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Role of Roasting Conditions in the Level of Chlorogenic Acid Content in Coffee Beans: Correlation with Coffee Acidity

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Abstract

Total chlorogenic acids of nine isomers from seven commercial green and roasted coffee beans ranged from 34.43 +/- 1.50 to 41.64 +/- 3.28 mg/g and from 2.05 +/- 0.07 to 7.07 +/- 0.16 mg/g, respectively. Methanol/water (7:3) extracts from four commercial green coffee beans roasted at different conditions (230 degrees C, 12 min; 24 degrees C, 14 min; 250 degrees C, 17 min; and 250 degrees C, 21 min) were also analyzed for chlorogenic acids. The total chlorogenic acid found in green coffee beans ranged from 86.42 +/- 2.04 to 61.15 +/- 1.40 mg/g. Total chlorogenic acids present were reduced in accordance with the intensity of roasting conditions. When green beans were roasted at 230 degrees C for 12 min and at 250 degrees C for 21 min, total chlorogenic acid content was reduced to nearly 50% and to almost trace levels, respectively. The results indicate that roasting conditions play an important role in chlorogenic acid content in roasted coffee beans. A general correlation between total caffeoylquinic acids and pH was observed.

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... Whereas, the levels of 3-CQA and 4-CQA increased by three to four times of their original value. The reduction rate of the total CQA was calculated according to Moon et al. (2009). At the end of the roast, the reduction rate for all roast trials were > 95%. ...
... However, analysis done by Moon et al. (2009) postulated in green coffee beans, a decreasing order of CQA isomers with CQAs > di-CQAs > FQAs. They also mention that the content of 5-CQA was highest, with Ethiopian beans with 50.7 ± 1.6 mg/g to Panamanian with 40.2 ± 0.7 mg/g. ...
... Among CQA found in coffee beans, 5-CQA has also been reported as the highest content (Fujioka, Shibamoto 2008;Perrone et al., 2008). In the study done by Moon et al. (2009), percentages of 5-CQA in total CQA of green coffee beans were 73.4% for Ethiopian, 65.7% for Nicaraguan, 46.5% for Panamanian, and 65.5% in Sumatran. ...
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Coffee beans are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acids (CGA). During the roasting process, the CGA content changes dramatically. An effective HPTLC method was developed which allows a fast characterization of the eight main CGA present in green and roasted coffee beans and their distribution during roasting trials. The method was optimized with regard to three caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), two feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and three dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQA). The best separation for a fingerprint consisting of eight phenolic compounds as markers was achieved on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with a solvent mixture of diethyl ether, formic acid, acetic acid, water, acetophenone and heptane (30:3:9:50:30:10) (v/v/v/v/v/v). Staining with natural product reagent A enabled visualization and quantitative evaluation. Principal component analysis can help to visualize the evolution of the chlorogenic acids throughout the process also with the aim of controlling the roasting degree.
... The most important ingredient in coffee beans is CLA. It has been demonstrated that the roasting process may affect its content in coffee beans [33,36,37]. ...
... The same study also revealed that in comparison to the traditional Turkish coffee, green coffee was characterized by a higher TPC, which proves that brewing coffee in water at a temperature of 100 • C for a long time may affect the transfer of polyphenolic compounds to the brew [21]. It is worth noting that in publications describing the content of polyphenolic compounds per dry matter of the product, green coffee was demonstrated to have the highest antioxidant potential compared to roasted coffees [37][38][39]. ...
... During the process, compounds that affect the taste and aroma of coffee are formed: Volatile and aromatic substances, but also products of the Maillard reaction, including acrylamide with potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproductive-reducing properties [40,41]. Moon et al. (2009) showed that the content of CLA in coffee beans decreases with the intensity of roasting-roasting at 230 • C for 12 min causes a decrease in CLA content by approximately 50% and roasting at 250 • C for 21 min leaves only traces of it in coffee beans [37]. Szymanowska et al. (2014) also observed that among all tested coffees with a different degree of roasting, green coffee was characterized by the highest TPC: expressed as 3.28 and 3.40 g of chlorogenic acid/100 g of dry matter [38]. ...
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Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, both in Europe, where its consumption is highest, and on other continents. It provides many compounds, including phenolic compounds. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of various brewing methods on the total phenolic content (TPC) in the infusion. Research material comprised commercially available coffees: Instant Arabica and Robusta, freshly ground Arabica and Robusta (immediately prior to the analysis), ground Arabica and Robusta, decaffeinated Arabica, and green Arabica and Robusta. The following preparation methods were used: Pouring hot water over coffee grounds or instant coffee, preparing coffee in a percolator and using a coffee machine. Additional variables which were employed were water temperature (90 or 100 °C) and its type (filtered or unfiltered). In order to determine the impact of examined factors, 225 infusion were prepared. Total phenolic content was determined by the spectrophotometric method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained results were expressed in mg gallic acid (GAE) per 100 g of brewed coffee. The highest value was obtained for 100% Arabica ground coffee prepared in a coffee percolator using unfiltered water at a temperature of 100 °C: 657.3 ± 23 mg GAE/100 g of infusion. High values were also observed for infusions prepared in a coffee machine, where the highest TPC value was 363.8 ± 28 mg GAE/100 g for ground Arabica. In turn, the lowest TPC was obtained for Arabica green coffee in opaque packaging, brewed with filtered water at a temperature of 100 °C: 19.5 ± 1 mg GAE/100 g of infusion. No significant effect of temperature and water type on the TPC within one type of coffee was observed. Due to its high content of phenolic compounds, Arabica coffee brewed in a coffee percolator should be the most popular choice for coffee drinkers.
... According to the customs import and export data from 2018 to 2020, the import volume of coffee beans in 2018 was about 35,808 tons, about 37,719 tons in 2019, and about 41,507 tons in 2020, gradually increasing every year. Coffee beans contain high amounts of phenolic compounds [4] such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, caffeic acid, etc., which can be used for dietary purposes [5]. Among them, phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid have a highcontent of about 6-12% in raw coffee beans [6]. ...
... These differences might be related to the altitude of the cultivation area. In this research, Gukeng and Dongshan coffee were planted at 250-800 m, and Indonesian coffee, which showed high contents of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in raw coffee beans, was planted above 900-1400 m; these findings are similar to those in previous research [4,40]. ...
... The investigation of different sources of coffee beans under different roasting degrees showed that the caffeine slightly increased after roasting, showing a similar tendency to that reported in Hecimovic et al. [41], Moon et al. [4], and Ludwig et al. [42] ( Figure 1A). However, the content of chlorogenic acid showed the opposite trend: with a higher roasting degree, the chlorogenic acid content decreased ( Figure 1B), similar to Moon et al. [4] and Ludwig et al. [42]. ...
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Coffee is one of the main economic crops in the world and is now widely grown throughout Taiwan. The process of roasting coffee begins with the heating and smooth expansion of raw beans, which leads to changes in appearance and color while affecting the flavor and taste of coffee. So far, most coffee manufacturers have used visual inspection or colorimeter methods to identify differences in coffee quality. Moreover, there is no literature discussing the correlation of roasted bean color with caffeine and chlorogenic acid content. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to analyze the chlorogenic acid and caffeine content and their correlation with bean color under different roasting degrees and from different sources to establish basic data for the rapid identification of coffee quality in the future. In this experiment, the coffee Coffea arabica typica from Dongshan, Gukeng, and Sumatra’s Indonesian rainforest was used, and the beans were roasted into four degrees: raw bean, light, medium, and dark roast, to investigate the appearance of the coffee beans and its correlation with caffeine and chlorogenic acid content. The results showed that with a higher roasting degree, caffeine content increased gradually, except for Indonesian beans, but the chlorogenic acid content in all samples showed a declining trend with the increase in roasting degree. The correlation between the chlorogenic acid content and the color space value of the coffee bean color shows that L*, a*, and h° in both ground and unground coffee are highly correlated. The C* value of the ground and unground coffee showed a correlation coefficient of r = 0.159 ns and 0.299 ns, respectively. The correlation between the caffeine content and the color space value of the unground coffee bean shows that the a*, b*, and C* value is highly correlated with the caffeine content. The color space values of ground coffee beans show no correlation with caffeine.
... The acidity of all coffee beverages decreased as degree of roast increased, in agreement with previous studies [24,25]. Cold brew coffees from each of the three roasts were found to be less acidic than their hot brew counterparts, with mean values differing by 0.20, 0.26, and 0.34 pH units for R1, R2, and R3, respectively (Table 1). ...
... Moon et al. roasted and analyzed beans from various coffee producing regions including Nicaragua, Ethiopia, Panama, and Sumatra. From green beans to beans that were roasted to a maximum temperature of 250 °C, they found that pH increased with roast level across all regions [25]. Work by Ginz et al. found that coffee pH is, in large part, due to the formation of aliphatic acids during roasting, a mechanism that is dependent on precursor compounds such as sucrose [11]. ...
... Moon et al. roasted and analyzed beans from various coffee producing regions including Nicaragua, Ethiopia, Panama, and Sumatra. From green beans to beans that were roasted to a maximum temperature of 250 • C, they found that pH increased with roast level across all regions [25]. Work by Ginz et al. found that coffee pH is, in large part, due to the formation of aliphatic acids during roasting, a mechanism that is dependent on precursor compounds such as sucrose [11]. ...
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The role of roasting in cold brew coffee chemistry is poorly understood. The brewing temperature influences extraction processes and may have varying effects across the roast spectrum. To understand the relationship between brew temperature and roast temperature, hot and cold brew coffees were prepared from Arabica Columbian coffee beans roasted to light, medium, and dark levels. Chemical and physical parameters were measured to investigate the relationships among degree of roast, water temperature, and key characteristics of resulting coffees. Cold brew coffees showed differential extraction marked by decreased acidity, lower concentration of browned compounds, and fewer TDS indicating that cold water brewing extracts some compounds less effectively than hot water brewing. Compounds in coffee did exhibit sensitivity to degree of roast, with darker roasts resulting in decreased concentrations for both hot and cold brew coffees. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only sensitive to degree of roast in cold brew coffees, while hot brew coffees had a constant TAC for all three roast levels. This indicates that the solid bean matrix and its chemical constituents interact with cold water differently than with hot water. Surface wetting, pore dynamics, and solubility all contribute to the extraction potential during brewing and are all functions of water temperature.
... The research also illustrates that during a roasting process, acidity in coffee beans attains a maximum level and then decays relatively with the roasting time. Moon et al. (2009) experimented on this by roasting green coffee beans at 230 C for 12 min, which can reduce the chlorogenic acid to nearly 50%. Such an experiment illustrated that the longer roasting time results in less acidity, diluting the sour taste. ...
... Roasting green coffee beans is an important process that directly affects the coffee's aroma and tastes (Moon et al., 2009). Different roasting levels and techniques contribute to varying dimensions of coffee tastes. ...
Article
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Sourness is one of the basic yet essential tastes of coffee that is chemically composed of acids and quantitatively represented in the pH scale. Current tools for measuring the acidity level in roasted coffee beans, including traditional methods, require brewing sample coffee and probing the chemical components, limiting the applicability to end customers seeking to estimate the acidity level before choosing the right coffee beans to purchase. This paper proposes a novel approach to directly estimate the acidity levels from roasted coffee beans images by framing the problem into an image classification task, where a picture of roasted coffee beans is categorized into its appropriate pH range. As a result, end customers could simply estimate coffee beans' acidity levels by taking photos with conventional cameras. Multiple traditional machine learning and deep learning algorithms are validated for their ability to predict the correct acidity levels. The experiment results reveal that EfficientNet yields the best performance with an average F1 of 0.71 when trained with images from separate portable devices. Practical Applications The research's findings could also be extended to applications in the coffee‐industrial settings, such as automatically monitoring roasted coffee beans' quality from image and video streams. For end customers, the trade‐off between efficacy and efficiency of the EfficientNet algorithm is also investigated, which sheds light on the implementation aspects of state‐of‐the‐art deep learning models in portable devices such as smartphones or cameras. Such applications could prove to be a cost‐effective and convenient solution for customers to quickly measure roasted coffee beans' sourness before deciding to purchase.
... In the roast, CGAs are hydrolyzed and new products, such as lactones, are formed, and this process changes the antioxidant profile of green coffee [10]. Moon et al. [11] reported that up to 99% of CGA can be lost with the highest roasting [11]. ...
... In the roast, CGAs are hydrolyzed and new products, such as lactones, are formed, and this process changes the antioxidant profile of green coffee [10]. Moon et al. [11] reported that up to 99% of CGA can be lost with the highest roasting [11]. ...
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Coffee consumption is believed to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects and to contribute to preventing the development and progression of cancer. However, there is still controversy around these claims. As indicated in our previous works, diet can influence the risk of breast cancer. Intake of coffee is hypothesized to reduce this risk, but current scientific evidence is not conclusive. This work is aimed at studying the effects of Robusta coffee bean extract on cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis of different human cancers, especially breast cancer cell lines. To this end, cell viability was evaluated by Alamar Blue in 2D and 3D models, the cell cycle by PI, apoptosis by annexin V, mitochondrial morphology, and functionality by mitoTracker, and colony formation capacity by the clonogenic assay. Green and dark coffee extract significantly reduced viability in human breast, colorectal, brain, and bone cancer cells. Coffee anticancer activity was clearly evidenced in MDA-MB-231 (ER-) and MCF-7 (ER+) breast cancer cells but not in the normal breast cell line. In addition, coffee extract induces an increase S phase and a decrease G2/M population in breast cancer cells, affected the mitochondrial morphology, and triggered apoptosis. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells lost their clonogenic capacity after treatment. The antitumor activity was demonstrated in both 2D and 3D culture cell models.
... Caffeine and CQA levels were measured using HPLC according to the modified method used by Moon et al. [24]. A Phenomenex Luna C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) containing 0.2% (v/v) formic acid in water and 0.2% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile as the mobile phase was used. ...
... Most studies on the effects of coffee on human health are focused on the negative effects, such as caffeine toxicity [36]; however, recent reports have shown the beneficial effects of brewed coffee, which contains many health-beneficial antioxidants, such as chlorogenic acids [37]. To take advantage of the beneficial effects of drinking coffee, it is important to know which medicinal components, including volatile chemicals and CQAs, are present in coffee [24]. ...
Article
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Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are inexpensive materials that have been used as a source of antioxidants and polysaccharides with immunostimulatory activity. In this study, we performed a microbial fermentation of SCG using Cordyceps sinensis and investigated the radical scavenging and immunostimulatory activity of fermented SCG. SCG fermentation using C. sinensis was performed at 25 °C for 8 d. The polyphenol content of the fermented SCG increased from 1022.4 to 1562.0 μg/mL. The glucosamine content of the mycelia also continuously increased during fermentation. The main polyphenol compounds of fermented SCG were chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid, which were increased by fermentation. Fermented SCG also showed significantly higher content of chlorogenic acid isomers than unfermented SCG. The fermented SCG exhibited significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (half maximal inhibitory concentration: IC50, 0.37 mg/mL) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (IC50, 0.93 mg/mL) radical scavenging activities than those of the control (0.54 mg/mL and 1.20 mg/mL, respectively; p < 0.05). The fermented SCG stimulated macrophages and promoted the production of various immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-α) compared to control; therefore, microbial fermentation of SCG using C. sinensis is an effective means of generating antioxidant and immunostimulatory materials.
... From our examination, the LC extract was found to be more acidic than the MC and DC extracts; however, a non-significant observable change in pH was observed when tested on varying temperatures and time periods. The trend of reducing acidity in the more roasted beans is found to be consistent with the preexisting study (26). Our study also agrees with Rao et al. (10), who found that roasting had more of an influence on the acidity of the brew than the water extraction temperature. ...
... As per understanding, the roasting conditions play a crucial role in the chlorogenic acid content. The chlorogenic acid content would be diminishing along with the increased roasting intensity (26,29). This phenomenon might be reflected in our current experimentation where the caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents might exhibit a strong correlation with the total polyphenol content, which is deeply affected by the roasting conditions. ...
Article
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is an effective tool for the extraction of natural antioxidants. Thus, differentially roasted Arabica-coffee beans known as light (LC), medium (MC), and dark coffee (DC) were prepared and extracted under the influence of UAE. Following that, they were examined specifically on theirs physicochemical and biological characteristics: nutritional values, pH, °Brix, antioxidant activities, polyphenol content, caffeine, and chlorogenic-acid levels. Various parameters, such as extraction temperatures (20, 40, and 80°C) and extraction time periods (5, 10, and 20 min), were examined. DC extract was less acidic than those on MC and LC extracts. LC showed higher moisture content than the MC and DC (1.56, 1.3, and 0.92%, respectively). MC displayed the highest polyphenol content and potent antioxidant activity. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents trend to decrease during roasting. The maximum caffeine level was found in MC at 80°C for 5 min (27.65 mg/g extract). The highest chlorogenic acid content was in LC at 80°C for 10 min (16.67 mg/g extract). The caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents were related to the polyphenol content and depended on the roasting and extraction conditions. These results suggest that the UAE at various temperature and extraction time period may alter the physicochemical and biological characteristics of different coffee roasts.
... It has been reported that the chlorogenic acid content in the coffee beans are decreased as roasting degree increased, and 5-CQA, which occupies more than 50% of the total chlorogenic acid, are decreased 99.3-99.7% compared to green coffee beans at the French roasting (Moon et al., 2009). Caffeine has little loss during thermal treatment, especially to 250°C because it has a high sublimation point at 178°C, and the internal pressure of coffee beans increases by heat so that the sublimation point of caffeine increases (Chindapan et al., 2019). ...
... Caffeine has little loss during thermal treatment, especially to 250°C because it has a high sublimation point at 178°C, and the internal pressure of coffee beans increases by heat so that the sublimation point of caffeine increases (Chindapan et al., 2019). Chlorogenic acid is mostly hydrolyzed and generates quinic acid and various other substances, among which phenols affect the aroma, and some decomposition substances have a sour and astringent taste (Moon et al., 2009). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of Ethiopian Coffea arabica cv. Heirloom coffee extracts with various roasting conditions. Green coffee beans were roasted at four different conditions (Light-medium, Medium, Moderately dark, and Very dark) and used to extract espresso and drip coffee. Moisture content in coffee beans was decreased as the roasting degree increased. The contents of crude fat and ash were lower in the Light-medium roasted coffee beans than in green coffee beans but increased as the roasting degree increased. The values of lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), and browning index of coffee extracts were decreased as the roasting degree increased. Total dissolved solids in espresso coffee were increased with increasing roasting degree but decreased in drip coffee. In both the extracts, the contents of reducing sugar, titratable acidity, organic acids, and chlorogenic acid were decreased, but that of caffeine was increased with the roasting degree increased. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10068-020-00865-w.
... Moon et al. analyzed that 3-chlorogenic acid (CGA) in green coffee beans of Arabica were 1.76-3.25% from seven countries [40]. The two compounds evaluated in this study, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, have shown some relation in their activity against NA. ...
... Moon et al. analyzed that 3-chlorogenic acid (CGA) in green coffee beans of Arabica were 1.76-3.25% from seven countries [40]. ...
Article
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Coffee has been studied for its health benefits, including prevention of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, Parkinson’s, and liver diseases. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important component in coffee beans, was shown to possess antiviral activity against viruses. However, the presence of caffeine in coffee beans may also cause insomnia and stomach irritation, and increase heart rate and respiration rate. These unwanted effects may be reduced by decaffeination of green bean Arabica coffee (GBAC) by treatment with dichloromethane, followed by solid-phase extraction using methanol. In this study, the caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA) level in the coffee bean from three different areas in West Java, before and after decaffeination, was determined and validated using HPLC. The results showed that the levels of caffeine were reduced significantly, with an order as follows: Tasikmalaya (2.28% to 0.097% (97 ppm), Pangalengan (1.57% to 0.049% (495 ppm), and Garut (1.45% to 0.00002% (0.2 ppm). The CGA levels in the GBAC were also reduced as follows: Tasikmalaya (0.54% to 0.001% (118 ppm), Pangalengan (0.97% to 0.0047% (388 ppm)), and Garut (0.81% to 0.029% (282 ppm). The decaffeinated samples were then subjected to the H5N1 neuraminidase (NA) binding assay to determine its bioactivity as an anti-influenza agent. The results show that samples from Tasikmalaya, Pangalengan, and Garut possess NA inhibitory activity with IC50 of 69.70, 75.23, and 55.74 μg/mL, respectively. The low level of caffeine with a higher level of CGA correlates with their higher levels of NA inhibitory, as shown in the Garut samples. Therefore, the level of caffeine and CGA influenced the level of NA inhibitory activity. This is supported by the validation of CGA-NA binding interaction via molecular docking and pharmacophore modeling; hence, CGA could potentially serve as a bioactive compound for neuraminidase activity in GBAC.
... CGAs play an important role in the determination of final acidity, astringency, and bitterness of coffee products. [53,55] The content of CGAs in green coffee seeds vary among species, with Robusta green coffee reported to encompass higher CGAs level, 7 to 14.4%, than Arabica, 4 to 8.4% . [53,[56][57][58] Collectively, a total of 14 classes of CGAs have been reported from Robusta and Arabica green coffee seeds, with several isomeric forms are present in these CGAs due to the different esterification sites at either C3, C4 or C5. ...
... Caffeoylquinic acid CQA is the most abundant class of CGA in green coffee seeds, with 80 and 76% of the total CGA in Arabica and Robusta green coffee, respectively, with 5-CQA as the major isomer making 62 and 56%, respectively. [55,59] The chemical structures of the basic nucleus of these CGAs are presented in Figure 1,while Table 2 summarizes CGAs that have been identified in green coffee seeds mostly identified using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS n ). In addition to CGAs, acids that make up parts in CGAs were detected as free phenolic acids in green coffee extract i.e., caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, dimethoxycinnamic acid and quinic acid. ...
Article
Coffee is recognized worldwide as a top beverage owing to its several associated health benefits mediated by a complex mixture of unique bioactive substances. Chlorogenic acids are the key components of the phenolic fraction in green coffee seeds, accounting for up to 14% of the dry matter. The manufacturing of decaffeinated coffee demands efficient caffeine extraction from seeds and spent without solvent history effect for safety considerations. This has prompted researchers to investigate eco-friendly and cost-effective extraction technologies. Current extraction processes are not environmentally sustainable and have harmful consequences on humans. To date, developing a single standard method for effective extraction of certain complex compounds from coffee seeds remained a challenging procedure. The current review aims to give updated technical information regarding coffee plant green extraction methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and factors affecting efficacies for the recovery of bioactive compounds in coffee seeds and coffee spent. A comparative review of the uses of innovative green extraction techniques for coffee bioactive substances is introduced to present alternatives to conventional extraction methods. The most interesting finding was that the maximum total extractions of catechin (50.6 g/100 g) and caffeine (46.2 g/100 g) were achieved with enzymes in pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and PLE-assisted with enzymes exhibited an enhancement in total phenolics and overall antioxidant compared to 50% hydro-ethanolic solutions. In addition, it has been claimed that the ultrasonic extraction can cut extraction time by 37% and temperature by 13%. These green extraction techniques represent favorable approaches to the exploitation of coffee chemicals as bioactives to explore their wide-reaching applications at an industrial level and for their valorization
... Antioxidants 2020, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 21 pyrroles, thiols, and pyrazines [16,[21][22][23]. These compounds impart the flavor and aroma to coffee [24]. ...
... Moreover, the process of preparing coffee, including the grinding and brewing techniques, also influence the aroma of brewed coffee [21,25]. The volatile compounds of coffee are efficiently identified using powerful analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [5,21,22,[26][27][28][29]. Therefore, in this study, the antioxidant activity and volatile compounds in coffee obtained by digestive bioprocessing, wet and dry processing methods have been compared. ...
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There are different types of coffee processing methods. The wet (WP) and dry processing (DP) methods are widely practiced in different parts of coffee-growing countries. There is also a digestive bioprocessing method in which the most expensive coffee is produced. The elephant dung coffee is produced using the digestive bioprocessing method. In the present experiment, the antioxidant activity and volatile compounds of coffee that have been processed using different methods were compared. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total tannin content (TTC) of green coffee beans from all treatments were higher as compared to roasted coffee beans. Regarding the green coffee beans, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of elephant dung coffee beans was higher as compared to that of the DP and WP coffee beans. The green coffee beans had higher DPPH activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value compared to the roasted coffee beans. The green beans of elephant dung coffee had a high TPC than the beans obtained by WP and DP methods. TFC in elephant dung coffee in both green and roasted condition was improved in contrast to the beans processed using dry and wet methods. The elephant dung coffee had an increased TTC in comparison to the DP and WP coffee (green beans). About 37 volatile compounds of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, amide, esters, ethers, furans, furanones, ketones, phenols, pyrazines, pyridines, Heterocyclic N, and pyrroles functional classes have been found. Some of the most abundant volatile compounds detected in all treatments of coffee were 2-furanmethanol, acetic acid, 2-methylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, pyridine, and 5-methylfurfural. Few volatile compounds have been detected only in elephant dung coffee. The principal component analysis (PCAs) was performed using the percentage of relative peak areas of the volatile compound classes and individual volatile compounds. This study will provide a better understanding of the impacts of processing methods on the antioxidants and volatile compounds of coffee.
... When evaluating all of our samples prepared by both methods, pH values range from 4.60 to 5.35. Certain studies dedicated to the coffee and its physiochemical properties reported that the pH of C. arabica range from 4.95 to 5.99, which is approximately comparable to our results [14][15][16].We observed the lowest average pH value (4.60) in sample E, prepared by the filtration method and the highest average pH value (5.35) was measured in sample I, which was prepared by the moka method. Based on Table 1 is obvious that samples reached different values using both methods. ...
Article
This research was focused on the evaluation of selected parameters of coffee quality, regarding the beverage preparation method, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples of Coffea arabica from South America were analyzed. For the preparation of the final beverage were used filtration and moka methods. All samples roasted at medium dark roasting level Full City ++, contained less than 5% of moisture. The values of pH and dry matter content did not show a significant difference. The lowest content of chlorogenic acid reached value (1.41 g·100 g ⁻¹ ) prepared from filtration and 1.49 g·100 g ⁻¹ prepared from moka method. The highest content of chlorogenic acid ranged from 2.94 g. 100 g ⁻¹ filtration method and 3.36 g. 100 g ⁻¹ moka. Similarly, caffeine content, showed lower values using the filtration method. Values ranged from 1.37 to 1.57% (filtration) and from 1.54 to 1.78% (moka). However, PCA didn’t show a significant difference.
... Researching the effects of different brewing methods and appliances on the sensory profiles of coffees can help coffee companies have a better understanding of the products they market and what type of consumer group(s) they should be marketing to [43,121,122]. The high temperature usually used in the extraction process increases the volatility of several of the chemical compounds that account for the flavor attributes in coffee [2,[123][124][125]. ...
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Flavor continues to be a driving force for coffee’s continued growth in the beverage market today. Studies have identified the sensory aspects and volatile and non-volatile compounds that characterize the flavor of different coffees. This review discusses aspects that influence coffee drinking and aspects such as environment, processing, and preparation that influence flavor. This summary of research studies employed sensory analysis (either descriptive and discrimination testing and or consumer testing) and chemical analysis to determine the impact aspects on coffee flavor.
... Chlorogenic acid is the most abundant phenolic acid in green coffee beans. The major form of chlorogenic acid is 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, which consists of caffeic acid esterified with quinic acid (Moon et al., 2009;Moreira et al., 2015). The presence of covalently-linked chlorogenic acid derivatives in coffee results in high molecular weight phenol-nitrogen condensation reactions, generated by Maillard reaction products during the roasting process (Liang and Kitts, 2016). ...
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The effect of roasting conditions on some physicochemical characteristics of coffee beans as color, browning index, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), caffeine, phenolic acids, and antioxidant capacity were investigated. The thermostability of chlorogenic acid and caffeine was investigated using Arrhenius equation. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reveal the relationship between the phenolic profiles, browning index, and the antioxidant capacity of coffee. Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic compounds in coffee beans. It gradually decreased from 34.181 to 2.584 mg/g of sample during roasting at 220 °C for 40 min. Gallic acid, caffeic acid and HMF increased at the beginning of roasting time and decreased afterward. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Two principal components, (PC1 and PC2) with eigenvalues 5.89 and 2.5 respectively, which demonstrated 93.35% of the total variance in the data set. Therefore, the paramount way to reserve a good level of phenolic compounds in parallel with a good taste is the roasting of coffee at 180 °C for 20 min or 220 °C at 10 min.
... According to the intensity of the roasting conditions, higher temperature during coffee roasting leads to reduction in the total CGA. [13] Chlorogenic acid lactones are built up as a consequence of roasting and their impact on coffee brew bitterness were recorded. [8,14] A reduction in the radical scavenging capacity of coffee was observed with darker degrees of roasting. ...
Article
An overview of green coffee, the unroasted bean enriched with antioxidants, is presented in the following article. Green coffee beans are known to have a higher content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) with potential health benefits like activity against hypertension, diabetes, obesity, etc. There are three major classes of chlorogenic acids present in green coffee beans, namely: caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), di-caffeoylquinic acid (diCQA) and feruloylquinic acid (FQA). Another pivotal component of the green beans is caffeic acid. A compilation of the different research studies and reviews pertaining to the diverse biomolecules present in the green coffee, their structure and the different sources of CGA is presented. The traditional and modern methods of the extraction of CGA are also studied. Green coffee upon roasting develops its aromatic characteristics but the flavor development comes with a reciprocation of reduced chlorogenic acid content. Thus, the effect of processing is also addressed. There are numerous studies conducted to show the health benefits associated with the consumption of green coffee out of which, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects are particularly concentrated in this article. Keywords: Chlorogenic acid, diabetes, green coffee, obesity, roasting
... Adequate amount of CGA is present in tobacco leaves, mulberry tree and coffee beans. It is found to be responsible for the astringent taste of coffee brews [20]. The biological activities of CGA are now well documented. ...
Article
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The health benefit of coffee consumption mainly depends on chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of its major active phenolic constituent. CGA have several biological properties like anticancer, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, renoprotective, antimicrobial etc. It is assumed that different forms of coffee contains different amount of CGA. In this regards, we developed and validated a simple and cost effective chromatographic technique to identify and quantify CGA in green coffee, roasted coffee and branded instant coffee available in Indian market.
... However, there is abundant content of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in the by-product [2]. Under high pH conditions, the oxidatively polymerized CGA dimers tend to covalently bind to the polar groups of the protein, thereby generating green quinones [3] and affecting the sensory quality, functional properties and nutritional value of SSP [4][5][6]. This is the reason why SSP has been regarded as waste or low valuable animal feed, leading to financial loss and low utilization. ...
Article
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Hydrolytic activity for chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been recognized as an important side activity of some types of ferulic acid esterases. The purpose of this work was to enhance the efficient expression of ferulic acid esterase (FAE) and to explore its application in the processing of sunflower seed. Two novel FAEs from Aspergillus aculeatus (AaSD14) were expressed in genetically engineered E. coli BL21 (DE3), and their properties, including temperature, pH, metal ions and substrate specificity, were characterized after purification. Competitive CGA hydrolysis activity was observed in these recombined ferulic acid esterases (reFAEs) with reFAE1 of 246.37 U/g and reFAE2 of 340.95 U/g, which were 56.6 and 78.4 times higher than that of the wild strain (4.35 U/g), respectively. Meanwhile, the fermentation cycle was greatly shortened to 2.0 d. These reFAEs were recognized as type C FAE through substrate specificity assays. Treatment of sunflower seed protein (SSP) using reFAE2 resulted in a remarkable color change, from green to milk-white, confirming the activity of CGA biodegradation. Therefore, it shows certain potential in the processing of sunflower seed and other related foodstuffs.
... This result agrees with those of other studies (e.g., Farah et al. [20] and Kim and Park [3]). According to their studies, chlorogenic acid can be degraded (>90%) by thermal processing such as dark roasting, suggesting that the roasting time and temperature influence the chlorogenic-acid content in coffee products [21,22]. ...
Article
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This study investigated the non-volatile and volatile compounds in samples of cold brew (CB) coffee, coffee from a coffee shop (CS), ready-to-drink (RTD) coffee, and brewed coffee from a coffee maker (CM). The volatile compounds were identified using headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the samples were treated with high-performance liquid chromatography for the quantification of caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline. The results indicate that RTD coffee had the lowest amounts of non-volatile compounds. A total of 36 volatile compounds were semi-quantified; the contents of most volatile compounds in CS and Folgers samples were higher than those in CB and CM samples. The contents of 25 volatile compounds in the CM sample were higher than those in the CB sample. The consumer and instrumental data show that the bitterness intensity was correlated with pyrazines, pyrroles, and guaiacols, whereas the coffeeID intensity was correlated with phenols. Semi-quantification and principal component analysis results show that the extraction method and temperature could influence the volatile compound profiles.
... Raw coffee beans are rich in CGA and caffeine, which significantly decrease during the roasting and decaffeination processes (Moon et al. 2009) (Figure 1.2a). The GCBE used in the present study is prepared from decaffeinated and unroasted coffee beans, making it a novel source of CGA and eliminating the possible side effects of caffeine (Smith 2002;Appel and Myles 2001;Curatolo and Robertson 1983). ...
Chapter
Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Green coffee bean extract (GCBE) is derived from the coffee before it is roasted. It has potential to induce weight loss, stimulate the liver cells to increase fat metabolism, and reduce fat accumulation in the body without causing caloric restriction. The beneficial health effects of green coffee bean extract are attributed to its high antioxidant activity detected in chlorogenic, ferulic, caffeic, and n-coumaric acids.
... The level of CGA was at least threefold lower in medium-dark-roasted and pH was higher than in dark-roasted coffees due to the high concentration of CGA isomers (the acidic components of coffee) in the medium-roasted coffees (Jeon et al. 2017). It is worth mentioning that isomers 4-CQA and 3-CQA enlarged in some varieties of the light-roasted coffee beans, and it is attributed to isomerization of CGAs brought on by milder heat treatment (Moon et al. 2009). The CGA isomer content in roasted coffee beans has been characterized in decreasing order to be: CQA > diCQA > FQA > p-CoQA (Perrone et al. 2008). ...
Chapter
In food and biological systems, the main function of tocochromanols is antioxidant action – they deactivate free radicals and protect lipids from peroxidation (autoxidation). In addition to the antioxidant role of vitamin E and protection against oxidative stress, the “non-antioxidant” functions of vitamin E, including cell signaling and antiproliferation, is also described. Tocopherols and tocotrienols are not the only compounds classified as tocol derivatives. This chapter also includes an overview of the properties and occurrence of other forms of tocols (including: tocomonoenols, tocodienols, and plastochromanol-8). Content of tocochromanols in food may be determined using a wide range of analytical techniques. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with various detection systems and mass spectrometers enable identification of individual compounds. In the analysis of these compounds, spectroscopic methods are also being developed. The principles of these techniques are discussed in the chapter and examples of their applications are also provided.
... In vegetable based juices were seen chlorogenic acids consisting in esters formed between quinic acid and trans-cinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, or p-coumaric acids) [78]. During roasting of coffee was reported instability of this compounds at high temperature processing [79]. ...
Article
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Avocado virgin oil (AVO) was used during eggplant deep-frying, boil, and boil in a water-oil mixture (W/O). There were measured the contents of moisture, dry matter, fat, total (TPC) and ten individual phenols, antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and total sterols; as well as the profiles of eight fatty acids and fourteen sterols/stanols. The values of raw and processed foods were compared and studied with multivariate analysis. The antioxidant capacity of AVO lowered after deep frying but augmented in eggplant and water after all treatments. The TPC was steady in AVO and raised in fried eggplant. Thermal treatments added to the initial profiles of the AVO, eggplant and water, nine, eight, and four phenols, respectively. Percentages of the main fatty acids (oleic, palmitic and linoleic), and sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol, and Δ5-avenasterol), remained unchanged between the raw and treated AVO; and the lipidic fractions from processed eggplant. Cooking leads to the movement of hydrophilic and lipophilic functional compounds between AVO, eggplant and water. Migration of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids from AVO to eggplant during deep frying and W/O boiling improved the functional properties of eggplant by adding the high biological value lipophilic fraction to the naturally occurring polyphenols.
... Previous authors stated that the antioxidant treatment improved the cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in diabetic animals (Hasanein et al. 2016). Raw coffee beans contain high amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and caffeine but their contents are negatively affected by the roasting conditions (Moon et al. 2009). Green coffee is rich with CGAs, prepared from unroasted and decaffeinated coffee beans to avoid the probable side effects of caffeine (Song et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is an increasing metabolic disease worldwide associated with central nervous system disorders. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage that enriched with antioxidants with numerous medicinal applications. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of orally administered green coffee bean water extract (GCBWE) against cortical damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Metformin (Met) was used as standard antidiabetic drug. Animals were allocated into six groups: control, GCBWE (100 mg/kg), HFD/STZ (40 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (50 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (100 mg/kg) and HFD/STZ + Met (200 mg/kg) which were treated daily for 28 days. Compared to control rats, HFD/STZ-treated rats showed decreased levels of cortical dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with marked increases in their metabolites. Further, HFD/STZ treatment resulted in notable elevations in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and total nitrite levels paralleled with declines in antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GSH) and down-regulations of Sod2, Cat, GPx1 and Gsr gene expression. Neuroinflammation was evident in diabetic animals by marked elevations in TNF-α, IL-1β and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Significant rises incaspase-3 and Bax with decline in Bcl-2 level were noticed in diabetic rats together with similar results in their gene expressions. Cortical histopathological examination supported the biochemical and molecular findings. GCBWE administration achieved noteworthy neuroprotection in diabetic animals in most assessed parameters. The overall results suggested that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; anti-apoptotic activities of GCBWE restored the cortical neurochemistry in diabetic rats.
... In addition, aroma and flavor are affected by temperature and time and the roasting parameters of coffee [18]. Longer roasting of coffee influences the level of bioactive compounds [24]. In a study by Alkaltham, the total phenol content of green coffee beans was reduced by 13.59% and 16.66% on microwave and oven roasting respectively [25]. ...
Article
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Coffee is an intricate mixture of thousands of chemical compounds that are accountable for its flavor and aroma. Roasting is a key step in the processing of coffee beans. This study assessed the effect of microwave roasting (MW) and extraction solvents (ES) on the total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of coffee beans. The untreated and microwave-roasted (MR) coffee beans showed a total polyphenol content of 40.40 and 35.15 mg GAE/gm DW, respectively, when methanol was used as the solvent for extraction. Similarly, for the untreated coffee beans, the methanol extracted coffee had a significantly (p
... Nilai pH seduhan kopi pada umumnya berkisar antara 5-5,40 (Mulato & Suharyanto, 2015), 5,16-5,69 (Aditya et al., 2016, sedangkan seduhan cold brew coffee berkisar antara 4,85-5,10 (Rao & Fuller, 2018) atau 5,4-5,8 (Angeloni et al., 2019. Nilai pH seduhan kopi menurut penelitian Moon et al. (2009) berdasarkan variasi tingkat sangrai dari light hingga dark berkisar antara 4,86-5,88. ...
Article
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p> Coffee is one of the most widely distributed and consumed beverages in the world. In general, coffee is brewed using hot water, but a s the coffee industry develops, cold water also can be used for the coffee brewing process . This brewing technique is known as cold bre w. There is little information regarding the characteristics of cold brew coffee . T herefore it is necessary to study the characteristics of cold brew beverage s, especially with local Indonesian coffee as its main ingredient. This research used Menoreh Arabica coffee as its main research object . Th is study aimed to determine the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of M enoreh A rabica coffee with cold brew brewing techniques. This research begins with roasting coffee into three types, which is light (T = 193 <sup>o</sup> C, t = 5 minute), medium (T = 208 <sup>o</sup> C, t = 7 minute), and dark (T = 223 <sup>o</sup> C, t = 13 minute). Furthermore, the coffee is g rinded into two types grind size ( medium and coarse ) . Samples of cold brew formulation w ere made with an extraction time of 8 hours. The sensory analysis is conducted based on the SCA method. Sensory data analysis was done to determine the three best formulations according to roast profiles, continued with the physicochemical analysis. The best cold brew sample obtained from this research was medium-coarse Arabica Menoreh coffee, with the highest sensory parameters values in aroma, acidity, aftertaste, and sweetness . The value of pH, chlorogenic acid, and some organic acids affect acidity. Lactic acid affects body value, and c affeine levels were relatively stable in each sample. This research result can be used as a reference for product diversification of Arabica Menoreh coffee. </p
... Green coffee is a raw unroasted coffee bean, containing a greater level of chlorogenic acid than coffee beans that have been roasted. Clorogenic acid is a potent antioxidant effect in human body and health benefits (Moon et al., 2009). Many pharmacololgical studies observed that green coffee bean extract (GCBE) regulates hypertensive, vasoreactiveity and metabolism of glucose (Kozuma et al., 2005 andBlum et al., 2007). ...
... This polyphenolic compound is abundant in many plants, including tobacco, mulberry, andof coursecoffee [81,82,83,84]. The astringent taste of the brews of the coffee is because of this phenolic compound only [85,86]. ...
Article
Coffee is known to be one of the popular beverages today on the globe. Due to its easy availability and preparation, it is consumed by the population of almost all countries. This wonder crop was discovered in the 6th century in Ethiopia. Since then, people have also used various brewing methods to extract hundreds of the bioactive compounds present in these aromatic seeds. No doubt, excessive consumption of the same can be harmful too. As a functional food, coffee is known to have multiple health benefits. Coffee beans contain vitamins, minerals, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and various other biologically active ingredients. This review briefly describes the major biologically active compounds present in these seeds – caffeine, trigonelline, diterpenes, and chlorogenic acid (CGA). It also aims to describe various bioactive activities such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, antibacterial, antiviral, etc., against variable hallmarks. Thus, explaining different pharmacological effects for the welfare of the human population.
... A reduction in the chlorogenic acid content has been reported as 8 to 10% for every 1% reduction in dry matter, resulting in losses of 60 to 70% for medium roast and 90 to 95% for dark roast coffee. This results in the total chlorogenic acid content of roasted coffee ranging from 1.8 to 80 mg/kg (Farah et al., 2005, Moon et al., 2009, Ferruzzi, 2010, Crozier et al., 2012, Ludwig et al., 2014. Pohl et al. (2013). ...
Thesis
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Brazil is a major producer of special natural foods and beverages that are commercialised and sold, locally and globally, as natural and processed products. Many are marketed as good sources of elements (minerals) and polyphenols, that play an important role in human health. At present, very few scientific studies have reported the chemical composition of these natural foods or beverages obtained in Brazil. The aim of this research was to determine the levels of elements and polyphenols in yerba mate, roasted coffee and açaí berries. The chemical composition was determined for the elemental content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and polyphenols by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The elemental levels of non-commercial yerba mate leaves from the Barão de Cotegipe plantation (southern Brazil) had higher levels in the old leaves. New leaves grown on trees from an organic plantation had higher elemental levels, especially when compared with other plantations treated with NPK fertilisers. Moreover, higher elemental levels were found in plants grown in traditional organic plantations than in natural forests. The elemental levels of commercial yerba mate products from Brazil and Argentina were found to be similar. All levels were higher for commercial tea bag products than for green loose material. In Brazil, yerba mate is also sold as a roasted product (loose and tea bag) which had higher elemental levels than that for the green loose material. Infusions prepared using tea bag samples had higher elemental, polyphenol and xanthine levels than that for green loose regular infusions. Moreover, regular infusions made with green loose yerba mate had significantly higher levels of trace elements, polyphenols and xanthines in comparison with the roasted samples. All infusion methods (regular, Brazilian and bombilla) represented 0.1 to 5.0 % of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of the trace elements measured. A regular infusion serving (1 cup of 200 mL) would provide 23.7 to 106.0 % for males and 30.3 to 135.5 % for females of the manganese RDA, depending on the type of yerba mate product. In terms of the total polyphenol intake, a regular infusion serving (200 mL) could contribute 4.0 to 14.5 % of the daily intake. The effect of roasting different coffee varieties (Obatã, Catuaí, Bourbon Amarelo and blend) collected from the Fazenda Palmares and Flor plantations (Amparo, São Paulo State) resulted in a slight increase of the elemental content of the beans during the roasting process. The total polyphenol content of coffee infusions, produced from beans collected at different times of the roasting process, showed a variation of 7.0 to 52.0 % higher levels in the dark roast (10 min) when compared to the green bean infusions (0 min). The chlorogenic acids and caffeine data showed a similar trend with an increase in the levels of the infusions prepared using the medium roast coffee. A cup of coffee (92 mL) can contribute up to 7.0 % of the estimated daily intake of polyphenols. Açaí berries obtained from the Amazon region are a major nutritional source for the local population and the processed pulp is becoming a major national and global ‘super-fruit’ product. The non-commercial purple mature pulp had a significantly higher concentration of total polyphenols and anthocyanins in comparison with the white samples (different variety). These samples were found to have high antioxidant activity due to the higher levels of total polyphenols and total anthocyanins when compared to the commercial purple and non-commercial white pulp samples. The strong antioxidant effect of açaí pulp was confirmed on mouse cells through the inhibition of producing radical oxygen species (ROS). A wound healing experiment performed using human fibroblast cells confirmed a migration effect on cells subjected to açaí pulp extracts. These results are very important, as such an experiment has never been reported, and implies that processed açaí pulp may have potential as a wound healing agent. There were no statistically significant differences in the elemental content between purple and white pulp samples. Processed açaí pulp, with less water added, had higher elemental levels (based on a fresh weight). Based on a regular consumption of purple açaí (500g), the dietary intake of total polyphenols would be more than 100% of the RDA. The consumption of açaí represents a good source of Mn (average of 1500% of the RDA), Cu (90%), Mg (30%), Ca (20%) and Zn (15%). In summary, this research provides a unique database of chemical values using analytically robust methods that can be used to evaluate the nutritional quality of Brazilian natural and commercial products and the impact of consumption on dietary intake and human health.
... Hence, we have demonstrated that roasting circumstances have a considerable impact on the features of the physicochemistry of CGA, but do not significantly affect caffeine thermally, which is consistent with the findings of most of the aforementioned studies (48,74,75), while this is the first report of a 2.5-fold decrease in CA in medium and dark coffee. Several studies have previously reported that CGA levels are lost during the roasting process of coffee beans. ...
Article
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Vibrio cholerae is the causative organism of the cholera epidemic, and it remains a serious global health problem, particularly the multidrug-resistant strain, despite the development of several generic drugs and vaccines over time. Natural products have long been exploited for the treatment of various diseases, and this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of coffee beans and coffee by-products against V. cholerae antimicrobial resistant strains. A total of 9 aqueous extracts were investigated, including light coffee (LC), medium coffee (MC), dark coffee (DC), dried green coffee (DGC), dried red coffee (DRC), fresh red coffee (FRC), Arabica leaf (AL), Robusta leaf (RL), and coffee pulp (CP). The influential coffee phytochemicals, i.e., chlorogenic acid (CGA), caffeic acid (CA), and caffeine, were determined using HPLC. The antibacterial properties were tested by agar well-diffusion techniques, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were further determined against 20 V. cholerae isolates. The results revealed that all tested strains were sensitive to coffee extracts, with MIC and MBC values in the range of 3.125–25.0 mg/mL and 12.5–50.0 mg/mL, respectively. With a MIC of 6.25 mg/mL, DGC, DRC, and CP appeared to be the most effective compounds against 65, 60, and 55% of clinical strains, respectively. The checkerboard assay revealed that the combination of coffee extract and tetracycline was greater than either treatment alone, with the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranging from 0.005 to 0.258. It is important to note that CP had the lowest FICI (0.005) when combined with tetracycline at 60 ng/mL, which is the most effective dose against V. cholerae six-drug resistance strains (azithromycin, colistin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim), with a MIC of 47.5 μg/mL (MIC alone = 12.5 mg/mL). Time killing kinetics analysis suggested that CA might be the most effective treatment for drug-resistant V. cholerae as it reduced bacterial growth by 3 log10 CFU/mL at a concentration of 8 mg/mL within 1 h, via disrupting membrane permeability, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This is the first report showing that coffee beans and coffee by-product extracts are an alternative for multidrug-resistant V. cholerae treatment.
... The characterization of the polyphenolic extracts indicates that the area of caffeic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 1,5dicaffeoylquinic acid decreased with the roasting process; the area of caffeine remained unchanged; and the area of 3-hydroxycoumarin is increased (Supplementary Material, Fig. S3). These results agree well with previous reports where CGA such as 5-CQA, 4-CQA, 3-CQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA, 5-FQA, 3,4-diCQA and 4-FQ, are degraded during roasting, whereas the formation of CGA lactones takes place (Farah et al., 2005;Moon, Yoo, & Shibamoto, 2009). The levels of these compounds may also be decreased by their incorporation into Maillard reaction products during the roasting process (Bekedam et al., 2008;Coelho et al., 2014;. ...
Article
Several works have been focused on the extraction of polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine from spent coffee grounds (SCG) and their application in food formulations, but the peptide bioactivity from SCG protein hydrolysates has never been addressed. In the present work and for the first time, two different methods to isolate proteins from SCG have been compared, demonstrating that a urea-based extraction buffer provides a higher yield. This extraction method was then applied to compare the protein content in SCG from different coffee-brewing preparations, showing a higher protein content in SCG from espresso coffee machines. In addition, a polyphenol extraction step to remove interferences has been evaluated and the hydrolysis of the extracted proteins using alcalase and thermolysin enzymes has been compared. The effect of roasting degree on the antioxidant and in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity has been evaluated. The results show that the ACE-inhibitory activity is higher when SCG proteins are obtained from medium and dark roasted coffees and then hydrolyzed with thermolysin. Finally, the peptides contained in these hydrolysates have been identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled via electrospray ionization to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RP-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF).
... During the roasting process, and depending on the roasting conditions, natural coffee polyphenols are partially decomposed or bound to polymer structures (e.g. high-molecular weight melanoidins), and CGA concentration decreases (Moon et al., 2009;Wei et al., 2012b;Moreira et al., 2012). In murine models of LPSinduced inflammation, light and medium degree roasted coffee reduced IL-6 cytokine expression in LPS treated animals by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, and this effect decreased by increasing roasting degree (Choi et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The anti-inflammatory activity of coffee extracts is widely recognized and supported by experimental evidence, in both in vitro and in vivo settings, mainly murine models. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of coffee extracts from green (GCE) and medium-roasted (RCE) Coffea canephora beans in human macrophages. The biological effect of GCE and RCE was characterized in LPS-stimulated THP-1-derived human macrophages (TDM) as a model of inflammation. Results showed decreased amounts of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and a strong dose-dependent inhibition of interferon-β (IFN-β) release. Molecular mechanism of IFN-β inhibition was further investigated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analysis that showed a diminished nuclear translocation of p-IRF-3, the main transcription factor responsible for IFN-β synthesis. The inhibition of IFN-β release by RCE and GCE was also confirmed in human primary CD14 ⁺ monocytes-derived macrophages (MDM). The main component of coffee extracts, 5- O -caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) also inhibited IFN-β production, through a mechanism occurring downstream to TLR4. Inhibition of IFN-β release by coffee extracts parallels with the activity of their main phytochemical component, 5-CQA, thus suggesting that this compound is the main responsible for the immunomodulatory effect observed. The application of 5-CQA and coffee derived-phytoextracts to target interferonopathies and inflammation-related diseases could open new pharmacological and nutritional perspectives.
... The coffee CGA concentration depends on the coffee origin, roasting processes (time, temperature) and preparation type (instant, non-milk added, milk added, blended etc.) (16,17). In our study, the administered doses represented the averages of the CGA quantities identified by Ayelign (18), Upadhyay (19) and Moon (20) in different types of green or roasted coffee, doses that in prolonged administration (months) did not modified significantly the blood components but improved vasoreactivity (21). ...
Article
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Inflammation and oxidative stress are interrelated processes, during which many pathological processes lead to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cytokines release. The aim of this experimental study was to analyse the effects of chlorogenic acid, in oral daily administration, against the oxidative stress and oedema development in experimental carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation. The oxidative stress parameters were investigated after a paw inflammation was produced in rats that previoulsy received, for 14 days, either chlorogenic acid (100 mg/day or 150 mg/day) or indomethacin (1 mg/kg/day). The paw oedema was measured through plethysmometry made at 2, 6 and 24 hours after carrageenan injection. The oxidative stress was investigated through spectrophotometry. Blood samples, paw skin and kidneys were collected to investigate malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The protein expression of oxidative stressrelated pathways was analysed in skin and kidneys through Western blot. The present study showed that indomethacin and both doses of chlorogenic acid, after 14 days of oral administration, exerted antioedematous effects during the inflammation development after carrageenan local injection. Compared to the group that received only carrageenan injection, significant decreases of the inflamed paw volume were shown in the treated groups (P < 0.001), in all inflammation phases. The lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased by both doses of chlorogenic acid in inflamed skin (P < 0.0001) and kidney (P < 0.0001). In serum, it wassignificantly inhibited by indomethacin (P < 0.01) and by 100 mg/day of chlorogenic acid (P <0.05). The antioxidant protection, evaluated through the ratio GSH/GSSG, was significantly increased by chlorogenic acid in inflamed skin (P < 0.0001) and kidney (100 mg/day, P < 0.01; 150 mg/day, P < 0.0001). In serum, only indomethacin administration produced significant increases of the antioxidant protection (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed significant decreases of COX-2 in inflamed skin and kidney in the groups of rats that received indomethacin or 100 mg/day of chlorogenic acid. The effects of chlorogenic acid on NF-κB and pNF-κB were dose-dependent
... Regarding the values of titratable acidity and CGA content, the type of processing method does not have any significant effect (p > 0.05); however, it was observed that as the degree of roasting increases, the CGA content decreases and titratable acidity increases, which represents an inverse relationship between the two variables. The values found for CGA in green coffee are within the ranges reported by other authors (Ky et al., 2001;Farah et al., 2005;Moon et al., 2009;Hečimović et al., 2011;Han et al., 2017;Worku et al., 2017). In the roasting step, processing speed is related to time and temperature, variables that also affect the CGA content in coffee beans. ...
Article
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The objective of this work was to study the influence of two postharvest processing methods on the biochemical composition and sensory analysis of a Colombian specialty coffee. For this purpose, coffee beans (Coffea arabica) of the Castillo variety were collected and processed using the wet and semi-dry methods, and the drying process was conducted in a sun drier prototype with a plastic parabolic cover, with a maximum drying air temperature of 50 °C; green coffee beans were managed according to the official Specialty Coffee Association cupping protocol and roasted to a medium and dark degree. Physicochemical determinations (pH, color, titratable acidity, caffeine content, and chlorogenic acid quantification) in green coffee and roasted coffee beans were performed; the sensory analysis was performed by a panel of trained tasters. The wet and semi-dry processing methods resulted in differences in color parameters, pH values, and caffeine content. However, the titratable acidity, chlorogenic acid, and sensory evaluation did not have any difference; therefore, the type of coffee processing method used is not relevant to the final chemical properties of the roasted coffee (i.e., the Castillo variety) evaluated in this study; the coffee cup score is also not affected, and the post-fermentation washing process can be dispensed with.
... Thus, the beans of the green coffee contain a higher chlorogenic acid level compared to those of roasted coffee beans. Chlorogenic acid is thought to have health benefits [16]. It has a potent antioxidant effect in the human body [5] and is capable of slowing glucose absorption in the human gut [10]. ...
Article
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This work investigated the effect of dietary green coffee powder (GCP) on the growth, body characteristics, antioxidant status, serum metabolites, and meat quality of 308 Ross broiler chickens. A total of 180 non-sexed seven-day old chicks were randomly distributed into three experimental groups. The untreated group received a basal diet (control), while the second and third groups were fed the original diet fortified with 1.25 and 2.5 g GCP/kg, respectively, for four weeks. Results revealed an improvement (p < 0.05) in live body weight in the group fed 2.5 g/kg GCP at five weeks of age compared to the other groups. Broiler Chicks fed the 1.25 g/kg GCP diet showed a more significant decrease in live body weight than the control group at five weeks of age. The GCP supplementation at level 2.5 g/kg GCP enhanced feed conversion ratio at 3-5 and 1-5 weeks of age. Dietary treatments did not affect (p > 0.05) carcass, dressing, and giblets percentages. Different levels of GCP significantly affected the liver, abdominal fat, intestinal length, and lymphoid organs percentages. The changes in serum blood traits and serum oxidative stress markers were not significant among the control and the treated groups. With the increment levels of GCP, results showed elevated values of meat pH, lightness (L*), and redness (a*), as well as a significant decrease in its yellowness (b*). Broilers fed 2.5 g/kg GCP diet showed a significant reduction in the total bacterial count, total yeasts and molds count, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and Salmonella spp., as well as increasing counts of lactic acid bacteria. The dietary GCP 2.5 g/kg diet supplementation could be used to decrease the pathogenic microorganisms' populations in the broiler's gut. The present experiment has shown that in unsexed broiler chickens, green coffee powder at level of 2.5 g/kg improved the live body weight and feed conversion ratio and decreased the pathogenic bacterial count in the gut.
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The physicochemical characterstics of El Salvadoran Coffea arabica cv. Bourbon coffee extracts under various roasting conditions were investigated. Green beans were roasted under four different conditions (Light-medium, Medium, Moderately dark, and Very dark). The coffee extracts were prepared by using the espresso or drip methods. As the roasting degree increased, the coffee bean moisture content decreased and the ash content increased. The lightness and yellowness of the beans and coffee extracts decreased along with the increasing roasting degree. In the drip coffee, the reducing sugar content decreased and the pH value increased along with the increasing roasting degree. Both in the espresso and drip coffee, total organic acid and chlorogenic acid contents decreased, while the caffeine content increased along with the increasing roasting degree. Therefore, it is suggested that the roasting degree affects the physicochemical characteristics of coffee extracts.
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As the most consumed beverage in the world, the material basis of the sensory quality for roasted coffee beans has always received much attention. The objective of the present study was to clarify the physical morphology changes, main chemical ingredients and cupping scores of arabica coffee beans of different roasting degrees, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and sensory analysis, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data by multivariate analysis demonstrated that trigonelline, sugars, malate, quinic acids, γ-butyro-lactone and acetate have the potential to be new roasting markers. Additionally, in all the sensory indicators, body and acidity were found to be susceptible to roasting degree. Basing on cluster heatmap and sensory molecular network, the complex relationships between sensory indicators and ingredients were discussed. The results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) showed that the content of the main coffee ingredients can be used to predict the body score.
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Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its quality depends on many factors, such as, country of origin, altitude, climate, post-harvesting processing and others. This paper is focused on the possibility to determinate origin of American, African, and Asian coffees based on chemical properties of the final beverage, such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) measured using DPPH radical, content of chlorogenic acids and caffeine determined by HPLC-DAD. Samples of green and roasted coffee (roasting level medium dark Full City ++) were used. In green samples the highest values of TAC and caffeine were measured in American samples (averagely 93.014 % inhibition of DPPH and 0.854 g.100 g-1 of caffeine respectively), the highest content of chlorogenic acids showed samples from Africa (averagely 5,037 g.100 g-1). In samples of roasted coffees values of TAC decreased by 7, 47 % in Africa samples, by 18,12 % in American, and 13,73 % in samples from Asia. Roasted African coffees showed on average 1.035 g.100 g-1 of caffeine, the highest average was measured in American samples (1.201 g.100 g-1), and lowest Asian samples (1.089 g.100 g-1). Lowest content of CGAs was obtained from African samples (0.595 g.100 g-1), and the higher from American (0.596 g.100 g-1) and African samples (0.6345 g.100 g-1). ANOVA single factor showed significant differences between green samples regarding the TAC and caffeine content. However, content of chlorogenic acids did not show any difference (p-value=0,6809) regarding the geographical origin. Same results were obtained comparing roasted samples.
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Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) is universally used as a marker of the occurrence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods. This study investigated the level changes of CML, chlorogenic acids (CQAs), lysine (Lys), fat and pH in coffee during roasting. The CML level went up slowly in the first 10 mins, then declined sharply during the next 2 mins, and kept increasing constantly in the following baking time, while the lowest CML level was obtained by roasting at 235 °C for 12 mins. The three CQAs isomers had different efficacy in affecting the levels of CML and other factors, indicating the CQAs isomers may play an important role in influencing the CML level. So it might be possible to regulate the formation of CML and gain better coffee quality via adjusting the levels of CQAs in baking process. This study provided important enlightenment on CML control during coffee baking.
Chapter
Phenolic compounds are bioactive metabolites determined in plants which can be divided into six main groups: phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, lignans, and coumarins. These compounds possess not only high antioxidant activity but also many other bioactive properties, with anticancer activity as well. Very important sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet are coffee brew and tea leaves infusion. In this chapter, modern high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods are described for the determination of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in coffees as well as catechins and theaflavins (TFs) in white, green, yellow, oolong, black, and pu-erh teas. Nowadays, the consumption of hot beverages is still common, and some other special coffees have become more and more popular. Apart from the roasting process, other special treatment processes of coffee beans such as steaming, decaffeination, or natural fermentation (Kopi Luwak coffee) influence the composition of chlorogenic acids and/or other phenolic compounds of coffee brew. Instant coffees and “ready-to-drink” coffee beverages are available on the market as well. In addition, coffee brews prepared by different methods contain a wide and dissimilar level of total chlorogenic acids and their lactones. Coffee leaves infusions, drunk from ages, also possess phenolic compounds and bioactive properties. Moreover, the preparation of tea leaves and/or buds (non-oxidized, semi-oxidized, fully oxidized, and post-fermented) influences the catechins, theaflavins, and other bioactive compounds present in tea infusions. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of tea can be improved by the addition of spices (e.g., cayenne pepper), flowers (e.g., jasmine), herbs (mint or basil), fruits (e.g., lemon or dried fruits), bergamot oil, and also chocolate. The most common flavored black tea types are Earl Grey and masala. Other teas such as rooibos, yerba mate, and lapacho, best known and drunk in the places of origin, become more popular in the USA and Europe. They also contain phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds among other bioactive compounds.
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Untargeted LC–MS flavoromic profiling was utilized to identify compounds that suppress bitterness perception of coffee brew. The chemical profiles of fourteen brew samples and corresponding perceived bitterness intensities determined by descriptive sensory analysis were modeled by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) with good fit (R²Y > 0.9) and predictive ability (Q² > 0.9). Ten chemical markers that were highly predictive and negatively correlated to bitter intensity were subsequently purified by multi-dimensional preparative LC–MS to conduct sensory recombination testing and/or confirm compound identifications by NMR. Three of the ten compounds evaluated, namely 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, and 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-atractyligenin were identified as bitter modulators in coffee, and significantly decreased the perceived bitterness intensity of the brew.
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Phenolic compounds are known to degrade and/or undergo changes during food production and storage. Reaction kinetic modeling is generally used to define kinetic parameters of a food system and predict changes during thermal processing and storage. Data for phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, have been reviewed in detail, but the flavonoid sub-classes, dihydrochalcones and flavanones, have been mostly neglected. Other neglected phenolic classes are xanthones and benzophenones. The stability of these types of compounds is important as they are present in fruits and exposed to heat when processed into juice and jam. Other sources of the compounds are herbal teas, which are also subjected to thermal processing, either during the primary processing of the plant material, or the production of extracts for use as food ingredients. The theoretical background is given to understand the review of literature on these classes/sub-classes. Results of research on kinetic modeling are discussed in detail, while research on compound stability without the application of reaction kinetic modeling is briefly mentioned to provide context. The studies discussed included those focusing on heating during the processing and storage of model solutions, liquid foods, plant material, dried extracts, and extracts formulated with other food ingredients.
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As an important bioactive component in plants, chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been widely studied for its potential role in human health. In this work, cyan fluorescent silicon quantum dots were successfully synthesized via a simple one-pot method for the rapid detection of CGA. The optimal excitation and emission wavelength of the obtained SiQDs was 350 nm and 470 nm, respectively. When the CGA was added, the maximum emission intensity of the SiQDs can be effectively quenched due to dynamic and static mixed quenching mechanisms. More significantly, there was a remarkable linear correlation between fluorescence quenching efficiency and a broad concentration of CGA solution range from 10 to 150 μmol/L with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.43 μmol/L. Furthermore, the proposed SiQDs were successfully applied to analyze CGA in coffee after simple pretreatment with satisfactory results. Based on these, a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity fluorescent probe detection system was constructed, and it provides a valuable platform for the detection of CGA and has broad application prospects in the biological and pharmaceutical analysis field.
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Coffee consumption has been investigated as a protective factor against cancer. Coffee is a complex beverage that contains more than 1000 described phytochemicals, which are responsible for its pleasant taste, aroma, and health-promoting properties. Many of these compounds have a potential therapeutic effect due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and anticancer properties. The roasting process affects the phytochemical content, and undesirable compounds may be formed. In recent years, there have been contradictory publications regarding the effect of coffee drinking and cancer. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the association of coffee consumption with the development of cancer. In PubMed, until July 2021, the terms “Coffee and cancer” resulted in about 2150 publications, and almost 50% of them have been published in the last 10 years. In general, studies published in recent years have shown negative associations between coffee consumption and the risk or development of different types of cancer, including breast, prostate, oral, oral and pharyngeal, melanoma, skin and skin nonmelanoma, kidney, gastric, colorectal, endometrial, liver, leukemic and hepatocellular carcinoma, brain, and thyroid cancer, among others. In contrast, only a few publications demonstrated a double association between coffee consumption and bladder, pancreatic, and lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that accumulate epidemiological evidence showing a consistent inverse association between coffee consumption and cancer.
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Coffee contains a variety of organic acids (OAs) and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that contribute to overall sensory properties. Large variations in preparation and measurement methodology across the literature complicate interpretation of general trends. Here, we perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to elucidate the concentrations of OAs and CGAs in both Coffea arabica (arabica) and Coffea canephora (robusta), for both green coffee and roasted coffee at multiple roast levels. A total of 129 publications were found to report acid concentration measurements, yielding 8,634 distinct data points. Analysis of the full data set reveals several trends. First, roasted robusta has considerably more acidic compounds than arabica with 2 to 5 times as much total OAs, and much larger amounts of formic and acetic acid. As for CGAs, in both arabica and robusta 5-CQA is the major component, and progressive roasting decreases the concentration of all CGAs. The total amount of CGA present was more dependent on roast level than the type of coffee (arabica vs. robusta). Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that the increases in certain OAs with roast level might play more of a role in the sensory profile of dark roast coffees than previously suspected.
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To ascertain the best technique for retention of sensory properties and chlorogenic acid (CGA) in instant coffee, the present study involved several drying techniques such as spray drying, freeze drying, spray freeze drying (SFD), conductive hydro drying, and compared the effect with a commercial sample. From the analysis of all coffee samples, both by sensory analysis (based on fuzzy logic) and by descriptive analysis (for foaming characteristics), SFD coffee was preferred. This fact was further corroborated by electronic nose-based aroma analysis of coffee. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC) revealed maximum (85%) retention of CGA in SFD (52.35±0.61 mg CGA/g of coffee powder). Overall, SFD emerged as the most preferred technique for the preparation of instant coffee.
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Coffee comprises of numerous bioactive compounds, and has recently been cultivated in temperate regions. We investigated the morphological and phytochemical changes in beans of Coffea arabica cvs. Catuai, Caturra, and Geisha cultivated in the Republic of Korea, at three roasting stages: green bean, 1st crack, and 2nd crack. Morphological changes were estimated by considering the size parameters and weights. Total polyphenols were determined using spectrophotometry, and caffeine and chlorogenic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with the appropriate standards. Increased volume and decreased weight were observed in the beans of all three cultivars after roasting. The content of total polyphenols was about 13.74 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight. The analysis of variance revealed that the contents of total polyphenols was insignificant among the cultivars and there was no significant change in the roasting stages. Compared to green bean, decreased contents of caffeine were obtained in the 1st crack and 2nd crack of ‘Catuai’. Chlorogenic acid contents were dramatically decreased in the 1st and 2nd crack of all three cultivars, as compared to green bean. Among the cultivars, ‘Geisha’ showed maximum decrease in chlorogenic acid (about 96%, 1.87 mg/mL) at 2nd crack, compared to the green bean (44.72 mg/mL). These results provide information about the characteristics of various coffee cultivars grown in the Republic of Korea during roasting. © 2022 The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/lice nses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Kahve günlük yaşantımızda önemli bir yere sahip olan ve en sık tüketilen içeceklerden biridir. İçeriğindeki biyoaktif bileşenler sayesinde sağlık üzerinde antioksidan, antihipertansif, anti-inflamatuar, immünoprotektif, anti-karsinojen etkiler göstermektedir. Çalışma kapsamında, ticari olarak tüketime sunulan Espresso, Americano, Macchiato, Latte, Cappuccino ve Mocha kahve içeceklerinin antioksidan kapasite(ABTS ve DPPH Metotları) ve toplam fenolik bileşen miktarı (Folin-Ciocalteu Metodu) açısından analiz edilerek, içeceklerin biyoaktif potansiyellerinin kıyaslanması amaçlanmıştır. En yüksek değerler en yoğun kahve içeriğine sahip olan Espresso örneğinde belirlenmiş olup; ekstrakte edilebilir, hidrolize edilebilir, biyoerişilebilir fenolik fraksiyonları sırasıyla TEAKABTS sonuçlarına göre 28.15, 35.04, 30.28 μmol Troloks mL-1; TEAKDPPH sonuçlarına göre ise 14.69, 17.98, 9.84 μmol Troloks mL-1 olarak belirlenmiştir. Kahve örneklerinin içeriğindeki süt miktarı arttıkça antioksidan kapasite ve toplam fenolik bileşen değerlerinde azalma gözlemlenmiştir. Sütün buhar ile muamele edilerek köpük halinde eklenmesi, sıcak olarak eklenmesine göre nispeten daha yüksek değerler göstermiştir. Örneklerin % biyoerişilebilirlikleri ise, toplam fenolik bileşen içeriğine göre % 41-48 arasında değişmiştir.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate several superior clones of Robusta coffee through semi-wet processingg. The research was conducted at the Lampung AIAT Experimental Garden in Natar, Way Haron Village, the Lampung AIAT Laboratory and the Polinela Food Laboratory from April 2019 to October 2019. The clones used in the study were BP 534, BP 939, BP 436 and SA 203. Harvesting was carried out by red picking and then the berries were sorted. Analysis of the quality of coffee beans refers to Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 01-2907-2008 and SNI 01-3542-2004 for ground coffee. The results showed that clones BP 534 and BP 939 were classified as quality I, BP 436 and SA 203 clones were classified as quality II. The BP 534 have the highest protein, ash and carbohydrate content with the lowest fat content, while the fiber value is 17,389%. The color values (L) of coffee beans were ranged from 42.907 to 47.250. There was an increase in the L value from roasted coffee to ground coffee for all clones. The quality of ground coffee from four Robusta coffee clones meets the quality standards based on SNI 01-3542-2004. Ground coffee from clone BP 534 was the best compared to other clones.
Article
The present work evaluated the effect of microwave roasting on total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhyrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, some selected compounds, and the mineral content of coffee beans. Coffee bean powder was roasted at three microwave power levels (450, 720, and 900 W) and treatment durations (4, 6, and 8 min). The TPC, TFC, and DPPH radical scavenging activity were increased by increasing the microwave power and roasting duration, but detrimental effects were observed at higher power levels and longer treatment durations. The highest TPC, TFC, and DPPH radical scavenging activity were detected for the sample treated at 720 W for 6 min. The mineral content was only increased in the sample treated at 450 W for 4 min; all other treatments decreased the mineral content. Microwave power levels and treatment durations showed a significant increase in the browning intensity of the coffee bean extract. The selected coffee bean compounds as analysed by GC-MS were affected in different ways by microwave treatment. The relative percentage of caffeine was increased from 40.06 to 49.12% when treated at 450 W for 4 min, while n-hexadecanoic acid content was decreased from 33.86% in untreated coffee beans to 16.31% when treated at 450 W for 4 min. There was also the formation of new compounds such as octadecanoic acid-methyl ester, vitamin E, and stigmasterol upon microwave roasting of coffee beans. Based on the above results, microwave heating can be used as a roasting method for coffee beans.
Article
Effects of geographical origin of Coffee Arabica beans (Brazil, Colombia and Peru), roasting degree, particle size and different brewing methods (French press, chemex and cold brew) on physicochemical and spectral properties of coffee samples were investigated in this study. Analyses of pH, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TA), UV and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were performed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain the most effective parameters on chemical changes. Results indicated that the increase of roasting degree caused decrements in the intensities of UV-spectra because of the degradation of trigonelline and chlorogenic acid molecules while counterpart trend was observed in the fluorescence spectra due to formation of fluorescence Maillard reaction products (MRP) during roasting. French press and cold brew methods caused similar TPC (1873.33–3818.33 and 2648.88–3824.44 μg/mL gallic acid equivalent, respectively) and TA (0.18–0.32 and 0.16–0.27 μmol/mL Trolox equivalent, respectively) values whereas chemex method showed different physicochemical properties (TPC: 1008.88–3543.88 μg/mL gallic acid equivalent and TA: 0.08–0.26 μmol/mL Trolox equivalent). Roasting degree and brewing method—compared to other parameters—were the most discriminating factors on the basis of UV spectra and fluorescence spectra of coffee brew samples, respectively. All roasting degrees could be distinguished with the rate of 71.42% on PC1 and 23.45% on PC2 of total variance according to UV-spectra while chemex and French press-cold brew methods could be differentiated with the rate of 97.24% on PC1 and 1.79% on PC2 of total variance based on fluorescence spectra on PCA score graphs.
Chapter
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IntroductionObjectives and ScopeCoffee ConsumptionCoffee and CancerCoffee and Cardiovascular DiseaseCoffee and Bone HealthReproductive and Developmental Potentials of Coffee and CaffeineEmerging Benefical Health EffectsCoffee Consumption - Safety ConsiderationsConclusions References
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Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the world and a significant source of phenolic compounds, particularly chlorogenic acids (CGA). During coffee roasting, some CGA are partially transformed into chlorogenic acid lactones (CGL). Both CGA and CGL are important compounds for flavor and potentially beneficial to human health. In the present study, using LC–MS and synthetic standards, we investigated major and minor CGA and CGL isomers in green and roasted samples of economically relevant Brazilian Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora coffee cultivars. For the first time, in addition to nineteen previously identified CGA and CGL, 1-feruloylquinic acid, 1-feruloylquinic lactone and 3,4-diferuloylquinic acid were quantified in C. arabica and C. canephora, the contents of 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic lactones were reported in C. canephora and 3,4-di-p-coumaroylquinic acid was identified in C. arabica. Despite their low concentrations, the implications of these findings for flavor, cup quality and the biological properties of coffee merit further investigation.
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The aim of the study was to assess whether an extra fertilization with manganese, commercial fertilizer Alkalin (N, K and Si), and combined treatment (manganese + Alkalin) affect the chemical composition of chokeberry fruits (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot), especially sugar content and the quantity and profile of phenolics. Dry weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, vitamin C, total polyphenol (gallic acid equivalents); 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity; and phenolics profile were measured from the fruits harvested from different treatments. Chokeberries treated with manganese showed high content of non-identified phenolic acids [101.15 mg per 100 g fresh weight (FW), these compounds were not detected in fruit treated with Alkalin and manganese + Alkalin], and the highest content of cyanidin glycosides (813.75 mg per 100 g FW). The fruits treated with Alkalin displayed the highest content of quercetin derivatives (40.88 mg per 100 g FW) and eriodictyol 7-glucuronide (26.43 mg per 100g FW). Chokeberries in control treatments had the highest content of dry weight (30.76% FW), soluble solids (24.1% FW), total sugar (20.92% FW), vitamin C (8.4 mg 100 g –1 FW), total polyphenol (2377.1 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g FW), the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical % inhibition (38.1%), highest content of chlorogenic acids (210.38 mg per 100 g FW), (-)epicatechin (32.18 mg per 100 g FW) and the highest degree of procyanidin polimerization (59). The results indicate that ap-plied fertilization exerted differential influence on chemical composition of aronia fruits.
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A simple, sensitive and specific HPLC method for the simultaneous separation and determination of geniposide, geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, crocin 1 and 2 in fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was developed. Optimum chromatographic performance was obtained with a C18 column and acetonitrile—0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (v/v) as mobile phase. Isolated peaks were detected at 240nm for geniposidic acid and geniposide, 330nm for chlorogenic acid and 440nm for crocin 1 and 2, respectively. Comparison of spectra recorded with a diode-array detector during elution of peaks enabled determination of method specificity. Quantitative determinations on different parts of gardenia fruit demonstrated that all these compounds were abundant mainly in pericarps and pulps and only iridoid glycosides were also presented in sepals and seeds of the fruits.
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), emitted from green coffee beans, during coffee roasting and from a cup of coffee, were all analysed by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Firstly, the headspace (HS) of green beans was investigated. Alcohols dominate the HS, but aldehydes, hydrocarbons and organic acids were also abundant. Secondly, we roasted coffee under two different conditions and monitored on-line the VOCs emitted during the process. In a first roasting series, a batch of beans was roasted. After an initial drying phase, dominated by evaporation of water and methanol, the HS concentrations of VOCs such as acetic acid, acetaldehyde, pyridine and methylbutanal rapidly increased and went through a maximum at medium roast level. In a second series, just six beans were roasted. We observed sporadic bursts of some volatiles (furans, butanal, 2,3-pentanedione), coinciding with popping sounds. Other VOCs showed smooth time-intensity profiles (pyridine, pyrazine). These experiments gave a real-time insight into the complex processes taking place during roasting. Finally, the HS of coffee extracts, prepared from beans roasted to different roast levels, were analysed. Most VOCs showed a maximum concentration at medium roast level (e.g. pentanedione, furfural, 5-methyl furfural), while others showed a gradual increase (e.g. pyrrol) or decrease (e.g. methanol).
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Recently, research on natural antioxidants has become increasingly active in various fields. Accordingly, numerous articles on natural antioxidants, including polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins, and volatile chemicals, have been published. Assays developed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants and food constituents vary. Therefore, to investigate the antioxidant activity of chemical(s), choosing an adequate assay based on the chemical(s) of interest is critical. There are two general types of assays widely used for different antioxidant studies. One is an assay associated with lipid peroxidations, including the thiobarbituric acid assay (TBA), malonaldehyde/high-performance liquid chromatography (MA/HPLC) assay, malonaldehyde/gas chromatography (MA/GC) assay, beta-carotene bleaching assay, and conjugated diene assay. Other assays are associated with electron or radical scavenging, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) assay, and aldehyde/carboxylic acid (ACA) assay. In this review, assays used recently were selected for extended discussion, including discussion of the mechanisms underlying each assay and its application to various plants and foods.
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Coffee is basically consumed for the pleasure given by its taste and aroma, that is, the quality and acceptance of the coffee beverage are directly related to its sensorial characteristics. Thus, nowadays coffee quality is basically evaluated by sensorial analysis. However, together with this kind of analysis, it should be important to have available more objective chemical methods to assess coffee quality. One possible approach could be based on the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CGA), since they are considered precursors of coffee flavour and pigments during roasting. In the present work, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of chlorogenic acids was applied to six different Brazilian arabica green coffee samples which were previously characterised by sensorial analysis. The results showed the potential to correlate the chemical data, evaluated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) statistical method, with sensorial analysis in order to discriminate the quality of the samples. It was observed that the 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (3,5-diCQA) isomers are very important for grouping the coffees into good and bad samples.
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Of all plant constituents, coffee has one of the highest concentrations of chlorogenic acids. When roasting coffee, some of these are transformed into chlorogenic acid lactones (CGL). We have studied the formation of CGL during the roasting of coffee beans in Coffea arabica cv. Bourbon; C. arabicacv. Longberry; and C. canephora cv. Robusta. Individual CGL levels were determined by comparison of HPLC peaks with those of synthetic CGL standards. Seven CGL were identified: 3-caffeoylquinic-1,5-lactone (3-CQL), 4- caffeoylquinic-1,5-lactone (4-CQL), 3-coumaroylquinic-1,5-lactone (3-pCoQL), 4-coumaroylquinic-1,5-lactone (4-pCoQL), 3-feruloylquinic-1,5-lactone (3-FQL), 4-feruloylquinic-1,5-lactone (4-FQL), and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic-1,5-lactone (3,4-diCQL). 3-CQL was the most abundant lactone in C. arabica and C. canephora, reaching peak values of 230 +/- 9 and 254 +/- 4 mg/100 g (dry weight), respectively, at light medium roast ( approximately 14% weight loss). 4-CQL was the second most abundant lactone (116 +/- 3 and 139 +/- 2 mg/100 g, respectively. The maximum amount of CGL represents approximately 30% of the available precursors. The relative levels of 3-CQL and 4-CQL in roasted coffee were reverse to those of their precursors in green coffee. This suggests that roasting causes isomerization of chlorogenic acids prior to the formation of lactones and that the levels of lactones in roasted coffee do not reflect the levels of precursors in green coffee.
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Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.
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Providing a thorough introduction to the core areas of food science specified by the Institute of Food Technologists, Introduction to Food Chemistry focuses on principles rather than commodities and balances facts with explanations. The text covers the major areas of food science, including food chemistry, food analysis and methods for quality assurance, nutrition, diet and health, food microbiology, food material science, biochemical changes in fresh foods, food enzymology, and food processing. Within each chapter, more complex ideas appear near the end. This provides beginning students and those new to the food industry with a complete spectrum of information, while assisting advanced students with specialized papers and research articles. This multi-level text presents a wealth of information in a clear and accessible style. It serves as an ideal introduction or supplementary textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in food science courses.
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Phenolics are widespread dietary antioxidants. Among these, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) received considerable attention for their wide distribution and part of human diet with potential biological effects. CGAs (71 compounds), being esters of derivatives of cinnamic acids with quinic acid are widely distributed in plant materials. Coffee is among the highest found in plants, ranging from 4 to 14%. Besides, these are reported in plant foods such as apples, pears, carrot, tomato, sweet potato, Phyllostachys edulis, oilseeds, Prunus domestica L, cherries, and eggplant. The traditional Chinese medicinal plants such as flowers and buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb and the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies contained CGAs as bioactive compound. These play an important role in the formation of roasted coffee flavor and have a marked influence on coffee cup quality. CGAs are considered as main precursors of coffee flavor and pigments. Recent technological advancements in the separation and purification of CGAs such as molecular-imprinted polymer technique; microwave-assisted extraction; pH gradient counter current chromatography has also been described. The consumption of coffee correlated to several health benefits such as reducing the risk of human chronic diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease owing to its antioxidant potential.
Article
Reactive oxygen species can damage cellular biomolecules leading to degenerative diseases. Phenols, a major group of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties, can help inactivate them. To find the antioxidant potential of the genus Rhododendron, its 21 species were studied for their total phenolic content (TPC), flavonoids and antioxidant activity (AOA). TPC varied from 37.3 to 208.9 mg/g, flavonoids from 11.5 to 137.1 mg/g and AOA from 30.4 to 97.4%. R. baileyii, R. camellie florum, R. campanulatum, R. cilliatum, R. cinnabarinum, R. griffithianum, R. lepidotum, R. niveum, R. sallignum and R. virgatum were found to have high TPC (91.4–208.9 mg/g), AOA (71.5–97.4%) and free radical scavenging activity, as evident from their low IC50 (inhibitory concentration, 0.07–0.19 mg/ml), low EC50 (efficiency concentration, 3.28–8.26 g/mg), and high ARP (antiradical power, 12.10–30.48), compared to reference standard. R. griffithianum, R. lepidotum and R. virgatum showed better ferrous-ion chelating capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation than that of standards, BHT and quercetin. They also showed better reducing power and inhibition of both site-specific and non sitespecific hydroxyl radicals-induced deoxyribose degradation than those of other species. R. camellieflorum, R. campanulatum, R. griffithianum, R. lepidotum and R. virgatum were potential scavengers of superoxide anions and also showed significant protection of DNA damage induced by free radicals. Promising species were also subjected to HPLC and MS/MS, which showed the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic and protocatechuic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and rutin).
Article
Hot air roasting of coffee beans results in a large number of aroma compounds. For a given coffee, the aroma profile is determined by the specific conditions for chemical reactions as controlled by the process parameters. Therefore, the influence of roasting temperatures on the formation of key aroma compounds was investigated. Coffee was roasted in 6 different processes to equal degrees of roast and the developing aroma compound profiles were characterized by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. A majority of aroma compounds showed the highest increase in concentration at medium stage of dehydration with bean water content from 7 to 2% (wb). Different time-temperature histories led to distinct aroma compound profiles. To reach a specific flavor profile, precise control of roasting time and temperature is required.
Article
Twelve commercial brewed coffees (seven regular and five decaffeinated) were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA) and caffeine by HPLC. Their pH and UV–Vis absorbances were also measured. The CGAs identified were three caffeolylquinic acids (3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA), three feruloylquinic acids (3-FQA, 4-FQA, and 5-FQA), and three dicaffeoylquinic acids (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA). The total CGAs ranged from 5.26 mg/g to 17.1 mg/g in regular coffees and from 2.10 mg/g to 16.1 mg/g in decaffeinated coffees. Among CGA, 5-CQA was present at the highest level, ranging from 2.13 mg/g to 7.06 mg/g coffee, and comprising 36–42% and 37–39% of the total CGA in the regular and decaffeinated coffees, respectively. CGA isomer contents were, in decreasing order, 5-CQA > 4-CQA > 3-CQA > 5-FQA > 4-FQA > 3-FQA > 3,4-diCQA > 4,5-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA. The caffeine content in regular and decaffeinated coffees ranged from 10.9 mg/g to 16.5 mg/g and from 0.34 mg/g to 0.47 mg/g, respectively. The pH of regular and decaffeinated coffees ranged from 4.95 to 5.99 and from 5.14 to 5.80, respectively. The relationship between the pH and the UV–Vis absorbance at 325 nm was moderately correlated (R2 = 0.7829, p < 0.001, n = 12).
Article
The antioxidant properties of coffee were studied in relation to roasting degree. In particular, the extent of the chain-breaking activity and oxygen scavenging properties of Maillard reaction products contained in coffee brews were evaluated. Samples showed very high chain-breaking and oxygen consumption activities, which did not increase linearly with increasing roasting degree. In our experimental conditions, the highest antioxidant properties were found for the medium-dark roasted coffee brews.
Article
A critical assessment was made of the official Spanish method for determining nitrite content in meat, using a 2((k-p)) fold-over Plackett-Burman experiment to identify influencing factors (IF) affecting the analytical method; these factors were drawn from seven apparent critical factors (ACF): sample weight (W(S)), extraction temperature (T(E)), stirring extraction time (S(ET)), addition of Carrez I reagent (C(I-R)), addition of Carrez II reagent (C(II-R)), addition of borax reagent (B(R)) and color development time (D(CT)). In the experimental conditions assayed, the analytical method does not require protein precipitation. In addition, a negative effect of the Carrez reagent on nitrite determination was detected; it is thus proposed that this reagent be eliminated, in accordance with AOAC method 973.31. The use of borate improved nitrite extraction, but the W(S)/B(R) ratio must be adjusted to determine the best ratio and to eliminate any negative effect when the ratio increases.
Article
A method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography, is described for the determination of chlorogenic acid isomers in instant coffee. Identification of the individual components was assisted by the preparation of isomeric mixtures by the isomerisation of available compounds and quantification based on published ultraviolet molar absorptivities. A number of extraction and clearing techniques were studied to determine the optimum conditions for the recovery of all the isomers present. The developed method was applied to a wide range of commercially available instant coffees.
Article
The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation.
Article
The antioxidant activity ofArtemisia iwayomogi was determined by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical The methanol extract ofA. iwayomogi showed strong antioxidant activity, and thus fractionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate>n-butanol>water>chloroform>n-hexane fraction. The ethyl acetate andn-butanol soluble fractions exhibiting strong antioxidant activity were further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Antioxidant chlorogenic acid was isolated as one of the active principles from then-butanol fraction, together with the inactive components, 1-octacosanol, scopoletin, scopolin, apigenin 7,4'-di-O-methylether luteolin 6,3'-di-O-methylether (jaceosidin), apigenin 7-methylether (genkwanin), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and quebrachitol. The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid, which is a well known antioxidant.
Article
The effect of caffeine when combined with cocaine or amphetamine was studied in rats. Animals were pretreated with intraperitoneal vehicle (normal saline [NS]) or caffeine 100 mg/kg, then challenged with intraperitoneal cocaine (0, 35, 50, 70, or 90 mg/kg) or intraperitoneal d-amphetamine (0, 15, 25, 35, or 42 mg/kg). Animal behavior, time to, and incidences of seizures and death were recorded. This dose of caffeine alone did not cause seizures or death. Caffeine pretreatment significantly increased the incidence of overt seizures induced by either cocaine or amphetamine. Caffeine increased the incidence of cocaine-induced death from 10% to 90% at the 70 mg/kg cocaine dose (P less than .01). Caffeine increased amphetamine-induced death from 0% to 80% at 15 mg/kg (P less than or equal to .01), 10% to 70% at 25 mg/kg (P less than or equal to .01), and 30% to 80% at 35 mg/kg (P less than or equal to .01). To investigate mechanisms, additional animals were pretreated with the adenosine agonist, 2-chloroadenosine (2.5 and 10 mg/kg), before being challenged with NS, 90 mg/kg cocaine, or 42 mg/kg amphetamine. Pretreatment with 2-chloroadenosine had no affect in reducing cocaine or amphetamine toxicity. Combination pretreatment with caffeine and 2-chloroadenosine potentiated cocaine toxicity. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, pentoxifylline, did not potentiate cocaine toxicity. The authors conclude that caffeine potentiates the acute toxicity of both cocaine and amphetamine, and that the failure of 2-chloroadenosine to alter this suggests that the toxicity of the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine may be modulated by nonspecific rather than specific adenosine- or phosphodiesterase-induced mechanisms.
Article
Gas chromatographic (GC) methods for the determination of malonaldehyde (MA) all require formation of a stable derivative of MA since free MA is not suitable for direct GC analysis. Most reported GC methods give a total measure of free MA and its bound forms because their assay conditions are sufficient to hydrolyze or decompose bound MA during sample preparation. In this paper, GC methods that provide a measure of total MA (free plus bound) are reviewed. A recently developed capillary GC method that allows determination of free MA apart from other forms is also discussed. The method involves derivatization of MA to N-methylpyrazole under milder reaction conditions than with other GC methods. The method represents an advantage over existing techniques for free MA determination because capillary GC offers the highest efficiency of separation among chromatographic methods thus allowing a more specific and accurate measure of MA.
Article
There appears to be a clear indication that aflatoxin and alcohol are causes of cancer. The evidence does not support food additives as a major cause of cancer in man, but epidemiological studies are not capable of demonstrating low levels of risk. Therefore, we must exercise caution before permitting the addition of chemicals to our food. The data on saccharin are conflicting. If saccharin is a carcinogen, it is one of low potency. The data do not support coffee as a cause for cancer. It is hoped that future research will provide us with information that will permit us to rationally manipulate our diet to decrease the incidence of cancer.
Article
We have investigated several factors that might be related to the occurrence of toxic effects during the performance of a urinary test with caffeine (300 mg p.o.), in 120 healthy volunteers. A total of 218 toxic effects were self-reported by eighty-two (68%) subjects. Females and nonsmokers were at the highest risk (chi-square test, P = 0.01). Furthermore, two nonsmoking females experienced a symptomatology with delirium, restlessness, muscle tremor, vomiting and wakefulness. Among females and nonsmokers, those subjects who experienced toxic effects had lower caffeine N3-demethylation index (CYP1A2 activity) compared with unaffected females (1.87 +/- 0.51 vs 1.47 +/- 0.27, P < 0.0005) and nonsmokers (1.69 +/- 0.23 vs 1.49 +/- 0.31, P < 0.02). Caffeine N1- and N7-demethylations indices were also lower among females (P < 0.0005) and nonsmokers (P < 0.02) who reported toxic symptoms. We conclude that CYP1A2 activity, gender and smoking are variables to be considered as influencing the toxicity of caffeine.
Article
Extracts from leaves of Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps Pamp.) were obtained using two methods: steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by dichloromethane extraction (DRP) and simultaneous purging and extraction (SPSE). A total of 192 volatile chemicals were identified in the extracts obtained by both methods using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). They included 47 monoterpenoids (oxygenated monoterpenes), 26 aromatic compounds, 19 aliphatic esters, 18 aliphatic alcohols, 17 monoterpenes (hydrocarbon monoterpenes), 17 sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes), 13 sesquiterpenoids (oxygenated sesquiterpenes), 12 aliphatic aldehydes, 8 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 7 aliphatic ketones, and 9 miscellaneous compounds. The major volatile constituents of the extract by DRP were borneol (10.27 ppm), alpha-thujone (3.49 ppm), artemisia alcohol (2.17 ppm), verbenone (1.85 ppm), yomogi alcohol (1.50 ppm), and germacren-4-ol (1.43 ppm). The major volatile constituents of the extract by SPSE were 1,8-cineole (8.12 ppm), artemisia acetate (4.22 ppm), alpha-thujone (3.20 ppm), beta-caryophyllene (2.39 ppm), bornyl acetate (2.05 ppm), borneol (1.80 ppm), and trans-beta-farnesene (1. 78 ppm).
Article
Typical heterocyclic compounds substituted with various functional groups found in Maillard reaction products were examined for antioxidant activity. Pyrroles exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity among all heterocyclic compounds tested. All pyrroles inhibited hexanal oxidation by almost 100% at a concentration of 50 microg/mL over 40 days. Addition of formyl and acetyl groups to a pyrrole ring enhanced antioxidative activity remarkably. Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetylpyrrole, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde, and 2-acetyl-1-methylpyrrole inhibited hexanal oxidation by >80% at 10 microg/mL. Unsubstituted furan exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity among furans tested. Addition of all functional groups used in this study to furan decreased antioxidative activity. The antioxidant activity of thiophene increased with the addition of methyl and ethyl groups, but the addition of formyl or acetyl groups to thiophene decreased antioxidant activity. Thiazoles and pyrazines were ineffective antioxidants at all concentrations tested. Reaction of all heterocyclic compounds with hydrogen peroxide resulted in the formation of various oxidized products.
Article
The antioxidant activities of a commercial brewed coffee were investigated by measuring malonaldehyde (MA) formation from oxidized cod liver oil using a gas chromatographic method (MA-GC assay) and a thiobarbituric acid method (TBA assay). The highest antioxidant activity obtained by the MA-GC assay was from regular whole brewed coffee (97.8%) at a level of 20%, and the highest antioxidant activity obtained by the TBA assay was from decaffeinated whole brewed coffee (96.6%) at a level of 5%. Among 31 chemicals identified in a dichloromethane extract, guaiacol, ethylguaiacol, and vinylguaiacol exhibited antioxidant activities, which were comparable to that of alpha-tocopherol. Among nine chlorogenic acids (three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, and three dicaffeoylquinic acids) identified, 5-caffeoylquinic acid contained the greatest amount both in regular (883.5 microg/mL) and in decaffeinated (1032.6 microg/mL) coffees; it exhibited 24.5% activity by the MA-GC assay and 45.3% activity by the TBA assay at a level of 10 microg/mL. Caffeic and ferulic acids showed moderate antioxidant activities in both assays.
Flavonoids and biological activities of Plumbago auriculata var
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Caffeine, formic acid, potassium hexacya-noferrate(II) trihydrate, and zinc acetate dihydrate were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) was purchased from Cayman Chemical Co
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Materials and Chemicals. Caffeine, formic acid, potassium hexacya-noferrate(II) trihydrate, and zinc acetate dihydrate were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) was purchased from Cayman Chemical Co. (Ann Arbor, MI).
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