adopting the e³-value methodology. By exploring these ecosystem determinants, our results aid practitioners in positioning their BMs in the AM domain and generate descriptive insights for the orchestrator BM design in a dynamic domain without orchestrating keystones.
... However, the informant noted that with the existing variability in AM production processes, building the same design with another printer may lead to inconsistencies in the final part. The issue of "machine-to-machine and part-to-part variation" (Petrick and Simpson, 2013) has long been a limitation of AM undermining the importance of product purity and integrity, which can be attributed to the lack of AM process standards (Thomas-Seale et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore how certain adoption barriers of additive manufacturing (AM) technology may lead to supply chain (SC) vulnerabilities, which in turn would deteriorate supply chain resilience (SCR). Design/methodology/approach A case study of a leading original equipment manufacturer (OEM) that uses AM technology to directly produce end-use metal parts for different industries was performed. Primary data were collected using the in-depth interview method, which was complemented by secondary data from internal and publicly available sources. The findings were compared with the existing literature to triangulate the results. Findings The findings indicate that certain AM adoption barriers make the SC vulnerable to reliance on specialty sources, supplier capacity, production capacity, utilization of restricted materials, importance of product purity, raw material availability, unpredictability in customer demand, reliability of equipment, unforeseen technology failures, reliance on information flow, industrial espionage, and utilities availability. Research limitations/implications The SCR outcomes of the identified SC vulnerabilities and their interrelated AM adoption barriers are proposed in this study. Practical implications Drawing on the case study findings and the existing literature, several practices are put forward in a framework that supply chain management (SCM) may use to mitigate the identified SC vulnerabilities caused by the AM adoption barriers. Originality/value This is the first study to empirically examine and identify the SC vulnerabilities that are caused by the adoption barriers of AM technology.
... Compared to the known processes and procedures of traditional manufacturing, where designs are dictated by production and component constraints, AM supports an organization's ability to co-create with the customer new and previously undefined processes [6]. The additive technology provides the opportunity to pilot innovative and intricate products without the costs of investing in capitally intensive tooling and equipment [50]. Supporting the piloting and trialing of AM requires training on the design and manufacturing techniques to enable organizations to develop and create specialized skills and abilities [34]. ...
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Background: Research on Additive Manufacturing [AM] provides few guidelines for successful adoption of the technology in different market environments. This paper seeks to address this gap by developing a framework that suggests market attributes for which the technology will successfully meet a need. We rely on classical technology adoption theory to evaluate the challenges and opportunities proffered by AM. Methods: We apply a framework of technology adoption and assess these parameters using seven case studies of businesses that have successfully adopted AM technology. Results: We find that successful business adoption is highly associated with the relative advantage of AM to rapidly deliver customized products targeted to niche market opportunities. Conclusions: Our findings provide a decision framework for AM equipment manufacturers to employ when evaluating AM technology across various market environments. All five adoption characteristics were found to be important however, the primary decision criterion is based on the relative advantage of AM over other, traditional, technologies. From a practitioner perspective, our research highlights the importance of AM in attaining a competitive advantage through responsive, customized production which can address the needs of niche markets.
... AM adoption for design and production of end-use components is expected to significantly influence complexities and dependencies in SC configurations and enhance competitiveness of low-volume SCs (Petrick and Simpson, 2013). A review of AM SC management articles, presented below, highlights expected effects of AM adoption on various SC configuration dimensions (i.e. ...
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Using Resource Dependence Theory (RDT), this paper explores the changing state of Supply Chain (SC) complexities and dependencies resulting from Additive Manufacturing (AM) adoption, analysing implications for competitiveness. We utilised an adapted SC configuration framework to develop embedded case studies across the Aerospace, Automotive and Power Generation industries. The sample included fifteen companies deploying metal AM across three SC tiers. Using an abductive logic, our findings reveal that the complexity and dependency-reduction potential of AM depends on economic, industry, geographical, organisational and technological factors. We developed a conceptual framework for AM SC configuration and four propositions, which provide further insights into the interplay between SC complexities, dependencies and competitiveness. By utilising RDT, we contribute to the AM SC configuration literature by highlighting the mediating role that dependencies play in achieving competitiveness, as well as strategies adopted by firms to mitigate uncertainty. We also highlight the interplay between ‘relationship and governance’ and three other SC configuration dimensions in relation to competitiveness. Insights into the changing state of complexities and dependencies identified in this study could also support managerial decisions in AM SC design.
... Against this background, technologies for Additive Manufacturing (AM) are of special interest, as they increase the level of digitalization in manufacturing to a new level (Petrick and Simpson 2013). With its inter-organizationally distinct value creation, AM is an exciting domain for undertaking research on manufacturing ecosystems (Hiller et al. 2022). ...
Conference Paper
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Additive Manufacturing (AM) promises to redefine production by enabling unforeseen product designs, new degrees of customization, or transformative approaches to spare parts management. However, the radical degree of innovation of AM also incurs unprecedented changes to production planning and control with a plethora of new technical and managerial decisions to be made. As a new bridge between the physical and digital world, the technology is inherently suited to address these issues in a data-driven, analytics- based manner. We argue that it is advisable to look at this subject with a business ecosystem lens. Based on a series of interviews and workshops, we derive a set of analytics services for AM that can be embedded into such ecosystems. For each service, we define the benefit, the analytics potential, the involved roles, the data provision, and the information generation. Our results suggest that an analytics-driven ecosystem approach helps unlock the true AM potential.
Article
Organizations strive to find new ways to manage the production of strategic spare parts with unanticipated demand and high delivery time. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a revolutionary technology that effectively serves such needs by producing compatible spare parts in a shorter period without holding inventories. Although the promising benefits of spare parts production through AM, research is scarce in this domain. This study is developed to demonstrate the applicability of AM in spare part manufacturing. We have proposed a novel generic multi-criteria framework using Delphi, analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and segmentation approaches to identify the most compatible spares producible through AM. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a real-life case study. Delphi is used to determine and validate relevant criteria considered for spare part classification. This results in determining 11 criteria belonging to two group criteria, namely – Business Impact (BI) and Technical Compatibility (TC). AHP is used to compute the relative weights of criteria for prioritizing them. A normalization (objective criteria) and rating (subjective criteria) approach is used to evaluate the total score of each spare part for BI and TC. Spare parts are clustered into four quadrants (Type A, B, C, and D) using the segmentation approach according to the total scores of BI and TC. This generic framework benefits practitioners in identifying technically compatible spares for AM that improve business competitiveness.
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing involves a group of revolutionary manufacturing processes. Functional parts fabricated using 3D printing range from geometrically accurate biomodels to jet engine components with complex designs. Adding improved functionality to the printed parts is the next frontier for 3D printing. Introducing functionality into the printed parts can be enhanced through new developments beyond the conventional materials. In this chapter, new materials and methods to introduce functionality are discussed in emerging fields such as aerospace, biomedical, and electronics. Intrinsic factors such as material compositions and extrinsic factors such as process-based changes that influence materials performance are covered. Case studies and challenges are also highlighted for the above industries.
Article
From multiple studies conducted through the FCDO AT2030 Programme, as well as key literature, we examine whether Assistive Technology (AT) provision models could look towards more sustainable approaches, and by doing this benefit not only the environment, but also address the problems that the current provision systems have. We show the intrinsic links between disability inclusion and the climate crisis, and the particular vulnerability people with disabilities face in its wake. In particular, we discuss how localised circular models of production could be beneficial, facilitating context driven solutions and much needed service elements such as repair and maintenance. Key discussion areas include systems approaches, digital fabrication, repair and reuse, and material recovery. Finally, we look at what needs be done in order to enable these approaches to be implemented. In conclusion, we find that there are distinct parallels between what AT provision models require to improve equitable reliable access, and strategies that could reduce environmental impact and bring economic benefit to local communities. This could allow future AT ecosystems to be key demonstrators of circular models, however further exploration of these ideas is required to make sense of the correct next steps. What is key in all respects, moving forward, is aligning AT provision with sustainability interventions.
Article
Recycling process in waste management reduces the cost of waste handling, minimizes cost of raw materials and processing, and simplifies supply chain management. It introduces 3D printing design and circular economies and significantly impacts green technologies and environment engineering in terms of waste management and materials processing. Educational action research play crucial role in communicating designer, stakeholder, consumer, and distributed in end-to-end recycling process. It fosters the entitiesacross value chain and accelerates the modernization of waste management processes.
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Recent years have seen major advances in the developments of both additive manufacturing concepts and responsive materials. When combined as 4D printing, the process can lead to functional materials and devices for use in health, energy generation, sensing, and soft robots. Among responsive materials, liquid crystals, which can deliver programmed, reversible, rapid responses in both air and underwater, are a prime contender for additive manufacturing, given their ease of use and adaptability to many different applications. In this paper, selected works are compared and analyzed to come to a didactical overview of the liquid crystal‐additive manufacturing junction. Reading from front to back gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of the options and challenges in the field, while researchers already experienced in either liquid crystals or additive manufacturing are encouraged to scan through the text to see how they can incorporate additive manufacturing or liquid crystals into their own work. The educational text is closed with proposals for future research in this crossover field. Liquid crystals are the basis for many “smart” materials used in, for instance, soft robotics and polymer optics. Recently, their potential and appeal for different additive manufacturing techniques has been demonstrated. Insight into the usage of liquid crystals in 3D printing for fabrication at both micro‐ and centimeterscale is provided for those wanting to join this exciting, developing field.
Article
It is possible to argue that Additive Manufacturing technology has positive environmental impacts when compared to traditional production. The Additive Manufacturing technology, which provides less waste of raw materials with the use of smart materials, allows the materials to be included in the production process layer by layer (i.e. in a stratified manner) and with very high precision. Based on this point of view, the importance of Additive Manufacturing technology emerges for a sustainable production approach minimizing negative environmental effects, protecting energy and natural resources, and aiming to produce products rationally. Additive Manufacturing, which focuses on innovation and creativity, should take its place in industries as part of a holistic sustainability plan. With this study, the purpose was to determine the importance of Additive Manufacturing technology for sustainable production. It is thought that the results to be reached by the study will constitute a guiding reference for the strategies that the enterprises will develop on the subject. In this context, important application areas of Additive Manufacturing technology that are considered to contribute to sustainable production were uncovered as a result of a wide literature review and expert opinions. Ten criteria, which were considered to contribute to the sustainable production of Additive Manufacturing technology, were identified and the effects and relations among these criteria were analyzed with the DEMATEL Method. Obtained results show that Additive Manufacturing technology has a very important effect on sustainable production, with its contributions such as developing sustainable solutions, enabling green production, encouraging the production of innovative products, and preventing excessive resource use.
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Gelir Dağılımı ve Kültürel Faaliyet Harcamaları İlişkisi: Türkiye Örneği
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Additive Fertigung hat das Potenzial, die Industrie zu revolutionieren. Derzeit mangelt es noch an der Industrialisierung. Die Applikation der Service-Centered-Theorie erzeugt einen Mehrwert für Unternehmen als Hilfe bei der Entwicklung von marktfähigen Dienstleistungen für die Additive Fertigung. Unternehmen sollten vertieft Dienstleistungsangebote mit Abonnement entwickeln, um das Potenzial der ohnehin vorliegenden relationalen Kundenbeziehung bestmöglich auszuschöpfen.
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Additive manufacturing has acquired a global industrial panorama for being an alternative to redirect the industry towards sustainability. However, previous studies have indicated that fused deposition modelling (FDM) techniques are potential sources of particles that are harmful to health. For this reason, this work is focused on exploring the behaviour and distribution of FDM resultant nanoparticles from the most commonly used printable materials through alternative methods as digital holographic microscopy (DHM). In this paper, we present the feasibility of using DHM to determine the presence of nanoparticles in the FDM process. Experimental results validate this technology’s precision and provide extensive knowledge about the implications of the FDM on health. The measure of the thin films deposited in glass substrates was between a minimum of 9 nm to a maximum of 200 nm, in agreement with the previous studies.
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This chapter illustrates the overarching theme of the book series to set the stage for a discourse on Digital Manufacturing. It contextualizes various approaches to industrial production by bringing the inquisitive mind through a chronicled journey in the last 300 years from preindustrialization to the current Fourth industrial Revolution. The development of each industrial transition is succinctly presented with notable mentions of technological and engineering achievements, socioeconomic impacts on industrial production, broad representations of factory systems setup and implementation. An eco-effective, sustainable manufacturing proposition is considered to mitigate environmental challenges created by traditional manufacturing. The chapter closes with a brief discussion on recent industrial production strategies in response to emerging megatrends and a glimpse into a digital factory of the future.
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Sustainable technologies are vital due to the efforts of researchers and investors who have allocated significant amounts of money and time to their development. Nowadays, 3D printing has been accepted by the main industry players, since its first establishment almost 30 years ago. It is obvious that almost every industry is related to technology, which proves that technology has a bright future. Many studies have shown that technologies have changed the methods for developing particular products. Three-dimensional printing has evolved tremendously, and currently, many new types of 3D printing machines have been introduced. In this paper, we describe the historical development of 3D printing technology including its process, types of printing, and applications on polymer materials.
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Additive manufacturing (AM) encompasses many forms of technologies and materials as 3D printing is being used in almost all industries. The variety of materials used includes but is not limited to plastics, ceramics, resins, metals, sand, textiles, biomaterials, glass, and food. Currently, in 3D printing technology, the printing mode of direct writing forming is widely applied. The raw material used is ceramic powder, and the direct writing forming of the ceramic could be applied to various fields of materials, chemistry, chemical engineering, and the like. This work is aimed at printing the nanopowder of nonsegregated waste into conventional components. The work is related to a system for converting nonsegregated waste material into the synthesized dough, comprising of a chamber, an ultraviolet (UV) disinfectant unit, a shedder, and a storage unit. The nonsegregated waste material is stored inside the chamber which dispenses the nonsegregated waste material into the UV disinfectant unit; said UV disinfectant unit removes the harmful germs and water content in the nonsegregated waste material to form solid waste. The disinfected solid waste enters the shedder which powders the solid waste. The powdered solid waste is stored in the storage unit. The powdered solid waste is mixed with components in a mixer to form a synthesized dough. The synthesized dough as the printable source is sent to a 3D printer which prints desired final component. The hardness value obtained for the printed component is 70 Brinell hardness units.
Article
Purpose The study aims to develop an integrated model for three-dimensional (3D) printing adoption in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) context to form a baseline for more theoretical and empirical debate from emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach with a convenience sample is adopted since there is no formal body that has accurate data about the number of companies, governmental bodies, nongovernmental organizations, universities, labs, etc. that already have adopted 3D printing. Findings The results indicate that the technological usefulness of 3D printing and its ease-of-use factor were found to be lacking among community members and governmental officials. Yet, these factors were the most influential factor affecting the spread of 3D printing technology adoption in the GCC countries. Nevertheless, the adaptation of 3D printing is not yet at the level of its global markets, nor is it used within leading companies’ assembly lines. In addition, the 3D printing awareness and use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, the adaptation rate is still below expectations due to several challenges that face the growth of the 3D printing market in the GCC countries. The most vital challenge facing 3D printing growth is manifested in governmental policies and regulations. Practical implications Companies’ managers can benefit from the current study results by focusing on the factors that facilitate 3D adoption and avoiding bottle-neck factors that hinder the speed of the 3D adoption. 3D providers can also benefit by understanding the factors that affect 3D adoption and designing their machine and marketing strategy in a way that helps the intended companies to easily adopt 3D printing. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that explored 3D printing adoption on the GCC countries’ level. It also adds a new flavor to the literature by exploring 3D adoption during the COVID-19 crisis.
Article
Purpose Recently, disruptive technologies (DTs) have proposed several innovative applications in managing logistics and promise to transform the entire logistics sector drastically. Often, this transformation is not successful due to the existence of adoption barriers to DTs. This study aims to identify the significant barriers that impede the successful adoption of DTs in the logistics sector and examine the interrelationships amongst them. Design/methodology/approach Initially, 12 critical barriers were identified through an extensive literature review on disruptive logistics management, and the barriers were screened to ten relevant barriers with the help of Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). Further, an Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach was built with the inputs from logistics experts working in the various departments of warehouses, inventory control, transportation, freight management and customer service management. ISM approach was then used to generate and examine the interrelationships amongst the critical barriers. Matrics d’Impacts Croises-Multiplication Applique a Classement (MICMAC) analysed the barriers based on the barriers' driving and dependence power. Findings Results from the ISM-based technique reveal that the lack of top management support (B6) was a critical barrier that can influence the adoption of DTs. Other significant barriers, such as legal and regulatory frameworks (B1), infrastructure (B3) and resistance to change (B2), were identified as the driving barriers, and industries need to pay more attention to them for the successful adoption of DTs in logistics. The MICMAC analysis shows that the legal and regulatory framework and lack of top management support have the highest driving powers. In contrast, lack of trust, reliability and privacy/security emerge as barriers with high dependence powers. Research limitations/implications The authors' study has several implications in the light of DT substitution. First, this study successfully analyses the seven DTs using Adner and Kapoor's framework (2016a, b) and the Theory of Disruptive Innovation (Christensen, 1997; Christensen et al. , 2011) based on the two parameters as follows: emergence challenge of new technology and extension opportunity of old technology. Second, this study categorises these seven DTs into four quadrants from the framework. Third, this study proposes the recommended paths that DTs might want to follow to be adopted quickly. Practical implications The authors' study has several managerial implications in light of the adoption of DTs. First, the authors' study identified no autonomous barriers to adopting DTs. Second, other barriers belonging to any lower level of the ISM model can influence the dependent barriers. Third, the linkage barriers are unstable, and any preventive action involving linkage barriers would subsequently affect linkage barriers and other barriers. Fourth, the independent barriers have high influencing powers over other barriers. Originality/value The contributions of this study are four-fold. First, the study identifies the different DTs in the logistics sector. Second, the study applies the theory of disruptive innovations and the ecosystems framework to rationalise the choice of these seven DTs. Third, the study identifies and critically assesses the barriers to the successful adoption of these DTs through a strategic evaluation procedure with the help of a framework built with inputs from logistics experts. Fourth, the study recognises DTs adoption barriers in logistics management and provides a foundation for future research to eliminate those barriers.
Article
With the advancement in technology, 3D printing is emerging as a cost-effective method of manufacturing. In this paper, we did the quantitative analysis of stents fabricated through 3D printers and traditional stents and their impact on inventory management. We related the supply chains and various cost parameters associated with the supply chains of both processes. We also examined the impact of traditionally manufactured and 3D printed stents based on break-even analysis and economic analysis. The result demonstrates the reduction in manufacturing, inventory-holding, and transportation cost in 3D printed stents.
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Three‐dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging novel technology in the manufacturing sectors of the present decade. With rising trends in digitalized technologies, additive manufacturing remains to be the key focus, drawing the attention of scientists, researchers, industrialists, and entrepreneurs. 3D printing as a convenient approach imparts several advantages from an economical point of view in reducing the production cost and minimizes wastage. Very importantly, the existing resources of the modern world can be efficiently utilized in a sustainable manner surpassing the disadvantages of the conventional manufacturing processes. In this regard, the printing of foods remains no more a fancy thing. 3D food printing delivers the customized foods through digitalized nutrition control based on individual needs and requirements. However, 3D food printing is not an easy process such as the 3D‐printing process of other industrial sectors. Food is a complex material comprising macro and microelements that complex the food‐printing process. 3D food printing is the deposition of food material in a layered manner with intricate design and stable structure that often requires pre‐ and postprocessing operations. The present chapter discusses the advancements of 3D printing technology, configurations of 3D printers, and system components, emphasizing the design improvements and research progress on 3D printing in the food industry.
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3D printing is a disruptive technology that claims to simplify the food supply and distribution chain. With the outbreak of technological boon, 3D printing is increasingly adopted in the manufacturing sector due to design innovations, cost‐effectiveness, minimal wastage, higher flexibility, on‐demand production, and digital fabrication. However, the socioeconomic benefits and the environmental sustainability of 3D printing are not well understood. The convergence of 3D printing with the cocreation of web‐based technologies leads to the globalization of 3D‐printed foods. The present chapter summarizes the sustainability and the circular economy of 3D food printing. With technological advancements, the online platforms allow consumers, culinary professionals, and industrial firms to share the e‐files with less effort and time. 3D food printing is forecasted to create a new competitive dynamic market through digitalization and the democratization of food production practices. Understanding the economic paradigms of food production through 3D printing is adequate. Certainly, this chapter highlights the real‐world practical implications of large‐scale adoption of food 3D printing. Consumer behavior, bias, food preferences, and buying habits remain the potential drivers of the market of 3D‐printed foods that would lead to the usage of 3D food printers in every kitchen as a domestic appliance in near future. Since the business model of 3D printing has a broad range of the spectrum that incurs grayscale in between the marketing firms, more case studies are required on the management of food supply and distribution chain of 3D printing of foods. Addressing these research gaps would transform food production and rebalances the global economy in combating climate change and environmental concerns.
Article
Two of the major problems Traditional Manufacturing (TM) supply chains face are setting requisite reactive strategies to address the uncertainties in demand and the optimal placement of these buffering capacities in order to be both responsive and cost-effective. With Additive Manufacturing (AM) stepping into large-scale production at different firms, we address the aforementioned supply chain dilemmas by considering the potential role of AM in a TM supply chain network where AM facilities can act as a recourse to the TMs and, also, as a dedicated source providing responsive and cost-effective sourcing alternatives. We develop an analytical allocation rule based on cost differentials, which provides optimal sourcing decisions through sequential demand replenishment and facilitates an efficient performance evaluation of possible network configurations. We first model the scenario as a three-stage stochastic optimisation problem. We then solve it using the allocation rule and present an illustration of our analysis and the optimal supply chain network configuration. Furthermore, we derive some insights as to how different problem characteristics affect the value and usage of AM.
Article
Additive manufacturing (AM) has been touted as a transformative technology that alters the way production is organized across geographical and organizational boundaries, yet little is known what this means for firms' internationalization of production. In this paper, we take an internalization theory perspective to hypothesize how the adoption of AM technology influences a firm's propensity to have an international production subsidiary, the number of foreign production subsidiaries that it operates, and the number of countries in which it has foreign production subsidiaries. To test our hypotheses, we rely on European Patent Office data to identify firms with AM-related patents and match this information to firm-level data of international production subsidiary networks from Bureau Van Dijk. Using both propensity score matching and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions, we find that AM firms are more likely to have a foreign production subsidiary than non-AM firms and operate them in more countries. We find partial evidence that AM firms have more foreign production subsidiaries than non-AM firms, in particular as compared to comparable innovative firms.
Article
A new course was designed to attract chemical and bioengineers to additive manufacturing and to provide them with an effective approach to this new field. The goal is a wider use of the advantages of additive manufacturing for complex multifunctional components in chemical process engineering. We describe the structure of the course and the experiences from the first two years. Students show great interest and are able to develop their own functional components with assistance. Yet many have deficits in the use of CAD software, which will be remedied in the future through a specific lecture.
Article
Although emphasis has been placed on three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that can alleviate increasing demand and low-productivity issues in public housing developments, limited research has been conducted to examine perceptions surrounding this technology in the context of public housing projects in the built environment industry. Hence, this study aims to investigate the perceptions of practitioners working in the industry concerning the drivers, challenges, and strategies for 3D printing technology, together with the status quo of its implementation. To achieve these goals, nine drivers, eight challenges, and seven strategies were identified through a comprehensive literature review, followed by a structured questionnaire survey administered to industry practitioners. Based on the survey analyses, the top three drivers, challenges, and strategies were identified, and the differences in perceptions according to respondents and their organizational characteristics were explored. Moreover, postinterviews were carried out with several industry professionals to further substantiate the analyses results. The results serve as a starting point for the industry to reap the benefits from additive manufacturing technology throughout the project life cycle. This study contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the adoption of 3D printing technology in the industry, improving productivity in public housing projects and moving toward more sustainable and cleaner delivery processes in the built environment industry.
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The spontaneous formation of biological substances, such as human organs, are governed by different stimuli driven by complex 3D self-organization protocols at the molecular level. The fundamentals of such molecular self-assembly processes are critical for fabrication of advanced technological components in nature. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a promising 3D printing method with self-healing property based on molecular self-assembly-monolayer principles, which is conceptually different than the existing 3D printing protocols. The proposed molecular building-block approach uses metal ion-mediated continuous self-assembly of organic molecular at liquid–liquid interfaces to create 2D and 3D structures. Using this technique, we directly printed nanosheets and 3D rods using dithiol molecules as building block units.
Article
Based on advancements of the additive manufacturing technology, also called 3D printing, this research aims to address the question about how the setup of process parameters related to a single-screw extruder influences on the fabrication process and its resulting product. To perform this study, two different sizes (Ø1,75 mm and Ø 3,0 mm) of extrusion nozzles have been used for different sets of parameters, making it possible to highlight their influences and also, to determine in an empirical way, the equations that drives the mass and volumetric flow rates of this machinery. In this sense, it seeks to determine the degree of influence of the process parameters of internal pressure, rotation and diameter of the extruder nozzle on the density of the ABS-extruded coupons fabricated through a single-screw extruder. During this investigation process, low-cost instrumentation and cloud technologies were embedded to monitoring a traditional thermoplastic extrusion process. Thus, this contribution intends to improve the FDM method, specifically in single-screw extruders by the technique of FPM (fused pellet modeling), based on the technical characteristics of the polymeric-extruded filaments to be applied on 3D printers, favoring the reduction of setup times, improving the mechanical properties and providing a better quality of printed parts. Coupled to that, the embedded IoT-inspired monitoring system can manage the process related to geometry of the polymeric parts and its quality, in order to expand the understanding of the machinery and to ensure a greater productivity and better quality products to be used on additive manufacturing technology.
Article
Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing is enabling new directions in product design. The adoption of AM in various industrial sectors has led to major transformations. Similarly, AM presents new opportunities in the field of drug delivery, opening new avenues for improved patient care. In this review, we discuss AM as an enabling technology for drug product design. We provide a brief overview of the different AM processes and their respective impact on the design of drug delivery systems. We highlight several enabling features of AM, including unconventional release, customization, and miniaturization, and discuss several applications of AM for the fabrication of drug products. This includes products that have been approved or are in development. As the field matures, there are also several new challenges to broad implementation in the pharmaceutical landscape. We discuss several of these from the regulatory and industrial perspectives and provide an outlook for how these issues may be addressed. The introduction of AM into the field of drug delivery is enabling and many new drug products can be created through productive collaboration of engineers, materials scientists, pharmaceutical scientists, and industrial partners.
Book
Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing deals with various aspects of joining materials to form parts. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is an automated technique for direct conversion of 3D CAD data into physical objects using a variety of approaches. Manufacturers have been using these technologies in order to reduce development cycle times and get their products to the market quicker, more cost effectively, and with added value due to the incorporation of customizable features. Realizing the potential of AM applications, a large number of processes have been developed allowing the use of various materials ranging from plastics to metals for product development. Authors Ian Gibson, David W. Rosen and Brent Stucker explain these issues, as well as: Providing a comprehensive overview of AM technologies plus descriptions of support technologies like software systems and post-processing approaches Discussing the wide variety of new and emerging applications like micro-scale AM, medical applications, direct write electronics and Direct Digital Manufacturing of end-use components Introducing systematic solutions for process selection and design for AM Additive Manufacturing Technologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing is the perfect book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, entrepreneurs, and manufacturing industry professionals interested in additive manufacturing.
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