Article

Why Did They “Choose” to Stay? Perspectives of Hurricane Katrina Observers and Survivors

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Abstract

Models of agency--powerful implicit assumptions about what constitutes normatively "good" action--shaped how observers and survivors made meaning after Hurricane Katrina. In Study 1, we analyzed how 461 observers perceived survivors who evacuated (leavers) or stayed (stayers) in New Orleans. Observers described leavers positively (as agentic, independent, and in control) and stayers negatively (as passive and lacking agency). Observers' perceptions reflected the disjoint model of agency, which is prevalent in middle-class White contexts and defines "good" actions as those that emanate from within the individual and proactively influence the environment. In Study 2, we examined interviews with 79 survivors and found that leavers and stayers relied on divergent models of agency. Leavers emphasized independence, choice, and control, whereas stayers emphasized interdependence, strength, and faith. Although both leavers and stayers exercised agency, observers failed to recognize stayers' agency and derogated them because observers assumed that being independent and in control was the only way to be agentic.

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... In both the media and in academia, African Americans were portrayed as being reliant on others for decision making and having limited options due to their position in society. They were seen as passive, irresponsible, inflexible and lacking agency (Stephens et al., 2009). ...
... Some people may not evacuate as they envision that they can play a useful social role during and after the impact of a hurricane. They might want to be a source of emotional or material help in the community (Stephens et al., 2009). Despite popular media portrayals of anti-social behaviour such as looting, it is claimed disaster behaviour is generally pro-social (Drury et al., 2009). ...
... As the Believers were likely to stay and weather the storm, the study appears to corroborate one of the findings of Elliot and Pais (2006), namely that African Americans often rely on their religious faith and this can have implications for evacuation. The existence of the Believers also lends support to the research of Stephens et al. (2009), who claim some people do not evacuate in order to provide assistance for members of the community who also stay behind. This appears to show that an altruistic community exists on Galveston (Flynn at el, 1999). ...
... For example, interviews with survivors of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 who left the area before the storm, who tended to have higher SES, emphasized the degree to which they had exercised independence and control by choosing to leave. In contrast, those who stayed in New Orleans during the storm, who tended to have lower SES, emphasized exerting strength in the face of a challenge and not giving up (Stephens et al. 2009). We may observe similar differences in consumers' reactions to scarcity during the COVID-19 crisis. ...
... Finally, should governments tailor their messages to the levels of chronic scarcity experienced by their constituents? Responses to evacuation messages during Hurricane Katrina differed by SES (Stephens et al. 2009); responses to stay-at-home orders during COVID-19 may be similarly shaped by SES. Research suggests that messages focusing on benefits for others (oneself) and of adapting to (influencing) the environment during the COVID-19 crisis should resonate more with low-(high-) SES constituents (Markus and Conner 2013). ...
... The many subtle and interrelated differences between people in North American and those in Japanese cultural contexts in both the content and the scope of their considerations when acting reflect divergent models of agency-implicit normative understandings of if, when and how to act Markus et al., 2006;Stephens et al., 2009;Markus, 2016). In Japan (as in many contexts outside North America) the undergirding model of agency is one that assumes interdependence among people and that being is always experienced as in relation to some others. ...
... This work contributes to a growing understanding that there are multiple forms of agency (e.g., Markus and Kitayama, 2003;Kitayama et al., 2006;Stephens et al., 2009;Markus, 2016). With the independent model of agency, the focus of questions about if, when, and how to act is relatively concentrated on the selfone's intention to help, the belief that one wants to or can help. ...
Article
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Japanese rank among the least likely to intervene to help a stranger in a non-emergency situation while Americans rank among the most likely. Across four studies, we demonstrate that Japanese are less likely to offer help to strangers because their decisions rely more heavily on the assessment of the needs of others. Accordingly, when there is uncertainty about the need for help, Japanese are less likely to intervene than Americans because without an understanding of the needs of recipient, the impact of intervention may also be harmful. When the situation is unambiguous, Japanese and Americans are equally likely to help. This divergence in readiness to help strangers elaborates the understanding of why people in Japanese contexts are more likely than those in United States contexts to attend to the situation and to avoid uncertain situations. It also illuminates cultural differences in models of agency—implicit understandings of when and why a person should act to aid another.
... In contrast, an interdependent model of the self assumes that individuals should adjust to the conditions of a situation, be connected to others, and respond to the needs, preferences, and interests of the community. A case study including interviews with survivors from Hurricane Katrina (New Orleans, USA, 2005) demonstrated the relevance of different self-models in disaster contexts (Stephens et al., 2009). The authors observed that independent self-models prevailed among a group of interviewees of mainly middle-class survivors who evacuated before the Hurricane's arrival. ...
... The present research investigates instructional communication in relation to evacuation and analyse the nature of the instructions provided by authorities in terms of suggested social (interdependent) and individual (independent) behaviours in such phases. Despite some previous work having emphasised the role of independent and interdependent self-construal to explain peoples' responses to disaster (Stephens et al., 2009;Sun et al., 2013), to the best of our knowledge, no systematic analysis has yet examined the framing of evacuation order with regard to different operationalisations of the self. The present research addresses this important limitation by analysing the content of a large set of available disaster instructions. ...
Article
In disaster evacuation, the most reasonable reaction is seen as to evacuate through independence. On the contrary, people often stay and behave socially interdependent, hence stressing the gap between evacuation instructions and actual people’s behaviour. The present research analyses the content of a set of behavioural instructions and provides an overview of common framing of evacuation communication. That is informed by psychological models that explain behaviour based distinguish between the independent self (i.e., everyone for themselves) and interdependent self (i.e., all together). Results of this paper highlight that, despite the prevalence of interdependent behaviour, most of the instructions focuses on the independent behaviours rather than on interdependent instructions that don’t reflect actual people’s behaviour in case of evacuation. The objective of this paper is to increase authorities’ awareness on the relation between existing instructions (independent) and actual behaviour (interdependent); the final aim is to help authorities to design and create better instructional communication campaign for disaster evacuation.
... As noted earlier, there are many factors influencing the evacuation decision making process. For example, different mental and psychological models, cognitive processes and experience lead to internal interpretations about risk and can result in different decisions given the same external factors (Dow and Cutter, 1998;Whitehead et al., 2000;Stephens et al. 2009;Bowser and Cutter, 2015). It is not the hurricane warnings or evacuation orders that make people evacuate. ...
... Risk takers may choose to ride out the hurricanes; while people with low-risk tolerance are more likely to take protective actions. After Hurricane Katrina, psychologists interviewed both evacuated and nonevacuated residents of New Orleans confirming differences in individual psychological models which in turn produced different behavioral outcomes (Stephens et al., 2009). Sentiment analysis has been widely used in social media analysis for people's opinions toward different topics (Pang and Lee, 2008). ...
Article
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Hurricanes are one of the most common natural hazards in the United States. To reduce fatalities and economic losses, coastal states and counties take protective actions including sheltering in place and evacuation away from the coast. Not everyone adheres to hurricane evacuation warnings or orders. In reality evacuation rates are far less than 100 percent and are estimated using post-hurricane questionnaire surveys to residents in the affected area. To overcome limitations of traditional data collection methods that are costly in time and resources, an increasing number of natural hazard studies have used social media data as a data source. To better understand social media users' evacuation behavior, this paper investigates whether activity space, social network, and long-term sentiment trends are associated with individual's evacuation decision by measuring and comparing Twitter user's evacuation decision during Hurricane Matthew in 2016. We find that 1) evacuated people have larger long-term activity spaces than non-evacuated people, 2) people in the same social network tend to make the same evacuation decision, and 3) evacuated people have smaller long-term sentimental variances than non-evacuated people. These results are consistent with previous studies based on questionnaire and survey data, and thus provide researchers a new method to study human behavior during disasters.
... Responsibilization is evident not only in standard explanations for health and illness, but also in explanations for misfortune more generally. Social and scientific explanations for misfortune tend to construct it as the result of bad choices-for example, to stay versus evacuate when faced with a catastrophic storm-rather than understand such responses as a negotiation with social and material constraints (Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009). Similarly, discourses of individual responsibility shape understandings of poverty and economic inequality. ...
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In this article, we approach the relationship between neoliberalism and psychological science from the theoretical perspective of cultural psychology. In the first section, we trace how engagement with neoliberal systems results in characteristic tendencies—including a radical abstraction of self from social and material context, an entrepreneurial understanding of self as an ongoing development project, an imperative for personal growth and fulfillment, and an emphasis on affect management for self‐regulation—that increasingly constitute the knowledge base of mainstream psychological science. However, as we consider in the second section, psychological science is not just an observer of neoliberalism and its impact on psychological experience. Instead, by studying psychological processes independent of cultural–ecological or historical context and by championing individual growth and affective regulation as the key to optimal well‐being, psychological scientists reproduce and reinforce the influence and authority of neoliberal systems. Rather than a disinterested bystander, hegemonic forms of psychological science are thoroughly implicated in the neoliberal project.
... Several researchers have acknowledged the importance of the relationship between affect and behavioral response. The "risk as feelings" model introduced by Loewenstein et al. (2001) emphasizes the importance of feelings, in addition to cognitive evaluations, in determining behavior (Miceli, Sotgiu, & Settanni, 2008;Siegrist & Gutscher, 2008;Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009;Weinstein, Lyon, Rothman, & Cuite, 2000). With respect to the relationship between risk perception and behavior, Lindell and Perry's PADM identified risk perception as one basis for initiating protective action (Lindell & Perry, 2012). ...
Article
Previous research has evaluated public risk perception and response to a natural hazards in various settings; however, most of these studies were conducted either with a single scenario or after a natural disaster struck. To better understand the dynamic relationships among affect, risk perception, and behavioral intentions related to natural disasters, the current study implements a simulation scenario with escalating weather intensity, and includes a natural experiment allowing comparison of public response before and after a severe tornado event with extensive coverage by the national media. The current study also manipulated the display of warning information, and investigated whether the warning system display format influences public response. Results indicate that (1) affect, risk perception, and behavioral intention escalated as weather conditions deteriorated, (2) responses at previous stages predicted responses at subsequent stages of storm progression, and (3) negative affect predicted risk perception. Moreover, risk perception and behavioral intention were heightened after exposure to the media coverage of an actual tornado disaster. However, the display format manipulation did not influence behavioral responses. The current study provides insight regarding public perception of predisaster warnings and the influence of exposure to media coverage of an actual disaster event.
... A growing body of research demonstrates the ways that individuals from different UTILIZING SOCIAL CLASS BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATION TO IMPROVE 5 socioeconomic contexts 1 differ in a variety of psychological processes, ranging from self- construals ( Grossman & Varnum, 2011;Markus & Conner, 2013;Stephens, Fryberg, et al., 2012;Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009;Stephens, Townsend, Markus, & Phillips, 2012; to cognitive styles (Dietze & Knowles, 2016;Grossmann & Varnum, 2011;Na et al., 2010;Kraus, Côté, & Keltner, 2010;Kraus, Piff, & Keltner, 2009;Varnum, Na, Murata, & Kitayama, 2012;Varnum, 2015), to mirror neuron reactivity (i.e., mu suppression; Varnum, Blais, & Brewer, 2016; for a review, see Kraus, Callaghan, & Ondish, in press;Kraus & Stephens, 2012). Many of these differences parallel cross-cultural differences observed comparing inhabitants of different societies; thus, it is sensible to conceive of social class as constituting a form of culture. ...
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Although many theories have been proposed to explain the social class achievement gap between first-generation (FGC) and continuing-generation (CGC) college students, few have taken into account the idea that FGC students need to acculturate to the culture of college. Just as people who move to another country face challenges adjusting to a new cultural context, so may FGC students as they attempt to navigate the middle-class culture of the university. We propose that people can be bicultural as a function not only of different ethnic or national identities, but also because they may have multiple social class identities. The present article integrates research and theory regarding social class, biculturalism, and bicultural identity integration. We also highlight recent empirical findings from our research program on social class bicultural identity integration, demonstrating that integrated social class identities are linked with better health, well-being, performance, and persistence among FGC students. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for psychological and policy interventions that aim to improve FGC students’ college transitions, performance, and persistence.
... Previous research suggests that people are more likely to attribute behavior to dispositions, instead of situations, in Western than in Asian cultures (e.g., Choi, Nisbett, & Norenzayan, 1999;Morris & Peng, 1994). We move beyond this disposition/situation dichotomy, which has been criticized for failing to capture how laypeople actually explain behavior (Malle, 1999(Malle, , 2011; see also Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009), in four ways. First, we examine whether culture affects negative interpersonal reactions (i.e., moral condemnation and distrust), which research on culture and attribution has neglected. ...
Article
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Failing to practice what you preach is often condemned as hypocrisy in the West. Three experiments and a field survey document less negative interpersonal reactions to misalignment between practicing and preaching in cultures encouraging individuals' interdependence (Asian and Latin American) than in those encouraging independence (North American and Western Europe). In Studies 1-3, target people received greater moral condemnation for a misdeed when it contradicted the values they preached than when it did not - but this effect was smaller among participants from Indonesia, India, and Japan than among participants from the USA. In Study 4, employees from 46 nations rated their managers. Overall, the more that employees perceived a manager's words and deeds as chronically misaligned, the less they trusted him or her - but the more employees' national culture emphasized interdependence, the weaker this effect became. We posit that these cultural differences in reactions to failures to practice what one preaches arise because people are more likely to view the preaching as other-oriented and generous (vs. selfish and hypocritical) in cultural contexts that encourage interdependence. Study 2 provided meditational evidence of this possibility. We discuss implications for managing intercultural conflict, and for theories about consistency, hypocrisy, and moral judgment.
... Although domination sometimes occurs through deliberate acts of direct discrimination or conscious exercise of racial power, a cultural psychology analysis suggests that their more typical form may be preferential reproduction of apparently "neutral" cultural tools that nevertheless have "disparate impact" and reproduce dominant-group advantage. For example, relatively innocuous constructions of behavior as choice not only resonate with middle-class understandings of action and desires for perceived control, but also "just happen" to reproduce racial inequality when people withhold aid or justice from victims because they made bad "choices" (e.g., for "choosing" to live in ethnic enclaves or to stay in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina; see Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009). Similarly, models of ideal affect that emphasize high arousal positive states not only resonate with white American understandings and desires (Tsai, 2007), but also delegitimize the experience of dissatisfaction that often accompanies motivation for social change (Ahmed, 2008;Becker & Maracek, 2008). ...
Chapter
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The authors describe a cultural psychology approach to social–personality. Extending the standard social–psychological emphasis on the importance of context, the first section considers the cultural constitution of personal experience. Engagement with cultural affordances shapes a person with associated residual tendencies that constitute a form of context in person: embodied traces of a person’s engagement with ecological structures of mind that reconstitute the person’s habitual ways of being. Extending an emphasis on importance of subjective construal, the second section considers the psychological constitution of cultural worlds. As people act on subjective interpretations, their behavior leaves traces on objective realities that constitute a form of person in context: everyday constructions of reality bearing the influence of personal activity. A cultural psychological analysis balances the traditional social psychological emphasis on the power of the situation with restored emphasis on the power of the culturally grounded person as (re)constructor of intentional worlds.
... On the other hand, reflecting the predominance of the disjoint model of agency in mainstream American contexts, the target person might be evaluated negatively independent of the evaluator's social status. A study by Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, and Eloul (2009), which investigated North Americans' reactions to survivors of Hurricane Katrina, supports the latter possibility. ...
Conference Paper
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This research examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) predicts reactions to situations in which a group member decides for the entire group, thereby depriving other group members of personal choice. We found, as predicted, that Americans with higher subjective SES accepted choice deprivation less and demanded personal choice more than subjectively lower SES Americans. Subjective SES was a better predictor for reactions to choice deprivation than objective indicators of SES. The degree to which participants interpreted the deprivation of choice as a violation of their personal freedom partially mediated the relationship between subjective SES and reactions to choice deprivation. The results highlight the role subjective SES measurements can play and the need to consider social status and associated models of agency when interpreting behavior and motivation related to choice in American contexts.
... Barrios 2011; Cupples and Glyn 2014;Davies 2017;Elliott and Pais 2006;Green, Bates, and Smyth 2007;Paidakaki and Moulaert 2018;Peck 2006;Rowe 2014;Stephens et al. 2009;Thiele 2017;Yarnal 2007;Zebrowski and Sage 2017). We mobilise this case because in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in the short-term as well as in the long-term, New Orleans was a site where (1) the concept of resilience was particularly invoked(Paidakaki and Moulaert 2018;Rowe 2014;Zebrowski and Sage 2017), and (2) many different types of SIs were launched, with a number of community-based innovation initiatives competing with neoliberal initiatives(Paidakaki and Moulaert 2018;Rowe 2014) and innovative top-down policy moves ...
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In this essay we expose three dark sides of social innovation (SI) by mobilising the concept of resilience. We examine implications for SI from (1) resilience thinking, (2) (critical) resilience studies and (3) the exceptional contexts in which resilience is needed. The first dark side of SI is that SIs lead to disruptions likely to cause unintended adverse consequences. The second dark side is that top-down SIs tend to be deployed in the name of vulnerable communities, but in neoliberal ways mainly concerned in making these communities more productive for society, at the risk of heightening their marginalisation. The third dark side is that SI discourse lends itself too easily to hijackings by powerful actors driving their own interests of capital accumulation while calling for communities to self-organise. We discuss how critical perspectives on resilience help us challenge these dark sides of SI.
... Specifically, people from working-class backgrounds tend to have more interdependent self-construals (Grossmann & Varnum, 2011;Na et al., 2010); less emphasis on personal choice and uniqueness (W. Johnson & Krueger, 2005;Lachman & Weaver, 1998;Reay, Davies, David, & Ball, 2001;Snibbe & Markus, 2005;Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009;Stephens, Markus, & Townsend, 2007); more holistic styles of thinking (Grossmann & Varnum, 2011;Kraus, Côté, & Keltner, 2010;Na et al., 2010;Varnum, Na, Murata, & Kitayama, 2012); increased subjective, physiological, and neural responses to others' distress (Kraus et al., 2010;Stellar, Manzo, Kraus, & Keltner, 2012;Varnum, Blais, Hampton, & Brewer, 2015); and a greater likelihood of attending to other human beings in complex environments (Dietze & Knowles, 2016). Taken together, these findings suggest that there are pronounced differences between working-class and middle-class cultures. ...
Article
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Biculturalism has typically been used as a framework to understand the experiences of people who move to new societies or who have multiple ethnic identities; we argue that first-generation college (FGC) students can also be thought of as bicultural as a function of social class. FGC students undergo adjustment to the middle-class culture of universities and face challenges negotiating different cultural identities. The present research demonstrated that FGC students are more likely to identify as bicultural and experience dissonance between home and school (Study 1), that integrated social class identities are linked to positive outcomes for FGC students during (Study 2) and after college (Study 3), and that these effects are due in part to reduced acculturative stress (Study 4). These findings suggest that integrating different class identities may be key to the success of FGC students.
... What's more, populations in which people think of themselves as 'independent persons' could be more likely to downplay the severity of the problem, because they will have greater trouble imagining the threat would actually become dangerous to their loved ones, or affect society as a whole. In societies and populations where a 'conjoint' model of the self is prevalent [21] -people think of themselves as 'member of a group' and as socially interdependent -this could be the other way around: such populations may be likely to promote the emergence of collective norms and stick to them. Unfortunately, in many countries at least -and despite past pandemics such as the Spanish Flu In all likelihood, the mismatch between our misperception of the severity of the threat and its consequences is likely to become even more destructive in dense urban areas in which social isolation is a costly good. ...
Article
Dezecache et al. argue that affiliation and contact-seeking are key responses to danger. These natural social tendencies are likely to hinder the observance of physical distancing during the current pandemic. We need internet access at this time, not only to promote freedom of expression, but also to promote public health.
... Future experiments should further seek to disentangle the impacts of individual-versus community-focused empowerment in diverse sociocultural contexts. Overall, program designers delivering aid in non-WEIRD, low-income contexts might productively begin with messages focused on interdependent forms of agency (27,52) and then evaluate and iterate on them using local forecasts and other methods as appropriate. ...
Article
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Significance A new era of international development aspires to increase the dignity and capabilities of people in poverty. Yet narratives accompanying aid often reinforce stigmatizing views of those in poverty as deficient in their circumstances or ability. We find that typical deficit-focused narratives risk undermining the very goals of aid—to empower recipients to pursue their goals and experience dignity rather than shame. In contrast, narratives crafted to counter stigma and leverage culturally resonant forms of agency enhance recipients’ beliefs in themselves and investment in their skills, without reducing donor support. As models of agency differ across sociocultural contexts, program designers need tools for identifying effective narratives. We present “local forecasting” as a particularly efficient methodology for this need.
... The literature on collective traumas elucidates the mechanism leading to the strengthening of altruistic values and beliefs following a disaster: a stronger collective identity. Collective traumas, especially the ones not caused by human malice, create a common ground that allows all the members of a community to perceive themselves as similar, united by the same suffering and fate, and creates a sense of social cohesion and belonging to society (Alexander et al. 2004, Chamlee-Wright and Storr 2011, Hirschberger 2018, Muldoon 2020, Rao and Greve 2018, Stephens et al. 2009). Even more than for other events that unite a community, such as sports competitions, collective traumas bind the community together in a deeper way due to the death salience provoked by these events and the related quest for meaning (Linley and Joseph 2011, Stephens et al. 2012, Wrzesniewski 2002. ...
... Survey evidence highlights that limited mobility, lack of transportation or shelter access, misinformation about storm severity, and fear of property damage all contribute to low evacuation rates (2,3). Further complicating disaster management, politicization of hurricanes spiked in 2017 when conservative media outlets claimed that hurricane warnings were another example of "fake news." ...
Article
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Mistrust of scientific evidence and government-issued guidelines is increasingly correlated with political affiliation. Survey evidence has documented skepticism in a diverse set of issues including climate change, vaccine hesitancy, and, most recently, COVID-19 risks. Less well understood is whether these beliefs alter high-stakes behavior. Combining GPS data for 2.7 million smartphone users in Florida and Texas with 2016 U.S. presidential election precinct-level results, we examine how conservative-media dismissals of hurricane advisories in 2017 influenced evacuation decisions. Likely Trump-voting Florida residents were 10 to 11 percentage points less likely to evacuate Hurricane Irma than Clinton voters (34% versus 45%), a gap not present in prior hurricanes. Results are robust to fine-grain geographic controls, which compare likely Clinton and Trump voters living within 150 m of each other. The rapid surge in media-led suspicion of hurricane forecasts-and the resulting divide in self-protective measures-illustrates a large behavioral consequence of science denialism.
... The above ideas about the effects of risk perception on evacuation decision-making have been applied to explain a wide variety of evacuation scenarios , Fischer et al. 1995, Dow and Cutter 1998, Riad et al. 1999, Dash and Gladwin 2007, Stephens et al. 2009, Lazo et al. 2015, Huang et al. 2016, Morss et al. 2016). In addition to risk perception (Pidgeon et al. 1992, Lindell andHwang 2008), studies have found the following factors to also play an important role in evacuation decision-making: trust in authorities (Paton 2008); personal hazard experience (Tobin et al. 2011, Becker et al. 2017; prior evacuation behavior (Dow andCutter 1998, Tobin andWhiteford 2002b); the chronic or acute nature of a hazard (Tobin et al. 2011); and demographic issues related to risk and vulnerability, such as age, race, gender, and spatial proximity to the hazard (Riad et al. 1999, Chakraborty et al. 2005, Lindell and Hwang 2008. ...
Article
Volcanic eruptions can be an especially problematic hazard when considering the uncertainty in eruption timing and magnitude coupled with challenges associated with delivering warnings to remote areas and facilitating effective evacuations. The hazards presented by Guatemala’s active volcanoes demand enhanced monitoring capabilities and instrumentation infrastructure. Strengthening the link between the physical and social sciences should lead to more accurate, reliable, and timely hazard information to the people living in proximity to the volcano and facilitate rational decisions and actions that reduce their level of risk. While there is no one single technique that can provide unambiguous diagnostics about the timing, behavior, and outcome of a volcanic eruption, the use of GPS geodesy can provide valuable insight into the internal dynamics of a volcano allowing for enhanced interpretation of unrest signals that can be relayed to crisis management officials. The 2010 eruption of Pacaya lead to evacuations of more than 2500 people and resulted in damage and destruction to hundreds of homes. During this period of unrest, Pacaya was a poorly monitored volcano with little available quantitative geophysical data. However, despite a pronounced increase in activity prior to the eruption, and the heightened threat of injury or death during the eruption, many residents in communities surrounding the volcano chose to stay in their home throughout the eruptive crisis. Part of this research presents measurements from a campaign GPS network at Pacaya volcano, combined with InSAR data that reveals a large downward vertical and outward horizontal deformation signal at several locations around the volcano associated with two eruptive periods. We invert the available geodetic data to model the magma plumbing system and produce analytical models, which suggest that deformation was dominated by inflation of a sub-vertical dike high within the edifice while deflation of one or two deeper, spherical sources embedded below the edifice occurred during part of the observation period. The second part of this research seeks to understand why some chose to stay in harm’s way. Using data obtained from a door-to-door survey we found that evacuation behavior was strongly influenced by one’s exposure to and perception of the hazards as well as their perception of readiness. We also found that future intention to evacuate is strongly influenced by prior evacuation experience, perception of home vulnerability and warning messages. The research presented in this dissertation integrates geophysics and social vulnerability research with the aim to better understand magmatic system dynamics and associated hazards in volcanic regions in an effort to improve warning messages and evacuation behavior.
... Future research should also consider social class (Kraus, Piff, Mendoza-Denton, Rheinschmidt, & Keltner, 2012;Stephens, Markus, & Townsend, 2007) as a potential moderating variable. Compared to middle-and upper-class individuals, working-class individuals regulate their behavior according to interdependent norms, such as adjusting to others' needs and being part of a community (Stephens, Fryberg, & Markus, 2011;Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009). Women's empowerment messages, focused on achieving success as individuals, may thus be less influential for members of the working class. ...
Article
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Although women's underrepresentation in senior-level positions in the workplace has multiple causes, women's self-improvement or "empowerment" at work has recently attracted cultural attention as a solution. For example, the bestselling book Lean In states that women can tackle gender inequality themselves by overcoming the "internal barriers" (e.g., lack of confidence and ambition) that prevent success. We sought to explore the consequences of this type of women's empowerment ideology. Study 1 found that perceptions of women's ability to solve inequality were associated with attributions of women's responsibility to do so. Studies 2, 3, 5a, and 5b experimentally manipulated exposure to women's empowerment messages, finding that while such messages increase perceptions that women are empowered to solve workplace gender inequality, they also lead to attributions that women are more responsible both for creating and solving the problem. Study 4 found a similar pattern in the context of a specific workplace problem, and found that such messages also lead to a preference for interventions focused on changing women rather than changing the system. Studies 5a and 5b sought to replicate prior studies and document the weakened effects of messages that explicitly explain that women's "internal barriers" are the products of "external barriers" obstructing women's progress. This research suggests that self-improvement messages intended to empower women to take charge of gender inequality may also yield potentially harmful societal beliefs.
... The black populations living in poverty were not only likely to have suffered the direct impacts of the hurricane, they were also less likely to have afforded insurances, or possessed the economic and social capital needed to negotiate bureaucracies and more easily recover their lives (Masozera, Bailey, & Kerchner, 2007). While they did exhibit agency, relying on community and God, they were interpreted by observers as lacking independence and control over their fates, a model of agency exhibited and afforded by, particularly, the white middle-classes (Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009). While the disaster continues to be (re)mediated in the shifting media landscape, in the aftermath the racialized disaster-affected people were framed "blameworthy, irresponsible and failed citizens who pathologically insisted on staying put despite public warnings to evacuate" (Cupples & Glynn, 2014, p. 368). ...
Article
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The influence of private actors, such as non-profit organizations (NPOs) and firms, has been increasing in disaster gov-ernance. Previous literature has interrogated the responsibilities of states towards citizens in disasters, but the roles of private actors have been insufficiently challenged. The article politicizes the entangled relations between NPOs, states, and disaster-affected people. It proposes the Rawlsian division of moral labor as a useful, normative framework for interrogating the justice of disaster governance arrangements in which 'liberal' states are involved. Liberal states have two types of responsibilities in disasters: humanitarian and political. The humanitarian responsibilities imply provision of basic resources needed for the capacity to make autonomous choices (domestically and abroad), while the political responsibilities imply provision of the institutions needed for the liberal democratic citizenship (domestically). Through this analytical lens and building on the wealth of existing scholarship, we illustrate the disaster governance role of the American Red Cross in the United States (a 2005 hurricane) and in Haiti (the 2010 earthquake). Where, in Rawlsian terms, United States is interpreted as a 'liberal' society, Haiti is framed as a 'burdened' society. The article proposes five points to consider in analyzing disaster governance arrangements under neoliberal regimes, structured around the division of humanitarian and political responsibilities. The article illustrates how NPOS are instrumental in blurring the boundaries between humanitarian and political responsibilities. This might result ultimately in actual vulnerabilities remaining unaddressed. While the Rawlsian approach challenges the privatization and lack of coordination in disaster governance, it is limited in analyzing the political construction of 'burdened' societies.
... The cognitive consequences associated with financial scarcity also affect the self. Kraus and colleagues found that people from lower social class contexts present a greater interdependent self (Kraus & Stephens, 2012;Stephens et al., 2009), which in turn facilitates empathic accuracy and prosocial behavior (Piff et al., 2010). In contrast, higher social class individuals prioritize independence and freedom and help others less (see Kraus & Stephens, 2012). ...
Article
In the present research, we examined the links among relative financial scarcity, thinking style, fatalism, and well‐being and their roles in predicting protective behaviors against COVID‐19. Study 1 (N = 120) revealed that after an experimental manipulation to induce the perception of relative financial scarcity (versus financial abundance), people who perceived higher relative financial scarcity changed their thinking style to a more concrete mindset. In Study 2 (N = 873), the relative financial abundance–scarcity situation was measured, and the results showed that the greater the perceived relative financial scarcity was, the more concrete the mindset and the lower the sense of well‐being. Importantly, we found that individuals who felt poorer but maintained an abstract thinking style reported higher well‐being. Study 3 (N = 501) examined the influence of a concrete thinking style in people who perceived that their economic situation had worsened with the pandemic. The results showed that when this vulnerable population presented a more concrete mindset, they reported lower well‐being, higher fatalism, and lower protective behavior against COVID‐19. Thus, maintaining an abstract mindset promotes higher well‐being, lower fatalism, and greater protective behaviors against COVID‐19, even under economic difficulties. Because thinking style can be modified, our results encourage the development of new social intervention programs to promote an abstract mindset when people face important challenges.
... We apply this perspective to the corporate context and suggest that prior social status shapes the attitude of entrepreneurs to strategic innovation choices. The sociology and psychology literature has offered different definitions of social status including income (Martin et al., 2016) and education (Stephens et al., 2009). Some adopt a combination of both to form composite measures (Kish-Gephart and Campbell, 2015). ...
Article
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Social status is seen as an important topic in management and organisational sciences. Despite the extensive research on the upper echelons of management, little is known about the influence of social status on R&D investment decisions. We examine the effects of pre-entrepreneurial social status on R&D investments based on imprinting theory, using 2000–2014 data for 20,177 Chinese private small- and medium-sized enterprises. The results reveal that entrepreneurs with an upper and lower social status show a stronger tendency to make R&D investments than middle-class counterparts. The findings are robust to various sensitivity tests. In addition, we explore the moderating influences of political capital and institutional environment, both of which enhance the positive relationship between social status and R&D investments. Our study finds that social status has a lasting and varying impact on decisions to engage in innovation behaviours. The findings contribute to research on Chinese firm innovation and offer key implications for social status and imprinting theorising.
... Barrios 2011; Cupples and Glyn 2014;Davies 2017;Elliott and Pais 2006;Green, Bates, and Smyth 2007;Paidakaki and Moulaert 2018;Peck 2006;Rowe 2014;Stephens et al. 2009;Thiele 2017;Yarnal 2007;Zebrowski and Sage 2017). We mobilise this case because in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in the short-term as well as in the long-term, New Orleans was a site where (1) the concept of resilience was particularly invoked(Paidakaki and Moulaert 2018;Rowe 2014;Zebrowski and Sage 2017), and (2) many different types of SIs were launched, with a number of community-based innovation initiatives competing with neoliberal initiatives(Paidakaki and Moulaert 2018;Rowe 2014) and innovative top-down policy moves ...
... To understand structural inequality, children must consider how environmental constraints may have contributed to the outcomes they observe. A fundamental part of this understanding is recognizing that constrained choices-that is, choices made from limited options-are poor indicators of others' desires (Bonilla-Silva, 1997;Hetey & Eberhardt, 2018;Stephens et al., 2009). Indeed, compared to unconstrained actions, constrained actions provide relatively ambiguous evidence for a person's preference, as it is less clear whether the choice was made because of an intrinsic desire for that option or because that was the option more readily available. ...
Article
A fundamental part of understanding structural inequality is recognizing that constrained choices, particularly those that align with societal stereotypes, are poor indicators of a person's desires. This study examined whether children (N = 246 U.S. children, 53% female; 61% White, 24% Latinx; 5–10 years) acknowledge constraints in this way when reasoning about gender‐stereotypical choices, relative to gender‐neutral and gender‐counterstereotypical choices. Results indicated that children more frequently inferred preferences regardless of whether the actor was constrained when reasoning about gender‐stereotypical choices, as compared to gender‐neutral or gender‐counterstereotypical choices. We also found evidence of an age‐related increase in the general tendency to acknowledge constraints. We discuss the broader implications of these results for children's understanding of constraints within society.
... As we suggested earlier, such cases of cultural racism include the imposition of standards for beauty and artistic expression (e.g., art, music, literature, fashion) that denigrate African forms and elevate European forms, even while appropriating African creativity. Such cases of cultural racism also include the imposition of WEIRD ways of being or knowing-including notions of ability (Dirth & Adams, 2019;Oppong, 2020), care (Esiaka & Adams, 2020), empowerment (Kurtiş et al., 2016), love (Osei-Tutu et al., 2021), merit (Croizet, 2011), methodological rigor (Adams & Salter, 2019), rights (Maldonado-Torres, 2007), and choice and responsibility (Stephens et al., 2009)-as just-natural standards. From this perspective, racism is less about differential treatment than it is the "possessive investment" (Lipsitz, 1997) in white ways of being that masquerade as race-neutral standards for universal application. ...
Article
Coloniality represents the contemporary patterns of power and domination that emerged in the late 15th century during the so-called classic era of colonialism. Although much of psychology and psychological thought has adhered to the logic of coloniality, there is also a considerable body of work that has sought to decolonize psychology. It is within this latter tradition of decolonizing psychology—which seems to have gained increasing attention in recent years—that we situate this article and its attempt to articulate a decolonial Africa(n)-centered psychology that addresses itself to antiracism. While we concede that there are myriad ways by which to practice and theorize such a psychology, we focus specifically on collective antiracist struggle and everyday antiracist resistance. We conclude by considering questions of universalism and epistemology as they relate to a decolonial Africa(n)-centered psychology of antiracism.
... While people of color have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic (Millett et al., 2020), potentially reducing the willingness to share face-to-face, the Black Lives Matter movement has given rise to solidarity in communities across the U.S. (Creosote Maps, 2020), potentially enhancing willingness to share within neighborhoods. Prior research on Hurricane Katrina shows higher likelihood among Black respondents to emphasize the importance of connection to and caring for others during an evacuation (Stephens et al., 2009). Indeed, our findings show a positive correlation between identifying as Black and the willingness to share an evacuation ride. ...
Article
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Volunteered sharing of resources is often observed in response to disaster events. During evacuations the sharing of resources and vehicles is a crucial mechanism for expanding critical capacity and enabling inclusive disaster response. This paper examines the complexity of rideshare decision-making in the wake of simultaneous emergencies. Specifically, the need for physical distancing measures during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic complicates face-to-face resource sharing between strangers. The ability of on-demand ridesharing to provide emergency transportation to individuals without access to alternatives calls for an understanding of how evacuees weigh risks of contagion against benefits of spontaneous resource sharing. In this research, we examine both sociodemographic and situational factors that contribute to a willingness to share flood evacuation rides with strangers during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that the willingness to share is significantly correlated with traditional emergency resource sharing motivations and current COVID-19 risk factors. To test these hypotheses, we distributed an online survey during the pandemic surge in July 2020 to 600 individuals in three midwestern and three southern states in the United States with high risk of flooding. We estimate a random parameter multinomial logit model to determine the willingness to share a ride as a driver or passenger. Our findings show that willingness to share evacuation rides is associated with individual sociodemographics (such as being female, under 36 years old, Black, or republican-identifying) and the social environment (such as households with children, social network proximity, and neighborly sharing attitudes). Moreover, our findings suggest higher levels of income, COVID-19 threat perception, evacuation fear, and household preparedness all correspond with a lower willingness to share rides. We discuss the broader implications of emergency on-demand mobility during concurrent disasters to formulate strategies for transportation agencies and on-demand ridehailing providers.
... Low-SES people have limited resources and cannot afford protections from threats. Thus, low-SES people develop interdependent and connected self-construals, whereas affluence bestows high-SES people with independent and distinctive self-construals [9,[25][26][27]. ...
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This research focused on the psychological impact of an epidemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey and two empirical experiments to examine how an epidemic would influence unethical behaviors and how the effect differs in people of different subjective socioeconomic statuses. These studies consistently demonstrated that subjective socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between an epidemic and unethical behaviors. Specifically, the perceived severity of an epidemic positively predicts the unethical behaviors of people with a high socioeconomic status, but it does not predict the unethical behaviors of people with a low socioeconomic status. These findings elucidate the effects of epidemics and bring theoretical and practical implications.
... Preparedness has been extensively studied since 1990s in an effort to understand the psychological factors underlying preparedness behaviors (e.g., Becker, Paton, Johnston, & Ronan, 2012;Dooley, Catalano, Mishra, & Serxner, 1992;Heller, Alexander, Gatz, Knight, & Rose, 2005;Karanci & Aksit, 1999;Karanci, Aksit, & Dirik, 2005;Lindell, 2012;Lindell & Prater, 2002;Miceli, Sotgiu, & Settanni, 2008;Norris, Smith, & Kaniasty, 1999;Rüstemli & Karanci, 1999). Among other topics that have been studied in relation to the social psychological aspects of disasters are risk perception (e.g., Crozier, McClure, Vercoe, & Wilson, 2006;Eiser et al., 2012;Västfjäll, Peters, & Slovic, 2008) and social representation of risks (e.g., Joffe, Rossetto, Solberg, & O"Connor, 2013), risk communication (e.g., Doyle, McClure, Paton, & Johnston, 2014;McClure, Allen, & Walkey, 2001;Paton, 2008a), psychological disaster myths (Drury, Novelli, & Stott, 2013), helping (e.g., Marjanovic, Struthers, & Greenglass, 2012), schadenfreude (Gao et al., 2014), religious meaning-making (Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, & Hamedani, 2013), agency (Stephens, Hamedani, Markus, Bergsieker, & Eloul, 2009), fatalism (e.g., McClure et al., 2001;Solberg, Rossetto, & Joffe, 2010), and resilience (e.g., Cox & Perry, 2011;Doğulu, Karanci, 6 & Ikizer, 2016;Drury, 2012;Kimhi, 2014;Norris, Stevens, Pfefferbaum, Wyche, & Pfefferbaum, 2008). ...
... According to this model, "actions are freely chosen, contingent on one's own preferences, intentions, [and] motives" (p. 7). Although a highly influential model, it has been seen to be applicable mostly in American culture and less in other cultures (e.g., Ji et al., 2000;Na & Kitayama, 2012;Savani et al., 2008Savani et al., , 2010Stephens et al., 2009). This means the way Americans would perceive and evaluate a situation in the face of existing choices would be different from other cultures where choice is not given such importance. ...
Article
In today’s fast-moving society, we get a multitude of options available. However, choices once considered beneficial, are now being largely debated. In the face of rising prevalence of depression and being identified as the ‘disease of modernity’, this burden of increasing choices on the modern society needs to be re-evaluated. In this paper, we aim to elucidate the rising rate of depression in today’s society with regard to the increasing number of choices, the decision-making process, and the consequent attribution of the decision-making situations. We also attempt to look at the role of culture, acknowledging its importance in depression and perception of choices. Lastly, a theoretical perspective is being outlined about how the increasing amount of choices being provided in today’s society can give rise to a pessimistic attribution style among decision-makers. Decision-makers therein might be more likely to face post-decisional regret and self-blame, ultimately developing risk for depression. The way in which choices are perceived in a particular culture could either facilitate or act as a buffer to depression. Thus, the essential role that culture might play in moderating this relationship is also discussed.
... Recent research suggests that natural disasters and pandemics have shaped human values, norms, and culture (Gelfand et al., 2011;Oishi et al., 2017;Schaller & Murray, 2008;Van de Vliert, 2013). Recent research also shows that natural disasters and pandemics affect racial minority and lower socioeconomic status individuals disproportionately (e.g., Rhodes et al., 2010;Stephens et al., 2009;Yamada, 2009). The present research sought to identify some protective factors against such vulnerability. ...
Article
The present research examined the zip code level (177 zip codes) prevalence of and deaths associated with COVID-19 in New York City as of May 22, 2020. Walkable zip codes had consistently lower prevalence of ( r = −.49) and deaths ( r = −.15) associated with COVID-19. The mediation analysis showed that the degree of reduction in actual geographical mobility during the lockdown (measured by smartphone GIS data) accounted for geographical variations in the number of confirmed cases and deaths. Residents in wealthy zip codes and walkable zip codes were able to limit geographical mobility, whereas residents in poor zip codes and Black and Hispanic dominant zip codes were not. Finally, the spatial lag regression analysis showed that walkability was a robust predictor of zip code–level prevalence of and deaths associated with COVID-19. Overall, walkability seems to have provided protection against the spread of COVID-19.
Conference Paper
Building evacuation simulation provides us with various knowledge and suggestion before a real disaster happens. To date, however, evacuees were often modeled as homogeneous without individual motivation in a large-scale urban simulation model, which is rather different from real human behavior. In this paper, an evacuation simulation model with human psychological models is developed for urban disaster situation. Three psychological models are actually incorporated: normalcy bias, emotional contagion bias, and sympathy behavior bias. Normalcy bias is the initial evacuation delay caused by a belief that abnormal events rarely happen. Emotional contagion is the effect of one person’s emotional state on the emotional state of people around him/her both explicitly and implicitly. Simulated experimental results show that the proposed model provides accurate evacuation behaviors than the normal behavior model without psychological consideration.
Article
The lack of emergency preparedness in Mauritius has been the cause of many tragedies. Our approach to tackle this problem was by developing an emergency preparedness game layered and fused with a disaster warning and guidance system that emanates clarity to the unfathomable bearings of emergencies and natural disasters. The emergency preparedness game is based on a selection of diverse real life-threatening difficulties that entail different strategies aimed at bettering the survival instincts of users. It uses story-telling scenarios along with in-game footnotes that yield directives on how to brave fierce and unpredictable calamities. The game reinforces a sense of self-composedness and suppressing untimely fears of users in horrendous circumstances. With regard to the warning system, it unremittingly feeds users with notifications during emergencies, that encases shortest escape routes to lead them to safe locations via a fully functional GPS map. This application brings some novelties that are virtually non-existent in related applications. For instance, this application includes a warning and guidance system, a 3D scenario game to prepare its users for disasters, an interactive survival toolkit selection, an SMS rescue feature and a mass notification system via the web.
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Building on the notion that cognitive processes vary across social classes, we predict that social class shapes thinking style, which in turn affects consumer judgments. In doing so, we employ service failure domains as a way to understand social class effects. Across four studies, we show that, when faced with a failure incident occurring in one service dimension (e.g., rude employees), consumers in the low social class, relative to those in the high social class, carry over to influence their evaluations of the other service dimensions (e.g., food quality) that are unrelated to the failure incident. We further show that low‐class consumers favor a holistic style of thinking, whereas high‐class consumers favor an analytic style of thinking and that these differences in thinking style account for the carryover effects on evaluations. The pattern of the effects exists when the service failure is perceived to be severe rather than minor.
Article
1 Background and objectives Hematology/oncology patients have special health needs. To identify barriers to care, we surveyed patients/parents at Children's Hospital of New Orleans 1 year after Hurricane Katrina. We then implemented a “Hurricane Action Plan”—identification of families’ evacuation plans at each hurricane season's onset; of hospital(s) and pharmacies in the intended evacuation area; updating roadmaps/treatment plans; giving information to families requiring hematology/oncology services in evacuation areas. Administration of a second survey was initiated 7 years post Katrina to assess the efficacy of the “Hurricane Action Plan.” 2 Methods Both surveys were conducted on random patients attending Children's Hospital. Survey #1 was performed in 2006, while survey #2 was conducted in 2013–2014. 3 Results Eighty‐nine percent of 124 families left New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina; only 50% had an evacuation plan. Twenty‐five percent of families had difficulty physically accessing care; others (13%) could not find a hematology/oncology provider for follow‐up and had difficulty reaching their primary provider or making appointments. An additional 25 percent did not have access to medical records. There was no access to mental health services. Eighty‐ two patients/representatives were surveyed in 2013/2014; 72% of families were evacuated during subsequent hurricane seasons with 78% of families having an evacuation plan. Thirty‐six percent of patients had a roadmap/treatment plan with them; 71% had a 2‐week medication supply. Ninety‐two percent found information given to them by providers helpful. 4 Conclusions Interventions instituted to allow greater access to care by our hematology/oncology patients after Hurricane Katrina resulted in better preparedness, easier acquisition of information, and possibly better continuity of care.
Article
Risk of disaster exposure is often associated with prior conditions of economic deprivation, and it is held that risk would be less for an asset-rich household than an asset-poor one. Observational data may, however, contradict this expected pattern. The contradiction is resolved when we examine risk distribution through the lens of Weberian class distribution, and associate risk with peoples’ class situations. This paper draws upon the household survey data from Tanzania to illustrate this argument.
Article
In this research, we examine the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on patience, which is operationalized as willingness to wait for a chosen alternative. Because decision makers socialized in low (high) socioeconomic status environments learn a model of agency that emphasizes exerting self-control (vs. exerting environmental control), we predict that they will exhibit greater (less) willingness to wait for a chosen alternative. In three studies in which participants of various ages chose an alternative and then learned that it was not immediately available, lower childhood socioeconomic status consistently predicted greater willingness to wait and less negative emotional reactions to waiting. We discuss implications of this effect in organizational settings.
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Despite recognition that emotions are present and salient during a crisis, traditional views of crisis decision making, such as crisis decision theory and naturalistic decision making, emphasize mainly the role of cognitive processes. Several recent crises illustrate individuals face complex, dynamic, and significant situations requiring decisions with which they are unfamiliar and/or lack experience. Moreover, dangerous and life-threatening situations activate negative emotions such as anger, regret, guilt, fear, disappointment, and shame, which may uniquely affect recursive associations with the immediate cognitive schema elicited after a crisis. Also consider individuals do not experience crises in a vacuum. Rather, they perceive, interpret, and assess information via interactions with others, thus creating collective crisis decision making as a substantive level of analysis. As such, we present a multilevel theoretical model examining the interactive role cognitions and emotions play in crisis decision making, and offer implications regarding individual and collective decisions during crises.
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The purpose of this article is to investigate the verification pause—that moment when people assess how to respond to a disaster. The verification pause is potentially extended due to excess or insufficient information. Most evidence around the verification pause and its relation to new media is anecdotal. Using direct observations and interviews, this article presents a case study of the verification pause during an earthquake event. A classroom of 19 university students spent four minutes post-event behavior before evacuating. Through adaptive structuration theory (AST), the article contextualizes the students' response. Students used laptops and mobile devices to seek and share earthquake information with their extended social network. These online exchanges blended with the physical world as students shared what they learned with the classroom. The article concludes by suggesting that improved disaster response training and timely access to trustworthy information could shorten the verification pause and possibly save lives.
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The current paper reports the results of a survey on past and future evacuation decision-making in response to a volcanic eruption (or the threat thereof)at Pacaya volcano, Guatemala. In 2010, Pacaya experienced its largest eruption in over half a century, causing more than 2500 evacuations and resulting in the damage or destruction of hundreds of homes, injuries to dozens of people, and the death of one journalist. Despite a pronounced increase in eruptive activity and the high threat of injury or death, many residents surrounding Pacaya volcano chose to stay in their homes throughout the eruption event. Our study seeks to understand why some households ignored social cues, physical hazards, and evacuation messages, and instead chose to stay in harm's way during a volcanic crisis. Using data obtained from a door-to-door survey conducted in the Pacaya region in October 2016, we found that evacuation behavior during the 2010 eruption was influenced most strongly by one's exposure to hazards, perception of hazards, and perception of readiness. We also found that prior evacuation experience from the 2010 eruption, perceptions of home vulnerability, and warning messages all have a strong influence on one's intention to evacuate in a future volcanic crisis. Finally, we found that perceived risk to one's home or property may have less of an impact on evacuation intention than emergency personnel tend to assume. Building on these findings, we discuss ways to improve evacuation communication in the face of a future eruption.
Chapter
During crisis events, emergency responders must verify the particulars of an event before sending out warning messages. The gap between an event's occurrence and official notification is often used by those impacted by that event to verify what is happening before taking action. The addition of information communication technologies has had an impact on what we term the verification pause. This pause is the amount of time it takes to verify what has happened before messages are received and before reaction can begin. More than milling about post notification, this understudied period of time is rarely visible for researchers. The present case study contains an analysis of a verification pause between an earthquake event and the actions taken by students in a classroom in a large university in the United States. The students in the classroom felt the earthquake and immediately began to search for verification that what they felt was indeed an earthquake. The authors conclude with a discussion of the utility of case studies and call for more focused analysis of the similarities between cases.
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Andrew Murray argues that you can use your forced exile from the lab to produce better future experiments by dissecting your past failures and successes and collaboratively critiquing the experiments you're planning for your return to the lab.
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After the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, intercultural friction and aversion arose between evacuees and host community residents in relocation areas. We examined whether a belief in group interdependence—the extent to which an individual believes that group function is realized through interdependence with related other groups—is consistent with positive interactions between evacuees and hosts. A door‐to‐door survey of 77 evacuees and 75 hosts revealed that residents with an integrated social identity interacted favorably with both ingroup and outgroup members, and that a belief in group interdependence was consistent with the integration of social identity between the evacuee and host communities. Those findings suggest that a belief in group interdependence can reduce intercultural conflict by allowing both immigrants and host residents to acquire an integrated social identity without the dilemma of internalizing different cultures into an individual's mind.
Chapter
During crisis events, emergency responders must verify the particulars of an event before sending out warning messages. The gap between an event's occurrence and official notification is often used by those impacted by that event to verify what is happening before taking action. The addition of information communication technologies has had an impact on what we term the verification pause. This pause is the amount of time it takes to verify what has happened before messages are received and before reaction can begin. More than milling about post notification, this understudied period of time is rarely visible for researchers. The present case study contains an analysis of a verification pause between an earthquake event and the actions taken by students in a classroom in a large university in the United States. The students in the classroom felt the earthquake and immediately began to search for verification that what they felt was indeed an earthquake. The authors conclude with a discussion of the utility of case studies and call for more focused analysis of the similarities between cases.
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Violations of moral purity, the moral foundation oriented toward protecting the sanctity of the body and soul, are not limited to social settings: brands, employees, and politicians are guilty of some pretty gross behaviors. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how consumers react to purity violations. In the current work, we propose that condemnation of purity violations is shaped by the combination of pathogen threat and childhood socioeconomic status (SES). We test this prediction across seven studies, collected pre- and mid-pandemic, using experimental manipulations of pathogen threat and measured differences in the perceived threat of COVID-19. We find that when pathogen threat is salient, people who grew up wealthy show a greater increase in condemnation of purity violations than people who grew up poor. Further, our results suggest this effect is due to class-based differences in the perceived controllability of pathogen threats.
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Natural disasters are increasingly impacting the lives of organizations. The COVID‐19 pandemic has brought attention to how organizations improve their resilience and learn how to emerge stronger after such events. While there has been little integration between the literature on organizational learning and resilience, this article draws on both streams of literature to develop a conceptual framework that distinguishes three different organizational processes emerging in the aftermath of a disaster (resilience, learning from disasters, and learning through disasters). Each response is characterized by a specific outcome, mechanism, and temporal orientation. Moreover, the proposed framework discusses the dynamic relationships between these responses. While learning from disasters and resilience combine in a cyclical dynamic that leads to an upgrade in existing organizational capabilities, learning through disasters involves a transformative dynamic that leads to expanding organizational capabilities in new domains. This article is of value to both practitioners and scholars. For managers, it derives practical implications for improving the organization's capacity for transformation in the aftermath of a disaster such as COVID‐19. For scholars, it contributes to the debate about the long‐term interrelation between different organizational response to disasters and sheds light on the mechanisms of organizational renewal in the aftermath of a disaster.
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J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz (see record 1995-24550-001) proposed a life-span theory of control that applies the concepts of primary and secondary control. Although their approach is useful in focusing attention on control across the life span in Western contexts, it breaks down when seen from various Asian and other cultural perspectives. In much of Asia, secondary control takes on primacy and results in some control perspectives and manifestations different from those conceptualized by J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz. An examination of control in both Asia and the West indicates that there is need to reconceptualize the lifespan theory of control so that primary and secondary control are more accurately described, each type of control is treated as heterogeneous, and the perceived primacy of one or the other type of control is viewed as a matter of motivational or cultural focus.
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Publisher Summary This chapter presents a systematic pattern behind apparently unrelated individual behaviors. The manners in which the characteristic traits of a good person are interpreted in society tend to influence the everyday behavior of people. Cross-cultural theories of individualism and collectivism are discussed next, to help the readers form a proper perspective on the personal and social identity of an individual. The entire study is done in a cultural frame, highlighting the importance of ethnic and racial identities. The individualistic traits of Americans are contrasted with the generally collective tendencies of the Europeans. The various social representations of race and ethnicity play a major role in influencing racial and ethnic identities of Afro-American groups. One's “self-concept” also plays an important role in determining the performance of individuals, but for minor groups, this concept is guided more by social influences. The tripartite model of identity is reviewed in this context. The importance of racial and ethnic identity in the determination of social identity is also highlighted here. The validity of the tripartite model is showcased in the concluding portion of the chapter, with the help of research results.
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Four studies examined the consequences of American Indian mascots and other prevalent representations of American Indians on aspects of the self-concept for American Indian students. When exposed to Chief Wahoo, Chief Illinwek, Pocahontas, or other common American Indian images, American Indian students generated positive associations (Study 1, high school) but reported depressed state self-esteem (Study 2, high school), and community worth (Study 3, high school), and fewer achievement-related possible selves (Study 4, college). We suggest that American Indian mascots are harmful because they remind American Indians of the limited ways others see them and, in this way, constrain how they can see themselves.
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In this chapter, we first describe the individualism and collectivism as cultural frames, emphasizing the collectivist roots of racial and ethnic identity. We then discuss the social representation of race and ethnicity and how this representation influences racial and ethnic identity for African Americans. We explain how racial and ethnic identity can function to moderate the risk of individualistic cultural frames for minority group members, buffer individuals from racism, and motivate minority group members to achieve their goals. We propose that this resiliency-promoting function is most likely to happen when ethnic or racial identity is chronically or situationally salient and when this identity includes 3 components: a sense of connectedness to other African Americans, an awareness of racism or structural barriers, and achievement as centrally connected to being an African American. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz (see record 1995-24550-001) proposed a life-span theory of control that applies the concepts of primary and secondary control. Although their approach is useful in focusing attention on control across the life span in Western contexts, it breaks down when seen from various Asian and other cultural perspectives. In much of Asia, secondary control takes on primacy and results in some control perspectives and manifestations different from those conceptualized by J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz. An examination of control in both Asia and the West indicates that there is need to reconceptualize the lifespan theory of control so that primary and secondary control are more accurately described, each type of control is treated as heterogeneous, and the perceived primacy of one or the other type of control is viewed as a matter of motivational or cultural focus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To assess the validity and utility of PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders), a new rapid procedure for diagnosing mental disorders by primary care physicians. Survey; criterion standard. Four primary care clinics. A total of 1000 adult patients (369 selected by convenience and 631 selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 31 primary care physicians. PRIME-MD diagnoses, independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals, functional status measures (Short-Form General Health Survey), disability days, health care utilization, and treatment/referral decisions. Twenty-six percent of the patients had a PRIME-MD diagnosis that met full criteria for a specific disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition. The average time required of the primary care physician to complete the PRIME-MD evaluation was 8.4 minutes. There was good agreement between PRIME-MD diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any PRIME-MD disorder, kappa = 0.71; overall accuracy rate = 88%). Patients with PRIME-MD diagnoses had lower functioning, more disability days, and higher rates of health care utilization than did patients without PRIME-MD diagnoses (for all measures, P < .005). Nearly half (48%) of 287 patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who were somewhat or fairly well-known to their physicians had not been recognized to have that diagnosis before the PRIME-MD evaluation. A new treatment or referral was initiated for 62% of the 125 patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who were not already being treated. PRIME-MD appears to be a useful tool for identifying mental disorders in primary care practice and research.
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This reply to S. J. Gould's (1999) critique of J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz's (1995) life-span theory of control addresses four issues: (1) the universal claim that primary control holds functional primacy over secondary control, (2) the status of secondary control as a confederate to primary control, (3) empirical evidence and paradigms for investigating universality and cultural variations, and (4) the capacity of the human control system to manage both gains and losses in control throughout the life span and aging-related decline in particular. Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence from evolutionary, comparative, developmental, and cultural psychology are presented to support the authors' view that primary control striving holds functional primacy throughout the life span and across cultural and historical settings. Recommendations for empirically investigating the variations in the way primary control striving is expressed in different cultures are outlined.
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It is assumed that people seek positive self-regard; that is, they are motivated to possess, enhance, and maintain positive self-views. The cross-cultural generalizability of such motivations was addressed by examining Japanese culture. Anthropological, sociological, and psychological analyses revealed that many elements of Japanese culture are incongruent with such motivations. Moreover, the empirical literature provides scant evidence for a need for positive self-regard among Japanese and indicates that a self-critical focus is more characteristic of Japanese. It is argued that the need for self-regard must be culturally variant because the constructions of self and regard themselves differ across cultures. The need for positive self-regard, as it is currently conceptualized, is not a universal, but rather is rooted in significant aspects of North American culture. Conventional interpretations of positive self-regard are too narrow to encompass the Japanese experience.
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The primary purpose of this article was to offer a methodological critique in support of arguments that racial categories should be replaced as explanatory constructs in psychological research and theory. To accomplish this goal, the authors (a) summarized arguments for why racial categories should be replaced; (b) used principles of the scientific method to show that racial categories lack conceptual meaning; (c) identified common errors in researchers' measurement, statistical analyses, and interpretation of racial categories as independent variables; and (d) used hierarchical regression analysis to illustrate a strategy for replacing racial categories in research designs with conceptual variables. Implications for changing the study of race in psychology are discussed.
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In the present research, consisting of 2 correlational studies (N = 616) including a representative U.S. sample and 2 experiments (N = 350), the authors investigated how stereotypes and emotions shape behavioral tendencies toward groups, offering convergent support for the behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map framework. Warmth stereotypes determine active behavioral tendencies, attenuating active harm (harassing) and eliciting active facilitation (helping). Competence stereotypes determine passive behavioral tendencies, attenuating passive harm (neglecting) and eliciting passive facilitation (associating). Admired groups (warm, competent) elicit both facilitation tendencies; hated groups (cold, incompetent) elicit both harm tendencies. Envied groups (competent, cold) elicit passive facilitation but active harm; pitied groups (warm, incompetent) elicit active facilitation but passive harm. Emotions predict behavioral tendencies more strongly than stereotypes do and usually mediate stereotype-to-behavioral-tendency links.
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Social class is one important source of models of agency--normative guidelines for how to be a "good" person. Using choice as a prototypically agentic action, 5 studies test the hypotheses that models of agency prevalent in working-class (WK) contexts reflect a normative preference for similarity to others, whereas models prevalent in middle-class (MD) contexts reflect a preference for difference from others. Focusing on participants' choices, Studies 1 and 2 showed that participants from WK relative to MD contexts more often chose pens that appeared similar to, rather than different from, other pens in the choice set, and more often chose the same images as another participant. Examining participants' responses to others' choices, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that participants from WK relative to MD contexts liked their chosen pens more when a confederate chose similarly and responded more positively when a friend chose the same car in a hypothetical scenario. Finally, Study 5 found that car advertisements targeting WK rather than MD consumers more often emphasized connection to, rather than differentiation from, others, suggesting that models of agency are reflected in pervasive cultural products.
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Many tendencies in social perceivers' judgments about individuals and groups can be integrated in terms of the premise that perceivers rely on implicit theories of agency acquired from cultural traditions. Whereas, American culture primarily conceptualizes agency as a property of individual persons, other cultures conceptualize agency primarily in terms of collectives such as groups or non-human actors such as deities or fate. Cultural conceptions of agency exist in public forms (discourses, texts, and institutions) and private forms (perceiver's knowledge structures), and more prominent the public representations of a specific conception in a society, the more chronically accessible it will be in perceiver's minds. We review evidence for these claims by contrasting North American and Chinese cultures. From this integrative model of social perception as mediated by agency conceptions, we draw insights for research on implicit theories and research on culture. What implicit theory research gains is a better grasp on the content, origins, and variation of the knowledge structures central to social perception. What cultural psychology gains is middle-range model of the mechanism underlying cultural influence on dispositional attribution, which yields precise predictions about the domain-specificity and dynamics of cultural differences.
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Objective. —To assess the validity and utility of PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders), a new rapid procedure for diagnosing mental disorders by primary care physicians.Design. —Survey; criterion standard.Setting. —Four primary care clinics.Subjects. —A total of 1000 adult patients (369 selected by convenience and 631 selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 31 primary care physicians.Main Outcome Measures. —PRIME-MD diagnoses, independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals, functional status measures (Short-Form General Health Survey), disability days, health care utilization, and treatment/ referral decisions.Results. —Twenty-six percent of the patients had a PRIME-MD diagnosis that met full criteria for a specific disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition. The average time required of the primary care physician to complete the PRIME-MD evaluation was 8.4 minutes. There was good agreement between PRIME-MD diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any PRIME-MD disorder, κ=0.71; overall accuracy rate=88%). Patients with PRIME-MD diagnoses had lower functioning, more disability days, and higher rates of health care utilization than did patients without PRIME-MD diagnoses (for all measures, P<.005). Nearly half (48%) of 287 patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who were somewhat or fairly well-known to their physicians had not been recognized to have that diagnosis before the PRIME-MD evaluation. A new treatment or referral was initiated for 62% of the 125 patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who were not already being treated.Conclusion. —PRIME-MD appears to be a useful tool for identifying mental disorders in primary care practice and research.(JAMA. 1994;272:1749-1756)
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The present article attempts to overcome some of the problems involved in estimating race-of-interviewer effects in a nonexperimental national survey. Individual items as well as scales were examined, using General Social Survey (GSS) data. Race-of-interviewer effects large enough to justify the practice of matching interviewer and respondent race for interviews on racial topics were found for both black and white respondents. A few such effects were found for nonracial items among blacks, but the range of items involved is smaller than what has been reported in previous studies. The impact of race-of-interviewer effects on mean estimates in the GSS appears to be small for white respondents, due to the small proportion of cross-race interviews. The proportion of cross-race interviews among blacks is larger and more variable over the years, and the impact of race-of-interviewer effects should be considered when analyzing items which show these effects.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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This book turns the tables on the way prejudice has been looked at in the past. Almost all of the current information on prejudice focuses on the person holding prejudiced beliefs. This book, however, provides a summary of research focusing on the intended victims of prejudice. The 1st part discusses how people identify prejudice, what types of prejudice they encounter, and how people react to this prejudice in interpersonal and intergroup settings. The 2nd section discusses the effect of prejudice on task performance, assessment of one's own abilities, self-esteem, and stress. The final section examines how people cope with prejudice, including a discussion of coping mechanisms, reporting sexual harassment, and how identity is related to effective coping. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Hurricane Katrina exposed the politics of race, poverty, and inequality to broad public view for the first time in a generation. But the storm and its aftermath also constituted a metaphor for the deep tension between color-blind and race-conscious models of politics that has long been one of the central and defining themes of U.S. politics. In this essay, I explore Hurricane Katrina as a window onto this fundamental dualism in U.S. political culture, its ambivalent embrace of both color blindness and race consciousness. In the storm's immediate aftermath, President George W. Bush became the unlikely mouthpiece of this dualism, and I examine his contradictory statements about race in the storm's wake and place them in historical context. I connect these presidential statements to the broader political context that shapes race policymaking in order to ask whether Katrina and the political response it provoked might generate a policy response that takes seriously the problem of racial inequality exposed by the storm. A brief account of a parallel historical example of race-conscious policy emerging from political conditions apparently dominated by color blindness, the emergence of affirmative action in employment in the 1960s and 1970s, emphasizes the mixture of ideological and strategic, political factors that shape U.S. race politics and policy, and suggests a set of ideological and institutional conditions that may be necessary to generate such a dramatic change in policy direction. I conclude by drawing some lessons from this history for post-Katrina race politics.
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Poll data showed that African Americans perceived more racism in the response to Hurricane Katrina than did White Americans. In this article, we consider claims about racism in Katrina-related events in light of (a) our program of experimental research on group differences in perception of racism and (b) the meta-theoretical perspective of Liberation Psychology (LP). First, this analysis suggests that White Americans may perceive less racism in the Katrina disaster because they are less likely than African Americans to know about historically documented acts of past racism (e.g., following the Mississippi flood of 1927). Second, group differences may arise because African Americans and White Americans face divergent motivations regarding perception of racism. Whereas African Americans may have motivations to be vigilant for the possibility of racism, White Americans may be motivated to deny racism because it constitutes a threat to social identity and to the legitimacy of the status quo.
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We examine people's reactions to the victims of Hurricane Katrina, most of whom are minorities living in poverty, and we do so in terms of system justification theory. We propose that the social system was indirectly threatened for the public when inadequate relief efforts exposed governmental shortcomings, called into question the legitimacy of agency leadership, and highlighted racial inequality in America. In response to such system threats, both victims and observers (e.g., the general public, commentators, policy makers) are known to engage in various forms of system justification, including direct defense of the status quo, victim blaming, stereotyping, and internalization of inequality. These processes can reduce emotional distress and restore perceived legitimacy to the system, but they may have a number of troubling consequences for the storm victims in their efforts to return to normalcy.
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This chapter argues for the importance of understanding the role of culture in structuring people's personal phenomenological experience. Such an understanding is (1) important per se and (2) important for elucidating the feedback loops between culture and self, between macro‐level ideology and micro‐level experience. To illustrate, we contrast the “outsider” perspective on the self of Asian‐Americans with the “insider” perspective on the world for Euro‐Americans. We examine (1) the outsider versus insider perspective by looking at the phenomenology of memory imagery, online imagery, visualization and embodiment of narratives, and relational versus egocentric projection; (2) the implications for cultural differences in egocentric biases that derive from dwelling too much in one's own internal experience; and (3) the emergence of developmental differences in characterizing the social world. We argue that the lessons of experience and cultural ideology cocreate each other, and we illustrate this by describing some ways that distinct phenomenological experiences are intimately tied to cultural norms, beliefs, and ideals.
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First publ.in French,Paris,Ed.de Minuit,1970,La Réproduction: éléments pour une théorie du système d'enseignement.Incl.bibl., index,app., glossaire
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Two studies examined the correspondence bias in attitude attributions of Koreans and Americans. Study I employed the classic attitude attribution paradigm of Jones and Harris and found that both Korean and American participants displayed the correspondence bias in the no-choice condition. This lack of difference might have been due to weak salience of the situational constraints. Study 2 was designed to make the situational constraints of the no-choice condition salient in two ways: (a) by asking participants to write an essay on a topic regardless of their genuine attitude toward the topic or (b) by also making it clear to participants that the essay by the target person was almost a copy of the arguments provided by the experimenter. The results showed that (a) American attributions were unaffected by the two salience manipulations, whereas Koreans' correspondence bias decreased with increasing salience of the constraints, and (b) Koreans were less susceptible to the actor observer bias. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68364/2/10.1177_0146167298249003.pdf
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For more than a century, hundreds of psychologists have studied race and ethnicity. Yet this scholarship, like American culture at large, has been ambivalent, viewing race and ethnicity both as sources of pride, meaning, and motivation as well as sources of prejudice, discrimination, and inequality. Underlying this ambivalence is widespread confusion about what race and ethnicity are and why they matter. To address this ambivalence and confusion, as well as to deepen the American conversation about race and ethnicity, the article first examines the field's unclear definitions and faulty assumptions. It then offers an integrated definition of race and ethnicity--dynamic sets of historically derived and institutionalized ideas and practices--while noting that race, although often used interchangeably with ethnicity, indexes an asymmetry of power and privilege between groups. Further, it shows how psychology's model of people as fundamentally independent, self-determining entities impedes the field's--and the nation's--understanding of how race and ethnicity influence experience and how the still-prevalent belief that race and ethnicity are biological categories hinders a more complete understanding of these phenomena. Five first propositions of a unified theory of race and ethnicity are offered.
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Using experimental paradigms from economics and social psychology, the authors examined the cross-cultural applicability of 3 widely held assumptions about preference and choice: People (a) recruit or construct preferences to make choices; (b) choose according to their preferences; and (c) are motivated to express their preferences in their choices. In 6 studies, they compared how middle-class North American and Indian participants choose among consumer products. Participants in both contexts construct nonrandom preferences at similar speeds. Those in Indian contexts, however, are slower to make choices, less likely to choose according to their personal preferences, and less motivated to express their preferences in their choices. The authors infer that the strong link between preferences and choices observed among North Americans is not a universal feature of human nature. Instead, this link reflects the disjoint model of agency, which prescribes that people should choose freely on the basis of their preferences. In contrast, Indian contexts reflect and promote a conjoint model of agency, according to which agency is responsive to the desires and expectations of important others and may require restraining one's preferences.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
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This study analyzes the ways 100 community-residing men and women aged 45 to 64 coped with the stressful events of daily living during one year. Lazarus's cognitive-phenomenological analysis of psychological stress provides the theoretical framework. Information about recently experienced stressful encounters was elicited through monthly interviews and self-report questionnaires completed between interviews. At the end of each interview and questionnaire, the participant indicated on a 68-item Ways of Coping checklist those coping thoughts and actions used in the specific encounter. A mean of 13.3 episodes was reported by each participant. Two functions of coping, problem-focused and emotion-focused, are analyzed with separate measures. Both problem- and emotion-focused coping were used in 98% of the 1,332 episodes, emphasizing that coping conceptualized in either defensive or problem-solving terms is incomplete- both functions are usually involved. Intraindividual analyses show that people are more variable than consistent in their coping patterns. The context of an event, who is involved, how it is appraised, age, and gender are examined as potential influences on coping. Context and how the event is appraised are the most potent factors. Work contexts favor problem-focused coping, and health contexts favor emotion-focused coping. Situations in which the person thinks something constructive can be done or that are appraised as requiring more information favor problem-focused coping, whereas those having to be accepted favor emotion-focused coping. There are no effects associated with age, and gender differences emerge only in problem-focused coping: Men use more problem-focused coping than women at work and in situations having to be accepted and requiring more information. Contrary to the cultural stereotype, there are no gender differences in emotion-focused coping.
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Using educational attainment to indicate socioeconomic status, the authors examined models of agency and effects of choice among European American adults of different educational backgrounds in 3 studies. Whereas college-educated (BA) participants and their preferred cultural products (i.e., rock music lyrics) emphasized expressing uniqueness, controlling environments, and influencing others, less educated (HS) participants and their preferred cultural products (i.e., country music lyrics) emphasized maintaining integrity, adjusting selves, and resisting influence. Reflecting these models of agency, HS and BA participants differently responded to choice in dissonance and reactance paradigms: BA participants liked chosen objects more than unchosen objects, but choice did not affect HS participants' preferences. Results suggest that HS and BA models of agency qualitatively differ, despite overlap between HS and BA worlds.
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Two studies examined how Olympic performance is explained in American and Japanese contexts. Study 1, an analysis of media coverage of the 2000 and 2002 Olympics, shows that in both Japanese and American contexts, performance is construed mainly in terms of the actions of persons. However, Japanese and American accounts differ in their explanations of the nature and source of intentional agency, that is, in their models of agency. In Japanese contexts, agency is construed as conjoint and simultaneously implicates athletes' personal attributes (both positive and negative), background, and social and emotional experience. In American contexts, agency is construed as disjoint, separate from athletes' background or social and emotional experience; performance is explained primarily through positive personal characteristics and features of the competition. Study 2, in which participants chose information to be included in an athlete's description, confirms these findings. Differences in the construction of agency are reflected in and fostered by common cultural products (e.g., television accounts).
Commemorating Brown: The social psychology of racism and discrimination (pp Perceptions of racism in Hurricane Katrina: A liberation psychology analysis
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African philosophy: Foundations of Black psychology
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Come hell or high water: Hurricane Katrina and the color of disaster
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Beyond prejudice: Toward a sociocultural psychology of racism and oppression
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The psychological predicament of women on welfare
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Interview with Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff
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Who are Katrina's victims?
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