The global epidemic of HIV infection among MSM

Thailand Ministry of Public Health--US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, DDC7 Building, Ministry of Public Health, 11000 Nonthaburi, Thailand.
Current opinion in HIV and AIDS (Impact Factor: 4.68). 08/2009; 4(4):300-7. DOI: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32832c3bb3
Source: PubMed


In the last few years, there have been reports of new, newly identified and resurging epidemics of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). This article reviews and summarizes the global epidemic of HIV infection among MSM.
In the Western world, the increase in notifications of new HIV infections among MSM is continuing. Steep increases in reports of new HIV diagnoses among MSM were also seen in the developed economies of East Asia. In the developing world, epidemiologic studies have now established the presence of MSM populations in Africa, China and Russia and a high HIV prevalence among them. High and increasing HIV prevalence was also reported from South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.
HIV continues to spread among MSM on a global level. Current prevention efforts have been unable to contain or reduce HIV transmission in this population. Additional behavioral and biomedical interventions are urgently needed.

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Available from: Jan Willem de Lind van Wijngaarden
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    • "HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to expand globally (Van Griensven et al, 2009). Prevention programmes targeting key groups as MSM population have been recognized as a crucial strategy to reduce the transmission (Biswas, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is still expanding globally. A wide myriad of factors that determine sexual risk practices assumption have been identified. Traditional masculine gender norms have been indicated as a possible determinant of risk practices performance among MSM. To identify how quantitative and mixed research values masculinities and their role in HIV transmission practices, a literature review was conducted. Results found that quantitative and mixed research highlighted situations related to HIV transmission in three areas: factors influencing perception and motivations for risk practices engagement; environmental influences facilitating risk taking and the description of new ways to take risks. Quantitative and mixed research took into account masculinity only related to hegemonic traits, both in the risk situations explanations described in the studies and in the measurement instruments used. Although interest on masculinity as a determinant of risk practices in research is increasing, appropriate tools to measure and analyze how masculinity is playing in these arenas are limited and tend to homogenize traits related to masculinity. New approaches, regarding the diversity of masculinities, identity constructions and different sexual interaction ways, as unequal and power relations among men, are needed to better understand and frame HIV transmission among MSM.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Social Theory & Health
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    • "In contrast, in many low-and middle-income countries the HIV epidemic is driven by heterosexual sex, injection drug use, and/or contaminated blood collection and transfusion, with MSM comprising a small proportion of all HIV cases [10] [11] [12]. However, recent data show a trend of increase in HIV cases among MSM in Asia, Africa, South America, and Eastern Europe [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]. China is one of the countries facing the challenge of an emerging HIV epidemic in MSM. "

    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "Globally, there have been an increasing number of studies examining health and psychosocial risk factors affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) [1]. Much of this attention has focused on disproportionate HIV prevalence among MSM across international settings [2]–[4]. However, additional research has also shown that MSM in diverse geographic regions may also experience psychological and social vulnerabilities – such as discrimination and interpersonal violence – which can contribute to further health challenges in this population [5]–[9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of men who have sex with men (MSM) in diverse geographic and cultural contexts have identified health challenges affecting this population. MSM might be particularly vulnerable to sexual victimization and forced sex. The aim of this research study was to examine prevalence of sexual victimization and correlates of forced sex among Japanese MSM. We recruited a sample of 5,731 Japanese MSM who completed an internet-administered survey. Participants reported on history of different types of sexual victimization, unprotected anal sex, other health risk behaviors, exposure to gay-related teasing and bullying, depression, and suicidality. Over one-fifth of the sample (21.4%) reported experiencing at least one form of sexual victimization, and 8.7% reported a history of forced sex. MSM who had ever experienced forced sex were significantly more likely to report experiencing psychological risks (depression OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.28-1.89; attempted suicide OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.81-2.81; other forms of bullying OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.13-1.68) and other behavioral risks (unprotected anal sex OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.29-1.90; sex venue attendance OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.04-1.54; methamphetamine use OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.05-1.36), compared to MSM who had not experienced forced sex. Efforts to develop holistic and integrated health services for Japanese MSM are warranted, particularly related to psychosocial determinants of HIV prevention. However, due to cultural factors that emphasize familial and social relations and that stigmatize same-sex behavior, Japanese MSM might experience challenges to seeking social support and health services. Interventions must be provided in safe and non-judgmental settings where Japanese MSM feel comfortable disclosing their health and social support needs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
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