The Bioactivity and Toxicological Actions of Carvacrol

Article (PDF Available)inCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55(3) · May 2013with 6,831 Reads 
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DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2011.653458 · Source: PubMed
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Abstract
ABSTRACT Carvacrol is a monoterpenic phenol produced by an abundant number of aromatic plants, including thyme and oregano. Presently, carvacrol is used in low concentrations as a food flavoring ingredient and preservative, as well as a fragrance ingredient in cosmetic formulations. In recent years, considerable research has been undertaken in an effort to establish the biological actions of carvacrol for its potential use in clinical applications. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies show that carvacrol possess a variety of biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, spasmolytic, and vasorelaxant. The focus of this review is to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the biological, pharmacological, and toxicological effects of carvacrol.
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  • ... Thymol significantly enhanced tonus resting both on endhotelium intact and denuded rat aortic ring [15]. Another mechanism by T. vulgaris induce vasorelaxant mediated through carvacrol pathway [19]. ...
    ... These findings suggest that activation of TRPV3 channels in the endothelium may improve vascular function by promoting arterial relaxation. This finding can results a novel mechanistic for cardioprotective benefits of a diet includes in amounts of Thymus vulgaris [19]. However T.vulgaris might act on the endothelial. ...
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    Objective: Hypertension appears to have a complex association with endothelial dysfunction. One of herbs that potential to develop as anti hypertension is Thymus vulgaris which contains high concentrations of phenols, including thymol and carvacrol that offer protection from hypertension. This study aimed to prove the correlation between different concentration of Thymus vulgaris extract and response of aortic ring relaxation. Methods: Using a laboratory experiment (in vitro study), treatment with provision doses of Thymus vulgaris extract was conducted to guinea pig (aorta ring) after pre-contracted by phenylephrine (PE). Thymus vulgaris extract (TM) at the doses of 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1% were administered to experimental groups including 5 doses of extract with intact aorta rings and 5 doses of extract with denuded aorta rings. Pearson correlation test and T-test were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicate that administration of Thymus vulgaris extract can decrease the contraction of aorta guinea pig. Different doses of Thymus vulgaris extract have different relaxation responses of smooth muscle cell in aortic rings of guinea pig. The lower concentrations doses of Thymus vulgaris extract (0.0625% and 0.125%) can cause an effective and better relaxation effect on contraction of smooth muscle in denuded aorta than in intact aorta. Conclusion: The higher concentrations doses of Thymus vulgaris extract (0.025%, 0.5% and 1%) can increase the contraction of smooth muscle for both intact and denuded aorta of guinea pig.
  • ... The success of oregano essential oil therapies in livestock is attributed to one of their main active components, carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol; Suntres et al., 2015;National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2017), which is a compound found in aromatic plants involved in protection against insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses (Friedman, 2014). Additionally, carvacrol evidences numerous bioactivities, including angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties (Friedman, 2014;Suntres et al., 2015;Matluobi et al., 2018). ...
    ... The success of oregano essential oil therapies in livestock is attributed to one of their main active components, carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol; Suntres et al., 2015;National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2017), which is a compound found in aromatic plants involved in protection against insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses (Friedman, 2014). Additionally, carvacrol evidences numerous bioactivities, including angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties (Friedman, 2014;Suntres et al., 2015;Matluobi et al., 2018). Although the bioactive mechanisms of carvacrol are not fully understood, recent studies suggest that carvacrol affects membrane permeability, membrane polarization, and respiratory activity of microbes (Churklam et al., 2020). ...
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    Objective Our objective was to quantify carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) in milk after prophylactic intrauterine administration of a natural oregano essential oil product in primiparous lactating Holstein cows under an organic management setting. Materials and Methods A single group of 5 Holstein cows was selected from a certified organic herd. A composite milk sample was collected from each cow as the baseline (0 h). All cows were treated 3 times every other day with an intrauterine solution containing 3.75 mL of natural oregano essential oils (NOEO) diluted in 117 mL of distilled water. Milk sampling schemes were (1) 5 cows sampled at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after the first NOEO treatment and (2) 2 cows sampled at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after the third NOEO administration. Carvacrol concentrations were determined using gas chromatograph mass spectrometry. Results and Discussion Carvacrol was detected in the samples collected after NOEO treatment. The highest concentration of carvacrol was at 6 h after the first NOEO treatment (mean ± SD; 0.217 ± 0.159 mg/kg). Most samples were below the limit of quantification after 48 h of the first treatment. Carvacrol reached the mammary alveoli after intrauterine administration of NOEO, with a considerable reduction of concentrations after 48 h of treatment completion. Implications and Applications Carvacrol, the main active ingredient of oregano essential oils, can reach different tissues after local application. This opens research opportunities to investigate the effects of carvacrol on milk quality and flavor, as well as the potential benefits of carvacrol as a antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent in the mammary gland and other tissues. Additionally, as we demonstrated the presence of carvacrol in unprocessed milk, the effects of this compound on consumers should be further investigated in relationship to potential health effects.
  • ... Baser (2008) y Suntres et al. (2015) estudiaron el efecto de la edad de las plantas de L. alba y L. origanoides y su composición química de los aceites esenciales, y sostienen que los compuestos carvona y carvacrol son responsables de la actividad biológica sobre microorganismos en concentraciones bajas, respectivamente, por lo que consideran que representan un gran potencial como antifúngicos, así como para otras aplicaciones clínicas. ...
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    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es un hongo postcosecha que causa grandes pérdidas en la comercialización del fruto de guayaba. El control de esta enfermedad, que comienza en la plantación, ha sido con productos químicos que han generado resistencia del hongo y contaminación al ambiente. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales son una alternativa natural que ha resultado efectiva en el control microbiano por lo cual se estudió la composición química del aceite esencial de Lippia alba y su efecto en el control in vitro de C. gloeosporioides. Se encontraron 21 componentes químicos, de los cuales los mayoritarios fueron carvona (36,6%) y limoneno (29,2%), así mismo se determinó que a partir de la concentración del aceite de 0,75 mg/ml la inhibición del crecimiento micelial fue del 100%, y a concentración de 0,25 y 0,50mg/ ml fue de 74,29% y 60% respectivamente; con un porcentaje de germinación para las mismas dosis de 9,4% y 6,4%. Este resultado evidencia que el aceite esencial de L. alba representa una alternativa viable para el control de este patógeno en postcosecha. Palabras clave: Hongos postcosecha; C. gloeosporioides; C. alba; Verbenaceae; metabolitos secundarios.
  • ... Among them, carvacrol, also known as 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, is an oxygenated monoterpenoid [16], with a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity against pathogens such as Escherichia coli [17], Staphylococcus aureus [18] and Listeria monocytogenes [19], and which thus represents a promising natural antibacterial compound. The carvacrol's antibacterial mechanisms include disruption of the cell membrane, induction of reactive oxygen species production, and inhibition of efflux pumps, biofilm formation and quorum sensing [20][21][22][23][24][25]. However, to our knowledge, few attempts have been made to control Psa using a combination of phages and carvacrol [26,27]. ...
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    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causative agent of the bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.). Phage therapy has been suggested as a viable alternative approach to controlling this disease, but its efficacy is limited by the emergence of phage-resistant mutants. Carvacrol is an essential oil that may be useful for the control of Psa. Combination therapies can be used to overcome resistance development. Here, the combination of phages (single phage suspensions of phages PN05 and PN09, and a cocktail of both phages) and carvacrol was investigated in controlling Psa planktonic and biofilm forms in vitro. The phage therapy alone (with phages PN05 and PN09), and the carvacrol alone (minimum inhibitory concentration 2.0 mg/mL), inhibited Psa growth, but the combined effect of both therapies was more effective. The phages alone effectively inhibited Psa growth for 24 h, but Psa regrowth was observed after this time. The carvacrol (2.0 mg/mL) alone prevented the biofilm formation for 48 h, but did not destroy the pre-formed biofilms. The combined treatment, phages and carvacrol (2.0 mg/mL), showed a higher efficacy, preventing Psa regrowth for more than 40 h. In conclusion, the combined treatment with phages and carvacrol may be a promising, environment-friendly and cost-effective approach to controlling Psa in the kiwifruit industry.
  • ... iNOS, eNOS expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells have notably been increased by the dual application of these agents, as well. Although there is no study about the apoptotic effect of oregano oil obtained from Origanum minutiflorum on Nb2A cells, in some studies, it has been shown that oregano oil from different plant species induces apoptosis in different cancer cell lines such as 5RP7 and MCF-7 cells [29][30][31]. The results of these studies are consistent with our study results. ...
  • ... Carvacrol, a monoterpene phenol, is major component of essential oil extracts from plants in the family Lamiaceae including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and marjoram (Origanum marjoram L.) (Nunes Wolffenbuttel et al., 2015). This phytomolecule in low concentration is considered safe for humans and it is commonly applied as a flavoring agent (Suntres et al., 2015). In addition, this compound has extensively demonstrated pharmacological properties, including antifungal and antibacterial activities, and immunoregulatory potential (Wieten et al., 2010). ...
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    As the prevalence of systemic fungal infections caused by Candida albicans gradually increases, it is necessary to explore potential and effective antifungals. Carvacrol is reported to be lethally toxic to C. albicans, involving several potential mechanisms. However, the form and specific mechanism of cell death caused by this compound has not been delineated. In this study, we found that carvacrol could significantly decrease C. albicans survival rates, consistent with previous researches. Further examination proved that carvacrol treatment caused cell membrane permeability and depolarization. To elucidate the association between cell death and apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activation were determined; as expected, these two apoptosis-related markers were clearly observed. Moreover, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were elevated, and both mitochondrial transmembrane potential and morphology were disrupted. Additionally, cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium levels were also increased by carvacrol. Calcineurin inhibition experiments revealed cyclosporine A (CsA) addition notably rescued cell growth and inhibited metacaspase activation, indicating that carvacrol triggered C. albicans apoptosis through inducing calcineurin activation. Carvacrol was demonstrated to both have low toxicity and be effective in alleviating systemic infections with C. albicans, which might be via its antifungal and immunomodulation activities. This study suggests that carvacrol has excellent potential as a natural protective compound against C. albicans infections.
  • ... They contain carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, used as a food flavoring and as a fragrance in cosmetics. In vitro and in vivo studies show that carvacrol has antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties [51]. Its anti-inflammatory property is associated with its role in the inhibition of COX-2; in fact, carvacrol plays an agonistic role on PPAR-γ, which induces the inhibition of the activity of the COX-2 promoter. ...
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  • ... They exert a wide range of biological activities with antiinflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities, and other human ailments (Brito et al. 2013;Oliveira et al. 2016;Srinivasan and Muruganathan 2016;Saad and Abdelgaleil 2018;Santos et al. 2018). Several studies have proved monoterpene as a potential resource for anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory (Guimarães et al. 2015;Suntres et al. 2015) actions. The lipophilic characteristic features of these monoterpenes show a promising relationship to the modulation of cytokines with their speedy action and nature of absorption (Spelman et al. 2006). ...
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