ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The field of nanotechnology now has pivotal roles in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application can be appraised, as it involves the materials to be designed at atomic and molecular level. Due to the advantage of their size, nanospheres have been shown to be robust drug delivery systems and may be useful for encapsulating drugs and enabling more precise targeting with a controlled release. In this review specifically, we highlight the recent advances of this technology for medicine and drug delivery systems.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Nanomedicine and drug delivery: a mini review
Agha Zeeshan Mirza Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui
Received: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2014
ÓThe Author(s) 2014. This article is published with open access at
Abstract The field of nanotechnology now has pivotal
roles in electronics, biology and medicine. Its application
can be appraised, as it involves the materials to be designed
at atomic and molecular level. Due to the advantage of
their size, nanospheres have been shown to be robust drug
delivery systems and may be useful for encapsulating drugs
and enabling more precise targeting with a controlled
release. In this review specifically, we highlight the recent
advances of this technology for medicine and drug delivery
Keywords Drug delivery Nanotechnology Inorganic
nanoparticles Organic nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are organic or inorganic structures (sizes
1–100 nm) similar to antibodies and DNA plasmids [13].
Significant work has been done in past decades in the field
of nanotechnology; now it is possible to fabricate, char-
acterize, and modify the functional properties of nanopar-
ticles for medical diagnostics and biomedical applications
[410]. Nanobiotechnology bridges the physical and bio-
logical sciences [11], with applications of nanophase and
nanostructures in different areas of science, especially in
biomedicine, in which these objects are of great interest
[1216]. Nanoparticles are influencing the field of medi-
cine from nanobiotechnology, microfluidics, biosensors,
drug delivery, and microarrays to tissue micro-engineering
[17]. Metal, organic and polymeric nanoparticles and lip-
osomes are commonly studied and can be designed for the
site-specific delivery of drugs (Fig. 1)[18] especially those
drugs which have poor solubility and absorption [19,20].
Nanoparticles for drug delivery
The most promising application of nanomaterials is the
promise of targeted, site-specific drug delivery. The
potential of eliminating a tumorous outgrowth without any
collateral damage through nanomaterial-based drug deliv-
ery has created significant interest and nanoparticles form
the basis for bio-nano-materials [3] and major efforts in
designing drug delivery systems are based on functional-
ized nanoparticles [21,22]. Initially, they were devised as
carriers for vaccines and anticancer drugs [23] and then the
nanometer size ranges may significantly enhance the drug
delivery by affecting the bio-distribution and toxicody-
namics of drugs [24,25]. This can make in vivo delivery of
many types of drugs which pose serious delivery problems,
a relatively easy task [26]. Modifying or functionalizing
nanoparticles to deliver drugs through the blood brain
barrier for targeting brain tumors can be regarded as a
brilliant outcome of this technology [27]. For example,
doxorubicin does not cross the blood–brain barrier, but its
integration with polysorbate 80 modified polybutylcyano-
acrylate nanoparticles can increase its delivery to the brain
to a significant extent [28]. Due to their size, shape and
functionality, nanoparticle systems play a pivotal role in
creation of DNA delivery vectors [29]. They can penetrate
deep into tissues and are absorbed by the cells efficiently
A. Z. Mirza (&)
Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270,
F. A. Siddiqui
Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science
and Technology, Karachi 75300, Pakistan
Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94
DOI 10.1007/s40089-014-0094-7
[30]. Nano-sized colloidal carriers of drugs can be regarded
as an advanced development in pharmacotherapy [31].
They act as potential carriers for several classes of drugs
like anti-cancer, anti-hypertensive and hormones, etc. [18].
Submicron colloidal particles have been used as nanopar-
ticles for the purpose of drug delivery [32] and also used
for the diagnosis of diseases [26]. Nanoparticles have
widened the scope of pharmacokinetics for insoluble drugs.
For example, the trans-retinoic acid nanoparticle coated by
was developed as a new drug delivery system,
which on spray drying formed aggregates. The aggregates
thus formed were found to re-disperse in water, which
stimulated insulin secretion from islets [33]. Generally,
nanoparticle may be composed of polymeric or inorganic
materials. Some important examples from literature are
reviewed in the following sections.
Polymeric nanoparticle
Polymeric nanoparticles are made from biocompatible and
biodegradable materials and a variety of natural (gelatin,
albumin) and synthetic polymers (polylactides, poly-
alkylcyanoacrylates) [32] are considered as the most
promising drug carrier as compared to liposomes [34].
Polymers as host material play a significant role in metals
[3436] and semiconductors [3740] nanoparticles. These
nanoparticles are designed as drug carrier with the objec-
tive of delivering active molecules to the intended target
[41]. Polymers are filled with dispersed nano-fillers
(smaller than 100 nm) in nano-composites [42]. Polymer
hydrophobicity, nanoparticle area and monomer concen-
tration affect the adsorption capacity of the drug [43].
During polymerization, drugs may be added and be
entrapped within the nanoparticle polymer network. Prob-
lems of drug bioavailability can be solved with nanotech-
nology. To improve drug absorption and bioavailability of
hydrophobic drugs (paclitaxel or 5-fluorouracil) nano-scale
cavities with liposomes or encapsulated polymers can be
designed which can metabolize drugs at optimum rates for
desired therapeutic effect in target tissues [4446]. Nano-
capsules can be synthesized using polymers or from albu-
min and liposomes [24].
There are several polymers available for the synthesis of
nanoparticles. Polylactide–polyglycolide copolymers,
polyacrylates and polycaprolactones, etc. are synthetic
polymers whereas albumin, gelatin, alginate, collagen and
chitosan used as natural polymers [25]. Polylactides and
poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) polymers undergo hydro-
lysis upon implantation, form biologically compatible
Fig. 1 Example of metal nanoparticles, dendrimers, peptide-based nanoparticles, liposomes, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots
94 Page 2 of 7 Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94
fragments, and are mostly investigated for drug delivery
[47]. It is apparent that chemical conjugation of drugs with
different polymers provides opportunities to increase their
activities. Jie et al. synthesized amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxy)-
propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-cholic acid poly-
mers by joining cholic acid and glycidyl trimethyl
ammonium chloride onto chitosan and self-assembled into
nanoparticles in phosphate-buffered saline. Doxorubicin
could be encapsulated into these nanoparticles and then
could easily be uptaken by breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and
released into the cytoplasm [48]. Shengtang et al. synthe-
size folic acid-conjugated chitosan–polylactide copolymers
to build a drug carrier with active targeting of paclitaxel.
Targeting characteristic was confirmed using folic acid
receptor-expressed MCF-7 breast cancer cells [49]. One
research described the fabrication of quatemized
poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation-3, QPPI
(G3) as a drug carrier for poorly soluble anti-inflammatory
drug nimesulide and an improvement in solubility of drug
was observed [50]. Abdullah et al. [51] encapsulated nano-
scaled emulsion containing ibuprofen with carbopol 934,
940 and ultrez 10 as viscosity modifiers. Behbehani et al.
[52] observed the effect of silica nanoparticles on the
activity of a-amylase. Park et al. [53] reported that glycol
chitosan-based nanoparticles of adriamycin are useful for
sustained and specific delivery of adriamycin, thus showing
lower cytotoxicity than adriamycin alone.
Release of drugs from nanoparticles and biodegradation
are important parameters to be considered for developing
successful formulations. Therefore, the diffusion charac-
teristics and breakdown properties of the nanoparticles at
the drug delivery site need to be carefully mapped to
achieve effective therapeutic capabilities [54].
Inorganic nanoparticles
Nanoparticles offered important multifunctional platforms
for biomedical applications. Varieties of nanoparticles,
such as silica nanoparticles [55], quantum dots [56,57],
metal nanoparticles [58] and lanthanide nanoparticles [59,
60], have unique properties which are adapted for different
applications in the bio-analysis field.
A nanoparticle does not only indicate drug delivery but
confirmation of target delivery is also important. Tracking
of nanomedicine from the systemic to sub-cellular level
becomes essential. Many florescent markers are available;
however, nanoparticles have not only advantage of show-
ing improvement in fluorescent markers for medical
imaging and diagnostic applications but also in imaging of
tumors and other diseases in vivo [61]. For example, Lee
et al. synthesized Fe
nanocrystals on uniform dye-
doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles to be used as a
contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging and loaded
doxorubicin in the pores. This system has great potential as
probes in magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging
and doxorubicin was successfully delivered to the tumor
sites and its anticancer activity was retained [62]. Simi-
larly, histidine-tagged cyan fluorescent protein-capped
magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles system was
fabricated for drug delivery and fluorescent imaging [63].
Quantum dots are small-sized (1–10 nm) semiconductor
nanocrystals composed of inorganic elemental core (e.g.,
Cd and Se) surrounded by a metallic shell (ZnS). They are
widely used in biological research and can also be used as
drug carriers or simply as fluorescent labels for other drug
carriers [56,57]. Among the broad diversity of nanoparti-
cles, iron oxide and gold nanoparticles are the most
intensively studied [64]. Due to the presence of surface
plasmons, gold, copper and silver nanoparticles strongly
absorb light in the visible region, making it possible to
study their size-dependent light absorption through surface
plasmon resonance (SPR). Gold nanoparticles and nano-
rods have many unique properties, which have been
explored for potential applications in bio-molecular
detection (Fig. 2)[65]. In terms of biocompatibility and
non-cytotoxicity, gold nanoparticles as approved by the
FDA have distinct advantages over other metallic particles
and could also be utilized as a favorable carrier for delivery
of drugs [66]. These nanoparticles can be conjugated with
amino acid [67] and proteins [68]. Fabrication of gold
nanoparticles and functionalization with organic molecules
to interact with any physiological system are more
important [6971]. These functionalized nanoparticles are
a promising candidate for drug delivery as biomarkers of
drug resistance cancer cell [72]. Reported application of
gold nanoparticles includes insulin delivery by nasal route
[73], improved antimicrobial action against E. coli strains
[74] and ciprofloxacin-protected nanoparticles [75]for
better drug release. Dhar et al. [64] reported a method for
synthesis of gold nanoparticles using natural, gellan gum
for the delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride and demon-
strated the successful loading of doxorubicin onto gold
nanoparticles. Similarly, Gibson et al. [76] defined a very
accurate measurement of biological activity by well-
defined preparation of gold drug nanoparticle system. Hwu
et al. [72] synthesized three paclitaxel-conjugated nano-
particles using Fe
and gold as the core. These conju-
gated nano-materials comprise a new class of candidates as
anticancer drugs. Our group has investigated synthesis and
functionalization of gold nanoparticles [77]. We have
functionalized gold nanoparticles with different anticancer
drugs for target drug delivery and also as reducing and
capping agents for gold nanoparticle synthesis. As such, the
applications are very broad and useful for the release of
different biologically active molecules. Recent work by us
Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94 Page 3 of 7 94
suggested that Au NPs-Au NRs complexes can also be used
for further attachment of drugs and biomolecules for
potential-targeted drug delivery [78]. Our research indi-
cated that the surface modification can enhance the stability
of Au NRs and we can use Au NRs as multiplex biosen-
sors. Our focus was on the development of nanoparticles
for bio-sensing and targeted drug delivery for cancer
therapeutics. We developed folic acid and doxorubicin-
tagged nanoparticles through a novel chemical linking
protocol and tagged folic acid and doxorubicin on different
planes of the nanorods. In this configuration, the nanorods
can potentially target cancer cells very selectively and then
deliver a cancer drug with high efficiency. An investigation
of biological activity of this system is ongoing and will be
Nanoparticle characterization can be performed by
measuring the following parameters as particle size, sur-
face charge, surface functionality and optical and magnetic
properties. Formation of nanoparticles is demonstrated
using surface plasmon resonance by the UV–Vis–NIR
absorption spectra (Fig. 3). The most commonly used
techniques to measure nanoparticles size are transmission
electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM). The zeta potential of a particle is used
Fig. 2 a TEM images of gold
nanoparticles, bnanorods,
cSEM images of nanoparticles
Fig. 3 Visible-NIR spectra of
gold nanoparticles (a) and
nanorods (b)
94 Page 4 of 7 Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94
to establish the colloidal stability of nanoparticles and it
also gives the complete picture of overall charges. More-
over, it can also help in formulating the more stable
nanoparticles product by shedding information on the
effect of various parameters as pH, concentration of an
additive or ionic strength of the medium on it [79,80].
Nanoparticles are rapidly becoming the focus of most
efforts aiming at targets and site-specific drug delivery. The
targeting ability of nanoparticles depends on certain factors
such as particle size, surface charge, surface modification
and hydrophobicity. Still many problems related to selec-
tive binding, targeted delivery and toxicity need to be
overcome. Limited knowledge about the toxicity of nano-
particles is a major concern and certainly deserves more
attention. If these nanoparticles are cautiously designed to
tackle problems related to target and route of administra-
tion, they may lead to a new more successful paradigm in
the world of therapeutics and research. The most promising
research in nanoparticle production is via using supercrit-
ical fluids which are environmental friendly and free of
toxic solvents. Much research is currently being performed
to overcome these hurdles which will definitely establish
nanoparticle-based drug delivery as the gold standard for
site-specific therapeutics.
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no com-
peting interests.
Authors’ contributions AZM surveyed and drafted the review
article. All authors read and approved the final review.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, dis-
tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author(s) and the source are credited.
1. Whitesides, G.M.: The ‘right’ size in nanobiotechnology. Nat.
Biotech. 21, 1161–1165 (2003)
2. Lowe, C.R.: Nanobiotechnology: the fabrication and applications
of chemical and biological nanostructures. Curr. Opin. Chem.
Biol. 10, 428–434 (2000)
3. Wang, L., Zhao, W., Tan, W.: Bioconjugated silica nanoparticles:
development and applications. Nano Res. 1, 99–115 (2008)
4. John, V.T., Simmons, B., McPherson, G.L., Bose, A.: Recent
developments in materials synthesis in surfactant systems. Curr.
Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 7, 288 (2002)
5. Castelvetro, V., De Vita, C.: Nanostructured hybrid materials
from aqueous polymer dispersions. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
108–109, 167–185 (2004)
6. Jang, J.H., Shea, L.D.: Controllable delivery of non-viral DNA
from porous scaffolds. J Control Release 86, 157–168 (2003)
7. Shi, M., Yang, Y.Y., Chaw, C.S., Goh, S.H., Moochhala, S.M.,
Ng, S., Heller, J.: Double walled POE/PLGA microspheres:
encapsulation of water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins and
their release properties. J. Control Release 89, 167–177 (2003)
8. Mu, L., Feng, S.S.: Fabrication, characterization and in vitro
release of paclitaxel (taxol) loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic
acid) microspheres prepared by spray drying technique with
lipid/cholesterol emulsifiers. J. Control Release 76, 239–254
9. Jones, C.D., Fidalgo, M.M., Wiesner, M.R., Barron, A.R.: Alu-
mina ultrafiltration membranes derived from carboxylate-alu-
moxane nanoparticles. J. Membr. Sci. 193, 175–184 (2001)
10. Gupta, A.K., Gupta, M.: Synthesis and surface engineering of
iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Biomateri-
als 26, 3995–4201 (2005)
11. Liu, Z., Tabakman, S., Welsher, K., Dai, H.: Carbon nanotubes in
biology and medicine: in vitro and in vivo detection, imaging and
drug delivery. Nano Res. 2, 85–120 (2009)
12. Razzacki, S.Z., Thwar, P.K., Yang, M., Ugaz, V.M., Burns, M.A.:
Integrated microsystems for controlled drug delivery. Adv. Drug
Deliv. Rev. 56, 185–198 (2004)
13. Frank, A., Kumar, R.S., Boey, F., Venkatraman, S.: Study of the
initial stages of drug release from a degradable matrix of poly(D,
L-lactide-co-glycolide). Biomaterials 25, 813 (2004)
14. Freitas, R.A.: What is nanomedicine? Nanomedicine 1, 2–9 (2005)
15. Vinogradov, S.V., Bronich, T.K., Kabanov, A.V.: Nanosized
cationic hydrogels for drug delivery: preparation, properties and
interactions with cells. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 54, 135–147
16. Orive, G., Gasco
´n, A.R., Herna
´ndez, R.M., Gil, A.D., Pedraz,
J.L.: Techniques: new approaches to the delivery of biopharma-
ceuticals. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 25, 382–387 (2004)
17. Arayne, M.S., Sultana, N., Qureshi, F.: Review: nanoparticles in
delivery of cardiovascular drugs. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 20, 340–348
18. Bala, I., Hariharan, S., Kumar, M.N.: PLGA nanoparticles in drug
delivery: the state of the art. Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst.
21, 387–422 (2004)
19. Karen, K., Tasana, P., Nigel, D.M., Thomas, R.: Entrapment of
bioactive molecules in poly (alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.
Am. J. Drug Deliv. 4, 251–259 (2004)
20. Reddy, L.H., Murthy, R.S.R.: Pharmacokinetics and biodistribu-
tion studies of doxorubicin loaded poly(butyl cyanoacrylate)
nanoparticles synthesized by two different techniques. Biomed.
Pap. Med. Fac. Univ. Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 148,
161–166 (2004)
21. Yokoyama, M., Miyauchi, M., Yamada, N., Okano, T., Sakurai,
Y., Kataoka, K., Inoue, S.: Polymer micelles as novel drug car-
rier: adriamycin-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartic
acid) block copolymer. J. Control. Rel. 11, 269 (1990)
22. Yokoyama, M., Okano, T., Sakurai, Y., Ekimoto, H., Shibazaki,
C., Kataoka, K.: Toxicity and antitumor activity against solid
tumors of micelle-forming polymeric anticancer drug and its
extremely long circulation in blood. Cancer Res. 51, 3229–3236
23. Couvreur, P., Kante, B., Grislain, L., Roland, M., Speiser, P.:
Toxicity of polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles II: doxorubicin-
loaded nanoparticles. J. Pharm. Sci. 71, 790–792 (1982)
24. Thrall, J.H.: Nanotechnology and medicine. Radiology 230,
315–318 (2004)
25. Moghimi, S.M., Hunter, A.C., Murray, J.C.: Long-circulating and
target-specific nanoparticles: theory to practice. Pharmacol. Rev.
53, 283 (2001)
26. Vauthier, C., Labarre, D., Ponchel, G.: Design aspects of
poly(alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles for drug delivery. J. Drug
Target. 15, 641 (2007)
Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94 Page 5 of 7 94
27. Nazarov, G.V., Galan, S.E., Nazarova, E.V., Karkishchenko,
N.N., Muradov, M.M., Stepanov, V.A.: Nanosized forms of drugs
(a review). Pharm. Chem. J. 43, 163–170 (2009)
28. Gulyaev, A.E., Gelperina, S.E., Skidan, I.N., Antropov, A.S.,
Kivman, G.Y., Kreuter, J.: Significant transport of doxorubicin
into the brain with polysorbate 80-coated nanoparticles. Pharm.
Res. 16, 1564–1569 (1999)
29. Han, G., Ghosh, P., Rotello, V.M.: Functionalized gold nano-
particles for drug delivery. Nanomedicine 2, 113–123 (2007)
30. Vinagradov, S.V., Bronich, T.K., Kabanov, A.V.: Pluronic block
copolymers: novel functional molecules for gene therapy. Adv.
Drug Del. Rev. 54, 223–233 (2002)
31. Arayne, M.S., Sultana, N., Sabah, N.: Fabrication of solid
nanoparticles for drug delivery. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 20, 251–259
32. Gelperina, S., Kisich, K., Iseman, M.D., Heifets, L.: The potential
advantages of nanoparticle drug delivery systems in chemother-
apy of tuberculosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 172,
1487–1490 (2005)
33. Yamaguchi, Y., Igarashi, R.: Nanotechnology for therapy of type
2 diabetes. Nihon Rinsho 64, 295–300 (2006)
34. Akamatsu, K., Takei, S., Mizuhata, M., Kajinami, A., Deki, S.,
Takeoka, S., Fujii, M., Hayashi, S., Yamamoto, K.: Preparation
and characterization of polymer thin films containing silver and
silver sulfide nanoparticles. Thin Solid Films 359, 55–60 (2000)
35. Zeng, R., Rong, M.Z., Zhang, M.Q., Liang, H.C., Zeng, H.M.:
Laser ablation of polymer-based silver nanocomposites. Appl.
Surf. Sci. 187, 239–247 (2002)
36. Hussain, I., Brust, M., Papworth, A.J., Cooper, A.I.: Preparation
of acrylate-stabilized gold and silver hydrosols and gold-polymer
composite films. Langmuir 19, 4831–4835 (2003)
37. Kumar, R.V., Elgamiel, R., Diamant, Y., Gedanken, A., Norwig,
J.: Sonochemical preparation and characterization of nanocrys-
talline copper oxide embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol) and its
effect on crystal growth of copper oxide. Langmuir 17,
1406–1410 (2001)
38. Sajinovic, D., Saponjic, Z.V., Cvjeticanin, N., Marinovic, C.M.,
Nedeljkovic, J.M.: Synthesis and characterization of CdS quan-
tum dots–polystyrene composite. Chem. Phys. Lett. 329, 168–172
39. Kumar, R.V., Koltypin, Y., Cohen, Y.S., Aurbach, D., Palchik,
O., Felner, I., Gedanken, A.: Preparation of amorphous magnetite
nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol using ultrasound
radiation. J. Mater. Chem. 10, 1125–1129 (2000)
40. Yu, S.H., Yoshimura, M., Moreno, J.M.C., Fujiwara, T., Fujino,
T., Teranishi, R.: In situ fabrication and optical properties of a
novel polystyrene/semiconductor nanocomposite embedded with
CdS nanowires by a soft solution processing route. Langmuir 17,
1700 (2001)
41. Yang, S.C., Ge, H.X., Hu, Y., Jiang, X.Q., Yang, C.Z.: Doxo-
rubicin-loaded poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles produced
by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
78, 517–526 (2000)
42. Huang, H., Yuan, Q., Yang, X.: Preparation and characterization
of metal-chitosan nanocomposites. Colloids Surf. B 39, 31–37
43. Egea, M.A., Gamisani, F., Valero, J., Garcia, M.E., Garcia, M.L.:
Entrapment of cisplatin into biodegradable polyalkylcyanoacry-
late nanoparticles. Farmaco 49, 211–217 (1994)
44. Santhi, K., Dhanaraj, S.A., Joseph, V., Ponnusankar, S., Suresh,
B.: A study on the preparation and anti-tumor efficacy of bovine
serum albumin nanospheres containing 5-fluorouracil. Drug Dev.
Ind. Pharm. 28, 1171–1179 (2002)
45. Mu, L., Feng, S.S.: A novel controlled release formulation for the
anticancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol
): PLGA nanoparticles con-
taining vitamin E TPGS. J. Control Release 86, 33–48 (2003)
46. Chawla, J.S., Amiji, M.M.: Biodegradable poly (e-caprolactone)
nanoparticles for tumor-targeted delivery of tamoxifen. Int.
J. Pharm. 249, 127–138 (2002)
47. Jain, R.A.: The manufacturing techniques of various drug loaded
biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) devices. Bio-
materials 21, 2475–2490 (2000)
48. Jie, Y., Wenfeng, L., Chang, Y., Chengguang, Z., Langping, J.,
Yili, Z., Xuzhong, X., Siyang, D., Xincheng, L., Ouchen, W.:
Amphiphilically modified chitosan cationic nanoparticles for
drug delivery. J. Nanopart. Res. 15, 2123 (2013)
49. Shengtang, H., Ying, W., Zheng, W., Jiliang, W.: Folate-conju-
gated chitosan–polylactide nanoparticles for enhanced intracel-
lular uptake of anticancer drug. J. Nanopart. Res. 15, 2096 (2013)
50. Murugan, E., Geetha, R.D.P., Yogaraj, V.: Drug delivery inves-
tigations of quaternised poly(propylene imine) dendrimer using
nimesulide as a model drug. Colloids Surf. B 114, 121–129 (2014)
51. Abdullah, G.Z., Abdulkarim, M.F., Mallikarjun, C., Mahdi, E.S.,
Basri, M., Abdul Sattar, M., Noor, A.M.: Carbopol 934, 940 and Ultrez
10 as viscosity modifiers of palm olein esters based nano-scaled
emulsion containing ibuprofen, Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 26, 75–83 (2013)
52. Behbehani, G.R., Soleimani, M., Khani, A., Barzegarand, L.,
Bagheri, S.: The effect of colloidal silica nanoparticles on the
activity of a-amylase. Pak. J. Chem. 2, 200–202 (2012)
53. Park, J.H., Cho, Y.W., Son, Y.J., Kim, K., Chung, H., Jeong,
S.Y., Choi, K., Park, C.R., Park, R.W., Kim, I., Kwon, I.C.:
Preparation and characterization of self-assembled nanoparticles
based on glycol chitosan bearing adriamycin. Colloid Polym. Sci.
284, 763–770 (2006)
54. Soppimath, K.S., Aminabhavi, T.M., Kulkarni, A.R., Rudzinski,
W.E.: Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery
devices. J. Control. Release 70, 1–20 (2001)
55. Tan, W., Wang, K.M., He, X., Zhao, X.J., Drake, T., Wang, L.,
Bagwe, R.P.: Bionanotechnology based on silica nanoparticles.
Med. Res. Rev. 24, 621–638 (2004)
56. Stroh, M., Zimmer, J.P., Duda, D.G., Levchenko, T.S., Cohen,
K.S., Brown, E.B., Scadden, D.T., Torchilin, V.P., Bawendi,
M.G., Fukumura, D., Jain, R.K.: Quantum dots spectrally dis-
tinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo. Nat.
Med. 11, 678–682 (2005)
57. Michalet, X., Pinaud, F.F., Bentolila, L.A., Tsay, J.M., Doose, S.,
Li, J.J., Sundaresan, G., Wu, A.M., Gambhir, S.S., Weiss, S.:
Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics.
Science 307, 538–544 (2005)
58. Daniel, M.C., Astruc, D.: Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supra-
molecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and
applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology.
Chem. Rev. 104, 293–346 (2004)
59. Nichkova, M., Dosev, D., Gee, S.J., Hammock, B.D., Kennedy,
I.M.: Microarray immunoassay for phenoxybenzoic acid using
polymer encapsulated Eu:Gd
nanoparticles as fluorescent
labels. Anal. Chem. 77, 6864–6873 (2005)
60. Chen, Y., Chi, Y., Wen, H., Lu, Z.: Sensitized luminescent ter-
bium nanoparticles: preparation and time-resolved fluorescence
assay for DNA. Anal. Chem. 79, 960–965 (2007)
61. Parveen, S., Misra, R., Sahoo, S.K.: Nanoparticles: a boon to drug
delivery, therapeutics, diagnostics and imaging, nanomedicine:
nanotechnology. Biology and Medicine 8, 147–166 (2012)
62. Lee, J.E., Lee, N., Kim, H., Kim, J., Choi, S.H., Kim, J.H., Kim,
T., Song, I.C., Park, S.P., Moon, W.K., Hyeon, T.: Uniform
mesoporous dye-doped silica nanoparticles decorated with mul-
tiple magnetite nanocrystals for simultaneous enhanced magnetic
resonance imaging, fluorescence imaging, and drug delivery.
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 552–557 (2010)
63. Yang, X., Li, Z., Li, M., Ren, J., Qu, X.: Fluorescent protein
capped mesoporous nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery
and imaging. Chem. Eur. J. 19, 15378–15383 (2013)
94 Page 6 of 7 Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94
64. Li, L., Fan, M., Brown, R., Van, L.J., Wang, J., Wang, W., Song,
Y., Zhang, P.: Synthesis, properties, and environmental applica-
tions of nanoscale iron-based materials: a review. Crit. Rev.
Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 405–431 (2006)
65. Kim, C.K., Kalluru, R.R., Singh, J.P., Fortner, A., Griffin, J.,
Darbha, G.K., Ray, P.C.: Gold-nanoparticle-based miniaturized
laser-induced fluorescence probe for specific DNA hybridization
detection: studies on size-dependent optical properties. Nano-
technology 17, 3085 (2006)
66. Dhar, S., Reddy, E.M., Shiras, A., Pokharkar, V., Prasad, B.L.V.:
Natural gum reduced/stabilized gold nanoparticles for drug
delivery formulations. Chem. Eur. J. 14, 10244–10250 (2008)
67. Selvakannan, P.R., Mandal, S., Phadtare, S., Gole, A., Pasricha,
R., Adyanthaya, S.D., Murali, S.: Water-dispersible tryptophan-
protected gold nanoparticles prepared by the spontaneous
reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions by the amino acid.
J. Colloid Interface Sci. 269, 97–102 (2004)
68. Niemeyer, C.M.: Functional hybrid devices of proteins and
inorganic nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. 42, 5796–5800 (2003)
69. Woehrle, G.H., Brown, L.O., Hutchison, J.E.: Thiol-functional-
ized, 1.5-nm gold nanoparticles through ligand exchange reac-
tions: scope and mechanism of ligand exchange. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 127, 2172–2183 (2005)
70. Liu, Y., Shipton, M.K., Ryan, J., Kaufman, E.D., Franzen, S.,
Feldheim, D.L.: Synthesis, stability, and cellular internalization
of gold nanoparticles containing mixed peptide—poly(ethylene
glycol) monolayers. Anal. Chem. 79, 2221–2229 (2007)
71. Hurst, S.J., Lytton-Jean, A.K.R., Mirkin, C.A.: Maximizing DNA
loading on a range of gold nanoparticle sizes. Anal. Chem. 78,
8313–8318 (2006)
72. Hwu, J.R., Lin, Y.S., Josephrajan, T., Hsu, M.H., Cheng, F.Y.,
Yeh, C.S., Su, W.C., Shieh, D.B.: Targeted paclitaxel by conju-
gation to iron oxide and gold nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc.
131, 66–68 (2009)
73. Joshi, H.M., Bhumkar, D.R., Joshi, K., Pokharkar, V., Sastry, M.:
Gold nanoparticles as carriers for efficient transmucosal insulin
delivery. Langmuir 22, 300–305 (2006)
74. Gu, H.W., Ho, P.L., Tong, E., Wang, L., Xu, B.: Presenting
vancomycin on nanoparticles to enhance antimicrobial activities.
Nano Lett. 3, 1261–1263 (2003)
75. Tom, R.T., Suryanarayanan, V., Reddy, P.G., Baskaran, S., Pra-
deep, T.: Ciprofloxacin-protected gold nanoparticles. Langmuir
20, 1909–1914 (2004)
76. Gibson, J.D., Bshnu, P.K., Eugene, R.Z.: Paclitaxel-functiona-
lized gold nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 11653–11661
77. Mirza A.Z and Shamshad H., Preparation and characterization of
doxorubicin functionalized gold nanoparticles, European Journal
of Medicinal Chemistry, 46, 1857-1860 (2011)
78. Mirza A.Z., Shamshad H.: A versatile approach for the func-
tionalization of gold nanorods and nanoparticles. J. Nanopart.
Res. 15, 1–6 (2013) (art no. 1404)
79. Verhaegh, N.A.M., van Blaaderen, A.: Dispersions of rhodamine-
labeled silica spheres: synthesis, characterization, and fluores-
cence confocal scanning laser microscopy. Langmuir 10,
1427–1438 (1994)
80. Nyffenegger, R., Quellet, C., Ricka, J.: Synthesis of fluorescent,
monodisperse, colloidal silica particles. J. Colloid Interface Sci.
159, 150–157 (1993)
Int Nano Lett (2014) 4:94 Page 7 of 7 94
... Encapsulation in adequately designed delivery vehicles has been the most prominent research paradigm to overcome the shortcomings of lipophilic phytochemicals solubility, bioavailability and alter the drug pharmacokinetics to achieve desired therapeutic efficacy and safety [9]. The field of biomedicine integrating nanobiotechnology, drug delivery and tissue engineering have been incited by nanoparticles [10]. Polymeric nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 10 to 1000 nm possess properties that make them desirable for use as a delivery vehicle. ...
Full-text available
The present work explores the biocompatibility of the fabricated and optimized blank Alginate/chitosan nanoparticles (ALG/CSNPs) and quercetin loaded Alginate/chitosan nanoparticles (Q-ALG/CSNPs) with an emphasis on producing an improved biological efficacy on the hydrophobic flavonoid. ATR-FTIR studies evidenced the chemical interaction among the drug and the polymer matrix. The morphology of the chitosan nanoparticles(CSNPs) and quercetin loaded ALG/CSNPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The prepared nanoformulations evaluated for the encapsulation of quercetin exerted % encapsulation efficiency (EE) that varied between 76 and 82.4% and loading capacity (LC) from from 31 to 46.5%. The nanoparticles showed in vitro blood compatibility and ex vivo mucoadhesivity. Furthermore, the in vivo toxicity study of the nanoparticles revealed neither any acute systemic toxicity following its oral administration in rats with LD50 greater than 75 mg/kg body weight ensuring an efficient nanocarrier of oral quercetin in the animal model. The biochemical analysis of liver and kidney enzymes revealed that the nanoformulations had no decline in the normal functions of the vital organs indicative of good biosafety of nanoencapsulated quercetin. Histopathological studies of liver, kidney, lung and heart tissues have shown almost normal architecture after treatment with the nanoparticles in the experimental phase. These findings suggest that the developed ALG/CSNPs and Q-ALG/CSNPs possess the prerequisites and be proposed as a suitable system for delivering oral quercetin with enhanced therapeutic effectuality.
... Nanotechnology encompasses innovative tools dedicated to the design, synthesis, and application of materials with at least one dimension at the nanoscale (or one billionth of a meter, usually 0.1-100nm) [1][2][3][4]. Because of their size and surface area/mass ratio, nanomaterials display unique chemical, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties, which can be useful for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems and biological molecular probes [1,[5][6]. ...
Full-text available
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNps) have become powerful tools for multiple biomedical applications such as hyperthermia drivers, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vectors, as well as drug-delivery systems. However, their toxic effects on human health have not yet been fully elucidated, especially in view of their great diversity of surface modifications and functionalizations. Citrate-coating of MNps often results in increased hydrophilicity, which may positively impact their performance as drug-delivery systems. Nonetheless, the consequences on the intrinsic toxicity of such MNps are unpredictable. Herein, novel magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles covered with citrate were synthesized and their potential intrinsic acute toxic effects were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models. The proposed synthetic pathway turned out to be simple, quick, inexpensive, and reproducible. Concerning toxicity risk assessment, these citrate-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONps) did not affect the in vitro viability of different cell lines (HaCaT and HepG2). Moreover, the in vivo acute dose assay (OECD test guideline #425) showed no alterations in clinical parameters, relevant biochemical variables, or morphological aspects of vital organs (such as brain, liver, lung and kidney). Iron concentrations were slightly increased in the liver, as shown by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Perls Prussian Blue Staining assays, but this finding was considered non-adverse, given the absence of accompanying functional/clinical repercussions. In conclusion, this study reports on the development of a simple, fast and reproducible method to obtain citrate-coated IONps with promising safety features, which may be used as a drug nanodelivery system in the short run. (263 words)
... In the last two decades, the use of nanotechnology for drug transportation has gained prominence in biomedical research as it improves administrative routes and biodistribution of drugs with low immunogenicity and side effects [9]. The use of NPs and nanostructured materials for delivering drugs to the targeted zone of action is an ideal mode of delivery due to their optimal size (only a few nanometers) which allows these to cross through the cell membrane easier, drug loading and drug release characteristics. ...
The effects of varying nanoparticle size; polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule length, type, and density; and functional groups for drug delivery systems are investigated computationally. A molecular dynamics (MD) study in the framework of a Monte Carlo simulated annealing scheme is done on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for sizes of 2.6 nm, 3.4 nm and 6.8 nm. The bonding of PEG molecules is investigated, and the binding energy (BE) is analysed as a reference to chemisorption and physisorption of the molecules. To investigate the frontier molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potentials, density functional theory (DFT) simulations are also performed for various PEG lengths and functional groups (FGs). The study reports on three conclusions: firstly, reducing the Au NP size leads to coordination number (CN) loss as the number of lowly coordinated atoms increases with decreasing particle size. Secondly, the stability of the Au-PEG system is independent of length beyond n=2. And due to PEG high steric repulsion, the number of these molecules that can be physically adsorbed to the surface is limited. And thirdly, the FGs can be grouped into electron-withdrawing group (–NTA, Biotin, COOH) and electron-donating group (–NH2, OH). In future work, we will study how these conclusions influence the Au drug delivery system toxicity and cellular uptake.
... Among new strategies for overcoming these limitations and successfully delivering drugs to the CNS, the nanotechnology-based drugdelivery platform offers a potential therapeutic approach to treat some common ANDs [151]. The nanoparticles (NPs) used as carriers are designed to deliver the phytochemicals to the target site with enhanced bio-efficacy and can cross the BBB more freely than larger particles [152]. NP drug-delivery systems can enhance neuronal AND management by diagnosing, monitoring, controlling, and repairing at the molecular level. ...
Full-text available
Age-related neurological disorders (ANDs), including neurodegenerative diseases, are multifactorial disorders whose risk increases with age. The main pathological hallmarks of ANDs include behavioral changes, excessive oxidative stress, progressive functional declines, impaired mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, neuroinflammation, and neuronal cell death. Recently, efforts have been made to overcome ANDs because of their increased age-dependent prevalence. Black pepper, the fruit of Piper nigrum L. in the family Piperaceae, is an important food spice that has long been used in traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. Consumption of black pepper and black pepper-enriched products is associated with numerous health benefits due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review shows that black pepper's major bioactive neuroprotective compounds, such as piperine, effectively prevent AND symptoms and pathological conditions by modulating cell survival signaling and death. Relevant molecular mechanisms are also discussed. In addition, we highlight how recently developed novel nanodelivery systems are vital for improving the efficacy, solubility, bioavailability, and neuroprotective properties of black pepper (and thus piperine) in different experimental AND models, including clinical trials. This extensive review shows that black pepper and its active ingredients have therapeutic potential for ANDs.
... This study further develops the multi-detector AF4 approach to distinguish the drug distribution and release mechanism for PLGA NPs loaded with coumarin 6 (C6), a lipophilic fluorescent dye (log P of 5.6) [25]. As with other lipophilic dyes [26][27][28][29][30], C6 has been used as a model compound to mimic lipophilic drugs, or alternatively as a fluorescent tag to track NP distributions in biological samples (assuming the dye remains within the NPs) [31]. Prior literature showed a wide range of extents and rates of C6 release from PLGA NPs, as summarized in the Supporting Information (SI) Table S1. ...
This research demonstrates the development, application, and mechanistic value of a multi-detector asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) approach to acquire size-resolved drug loading and release profiles from polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). AF4 was hyphenated with multiple online detectors, including dynamic and multi-angle light scattering for NP size and shape factor analysis, fluorescence for drug detection, and total organic carbon (TOC) to quantify the NPs and dissolved polymer in nanoformulations. The method was demonstrated on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with coumarin 6 (C6) as a lipophilic drug surrogate. The bulk C6 release profile using AF4 was validated against conventional analysis of drug extracted from the NPs and complemented with high performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole time-of-flight (HPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry analysis of oligomeric PLGA species. Interpretation of the bulk drug release profile was ambiguous, with several release models yielding reasonable fits. In contrast, the size-resolved release profiles from AF4 provided critical information to confidently establish the release mechanism. Specifically, the C6-loaded NPs exhibited size-independent release rate constants and no significant NP size or shape transformations, suggesting surface desorption rather than diffusion through the PLGA matrix or erosion. This conclusion was supported through comparative experimental evaluation of PLGA NPs carrying a fully entrapped drug, enrofloxacin, which showed size-dependent diffusive release, along with density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicating a higher adsorption affinity of C6 onto PLGA. In summary, the development of the size-resolved AF4 method and data analysis framework fulfills salient analytical gaps to determine drug localization and release mechanisms from nanomedicines.
... It uses the enhanced physiochemical and biological capabilities of substances at the nanoscale, between 1 nm and 1000 nm, simulating the functions of molecules naturally and their interactions with other molecules. In recent years, nano-drug delivery systems have significantly outperformed traditional dosage forms as a medication delivery method for life-threatening and crippling illnesses [32]. ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious condition in which there is increased blood pressure in arteries of the lungs (pulmonary arteries). The therapies or drugs for PAH have expanded with the revelation of three key pathological processes - encompassing prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin pathways. An outlook for patients suffering from PAH is still mediocre amidst recent advancements. The evolution of pre-clinical and clinical research on PAH has facilitated the identification of several new targeted therapies for the disease. In this article, we examine recent data on new pulmonary hypertension physiological pathways, primarily concentrating on administering drugs through the inhalation route and their effects. Although they have been given clinical use approval, medications based on these routes are presently being studied in clinical or pre-clinical settings. To confirm these innovative medicines' therapeutic efficacy and safety, extensive clinical trials are needed.
... [30][31][32][33] The field of nanomedicine is emerging, with functionalized nanomaterials being studied for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, vaccines, diagnostic and therapeutic tools. [34][35][36][37][38][39] Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize present energy harvesting (e.g., third-generation solar cells) and energy storage technologies, going beyond what is possible to achieve with traditional systems. 9,15,[40][41][42][43] These features are a direct consequence of the reduced dimensionality in at least one spatial axis. ...
In a world struggling to face the disruptive consequences of global warming, developing new energy conversion and storage solutions is of fundamental importance. This PhD thesis focuses on emerging heterostructures based on Indium Tin Oxide nanocrystals (ITO NCs) and two-dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (2D TMDs) for innovative light-driven optoelectronic nanodevices and energy storage solutions, combining the harvesting, conversion and storage aspects into a unique hybrid nanomaterial. Doped Metal Oxide (MO) NCs are attracting growing interest as nano-supercapacitors due to their ability to store extra charges in their electronic structure with record-high values of capacitance. Remarkably, these materials can be charged with light (i.e., photodoping), a process at the core of this project and so far not understood electronically. Here, the fundamental features involved in the charge accumulation process are investigated and the physics of photodoping explained. Complete control over energetic band bending and depletion layer engineering is demonstrated, exposing the key role of electronically depleted layers in core-shell NCs. Light-induced depletion layer modulation and band bending is the main mechanism responsible for the storage of extra charges in doped MO supercapacitors. Moreover, multi-electron transfer reversible reactions were observed in photodoped NCs when exposed to a frequently used electron acceptor. The coupling between ITO NCs and 2D TMDs allowed the implementation of a novel all-optical localized charge injection scheme for the manipulation of unperturbed 2D materials. Hybrid 0D-2D heterostructures proved all-solid-state photodoping possible, with promising charging dynamics and capacitance values. Theoretical modeling tools were developed, leading to the optimization of the charge storage capacity of 0D NCs. This work is of particular interest for the fabrication of the next-generation of nanostructured light-driven supercapacitors.
Full-text available
This edited book illustrates means to achieve emerging applications of nanomaterials by tuning superior properties through control of morphology, structure and functionalization and exploiting them for task-specific applications. This topic can be an ideal textbook for researchers as well as graduate students who are interested in applications of nanostructured materials. The readers can acquire the knowledge in multidisciplinary areas including physics, chemistry, pharmacy, biology, medicine, etc related to the advances of nanomaterials which are associated with the emerging applications. There are number of research papers, edited books and books, which published different aspects of nanomaterials, but there is not a single book which exclusively discusses the emerging applications of nanomaterials in different sectors. In this book, attempts have been madeto identify frontiers of nanomaterials and theiremerging applications in different sectors and their impact on society in the 21st century, making this truly a one-stop reference resource. In summary, • It includes applications of nanomaterials in different sectors such as medical, textile, sports, agriculture etc. at one place • It will provide one-stop reference resource on applications of emerging nanomaterials in different sectors. Leading researchers and academicians across the globe will be contributing to this book Key Features: 1. This book focuses on frontiers in the nanomaterials and their functionalization in multidisciplinary areas. 2. The book highlights emerging applications of nanomaterials by manipulating and thereby exploiting superior properties for task-specific applications. 3. This book addresses the novel applications in different sectors and assess their impacts on the society in the 21st century.
Full-text available
Globally, a significant portion of deaths are caused by cancer.Compared with traditional treatment, nanotechnology offers new therapeutic options for cancer due to its ability to selectively target and control drug release. Among the various routes of nanoparticle synthesis, plants have gained significant recognition. The tremendous potential of medicinal plants in anticancer treatments calls for a comprehensive review of existing studies on plant-based nanoparticles. The study examined various metallic nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis using medicinal plants. Plants contain biomolecules, secondary metabolites, and coenzymes that facilitate the reduction of metal ions into nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are believed to be potential antioxidants and cancer-fighting agents. This review aims at the futuristic intuitions of biosynthesis and applications of plant-based nanoparticles in cancer theranostics
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Analysis conducted over the past 20 years has shown that macromolecules accumulating in the brain known as Amyloid-β (Aβ) are fundamentally responsible for the chronic effects of the disease. Amyloid-β builds up in the brain, forming plaques, and clumps that block neuronal signaling and break down the connections between neurons. Many researchers have been looking at the involvement of tau, a protein that causes the production of “neurofibrillary tangles” in the brain, which is another signal of neuronal death. Proteolytic therapies for AD are one of the novel strategies where the proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) is selectively initiating protein degradation within the cell. In this novel approach, these techniques are small-molecule PROTACs peptide, TH006, and Neprilysin-2 (NEP-2). The traditional drug delivery technologies confront difficulties in targeting specific parts of the brain. For drug discovery and development in order to make medications more effective in the brain and to have a specific action. The first line of defense for the brain is the blood–brain barrier, which is followed by the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. These membranes are more than just barriers; they also serve as selectively permeable membranes, allowing particular molecules to invade the brain. These mechanisms all operate as impediments to effective drug delivery in the brain. As a result, improved strategies for facilitating the administration of such medications in the brain must be developed. Nanotechnology is now playing an important role in research, with a large number of nanoparticles intended to deliver drugs to specific target areas. Liposomes, dendrimers, microneedles, polymeric nanoparticles, and other nanoparticles are examples. Antibody-coated nanoparticles are a novel strategy to treating AD in the nanosystem.
Full-text available
A series of amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-cholic acid (HPTA-CHI-CA) polymers were synthesized by grafting cholic acid (CA) and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto chitosan. The self-assembly behavior of HPTA-CHI-CA was studied by fluorescence technique. The polymers were able to selfassemble into NPs in phosphate buffered saline with a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in the range of 66-26 mg/L and the CAC decreased with the increasing of the degree of substitution (DS) of CA. The size of cationic HPTA-CHI-CA NPs ranges from 170 to 220 nm (PDI < 0.2). It was found that doxorubicin (DOX) could be encapsulated into HPTA-CHI-CA NPs based on self-assembly. The drug loading content and efficiency varies depending on the DS of CA and feeding ratio of DOX to polymer. In vitro release studies suggested that DOX released slowly from HPTA-CHI-CA NPs without any burst initial release. Besides, the confocal microscopic measurements indicated that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs could easily be uptaken by breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and release DOX in cytoplasm. Anti-tumor efficacy results showed that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs have a significant activity of inhibition MCF-7 cells growth. These results suggest cationic HPTA-CHI-CA may have great potential for anticancer drug delivery.
The effect of silica nanoparticles on the activity of α-amylase is determinations using isothermal titration calorimetry. It was found that the immobilized enzyme activity increased as evidenced by the stability parameters recovered from the extended solvation theory. The stability indexes of the immobilized α-amylase was less than of the free enzyme, thereby the activity of the enzyme was increased as a result of its interaction with silica nanoparticles. The present report shows that silica nanoparticles are activator of -amylase, as the complexes of silica+ -amylase are less stable than the free enzyme.
Organic–inorganic (O–I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O–I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic–organic or O–I core–shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a mandatory choice for any future development of large output applications (e.g. in paint, ink and coating industry), can provide the thermodynamic drive for self-assembling of amphiphilics, adsorption onto colloidal particles or partitioning of the hybrid's precursors between dispersed nanosized reaction loci, as in emulsion or miniemulsion free-radical polymerization. While nanoencapsulation and self-assembling processes are already exploited as commercially viable fabrication methods, a newly developed technique based on two-stage sol–gel and free-radical emulsion polymerization is described, which can grant a versatile synthetic approach to hybrid O–I nanoparticles with tailor-made composition of both the organic core and the silica or organosilica shell, and good control on morphology, size and heterophase structure in the 50–500 nm range. Styrene or acrylate homo- and copolymer core latex particles need to be modified with a reactive comonomer, such as trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate, to achieve efficient interfacial coupling with the inorganic shell. Accurate control over pH and process conditions is required to avoid latex coagulation or, in case of organic particles with uniform composition, incipient intraparticle crosslinking.
Chitosan was conjugated with folic acid (FA) and the resulting chitosan derivatives with a FA-substitution degree of around 6 % was used to synthesize FA-conjugated chitosan–polylactide (FA–CH–PLA) copolymers to build a drug carrier with active targeting characteristics for the anticancer drug of paclitaxel (PTX). Selected FA–CH–PLAs with various polylactide percentages of about 40 wt% or lower were employed to fabricate nanoparticles using sodium tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker, and different types of nanoparticles were endued with similar average particle-sizes located in a range between 100 and 200 nm. Certain types of PTX-loaded FA–CH–PLA nanoparticles having encapsulation efficiency of around 90 % and initial load of about 12 % were able to release PTX in a controlled manner with significant regulation by polylactide content in FA–CH–PLAs. Targeting characteristic of achieved nanoparticles was confirmed using FA-receptor-expressed MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The uptake of PTX revealed that optimized FA–CH–PLA nanoparticles with an equivalent PTX-dose of around 1 μg/mL could have more than sixfold increasing abilities to facilitate intracellular paclitaxel accumulation in MCF-7 cells after 24 h treatment as compared to free PTX. At a relatively safe equivalent PTX-dose for normal MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells, the obtained results from Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that optimized PTX-loaded FA–CH–PLA nanoparticles had more than threefold increasing abilities to induce MCF-7 cell apoptosis in comparison to free PTX.
This study describes the demonstration of quaternized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer of generation-3, QPPI (G3) as a drug carrier for poorly soluble drug nimesulide (NMD, an anti-inflammatory drug). QPPI (G3) was prepared by treating the surface amine groups of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer with glycidyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and it was characterized with FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectral techniques. The drug carrying potential of QPPI (G3) was assessed by analyzing drug solubility, in vitro release and cytotoxicity studies. The observed results reveal that the aqueous solubility of NMD has been dramatically increased in the presence of QPPI (G3) and also can sustain the release of NMD. It is further noticed that the complexation of NMD with QPPI (G3) is responsible for increased solubility and sustained release. This complexation was evidenced through NMR ((1)H & 2D) and UV-vis spectral techniques, DSC and DLS studies. Cytotoxicity study through MTT assay on Vero and HBL-100 cell lines reveal that this dendrimer increase the biocompatibility and the tolerance concentration of NMD in drug-dendrimer formulations. The observed results prove that the QPPI (G3) is one of the new promising candidate for effective delivery of NMD.
A robust functionalized procedure for gold nanorods (Au NR) with mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), which are assembled with nanoparticles, has been reported in the present work. The self-assembled nanostructures were characterized by UV–Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Self-assembly procedures, governed by surface chemistry, indicated that chemical reactivity of nanomaterial may contribute in construction of potential nanoscale assemblies. These nanostructures have striking applications as single-molecule detection, plasmonics, and sensing.
Uniformly dispersed amorphous nanoparticles of magnetite in polyvinyl alcohol have been obtained by ultrasound radiation. The properties of the as-prepared composite material were characterized by various analytical methods. We have found that the magnetite particles that were 12–20 nm in diameter were very well dispersed in the PVA. The magnetization measurements establish that the composite material is superparamagnetic in nature.