Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture

BGFA-Research Institute of Occupational Medicine, German Social Accident Insurance, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 7.06). 08/2009; 364(1526):2063-78. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0208
Source: PubMed


In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information.

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Available from: Holger Martin Koch
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    • "Phthalates are rapidly metabolized to their respective hydrolytic monoesters, which can be further metabolized to oxidative products. Monoester and oxidative metabolites may be glucuronidated before excretion through urine and faeces[2], and have been used as biomarkers of exposure to phthalates[3,4](Table 1). Evidence from animal studies suggests that phthalates are reproductive and developmental toxicants (reviewed in Martino-Andrade and Chahoud[5]), with some evidence for adverse effects on the reproductive system, especially in males[6], and impaired development in humans78910. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have received special attention in recent years due to their frequent use in consumer products and potential for adverse effects on human health. BPA is being replaced with a number of alternatives, including bisphenol S, bisphenol B, bisphenol F and bisphenol AF. These bisphenol analogues have similar potential for adverse health effects, but studies on human exposure are limited. Accurate measurement of multiple contaminants is important for estimating exposure. This paper describes a sensitive and automated method for the simultaneous determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA and four bisphenol analogues in urine using online solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS), requiring very little sample volume (50 µL). Quantification was performed under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode in negative electrospray ionization. The use of SRM combined with an enhanced product ion scan within the same analysis was examined. Unequivocal identification was provided by the acquisition of three SRM transitions per compound and isotope dilution. The analytical performance of the method was evaluated in synthetic and human urine. Linearity of response over three orders of magnitude was demonstrated for all of the compounds (R2>0.99), with method detection limits of 0.01–0.5 ng/mL and limits of reporting of 0.07-3.1 ng/mL. Accuracy ranged from 93–113% and inter- and intra- day precision were <22%. Finally, the validated method has been successfully applied to a cohort of pregnant women to measure biomarker concentrations of phthalates and bisphenols, with median concentrations ranging from 0.3 ng/mL (bisphenol S) to 18.5 ng/mL (monoethyl phthalate).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Talanta
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    • "In addition to DEHP metabolites, overall the mean urinary concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MCOP, MCPP and MEP are higher in the Australian pools compared with NHANES data from the United States (CDC 2015) (Table 4). In the case of MiBP, MCOP and MCPP specifically, Australian concentrations are at least three times greater than the USA (Koch and Calafat, 2009)), Puerto Rico (16.4 ng/mL, n=139) (Cantowine et al. 2014), Spain (4.0 ng/mL, n=118) (Casas et al. 2011) and USA (19.7 ng/mL, n=2489) (CDC, 2015). MCOP is a metabolite of DINP, which is the most important substitute for DEHP in its applications today (Zota et al., 2014, Wormuth et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Environment international
    • "In addition, PAE analysis is subjected to a greater number of error sources than MPAE determinations. So, during the last decade several papers have been published establishing some MPAEs as appropriate biomarkers to calculate human PAE intake [7] [8] [9]. GC–MS and LC–MS are two of the most used techniques for the analysis of MPAEs, and both techniques produce similar results in terms of sensitivity , precision, and accuracy [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The retention behavior of nine MPAEs has been studied, using commercial LC columns with octadecylsilane (ODS), phenyl, and amide-type SPs. First, it was found that the use of methanol in the mobile phase is not advisable, because induce a transesterification reaction of MPAEs in the electrospray ion source, regardless of the SP used. On the other hand, different responses were observed when representing the logarithm of retention factors (k) vs. the volume fraction of ACN (φ) in the mobile phase, for the three SPs tested. A quite linear trend was obtained for ODS (at φ values below 0.80) and Phenyl columns. On the contrary, the Amide column shows a striking U-shape trend, typical of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic retention mechanisms. Therefore, the separation process was mainly hydrophobic in the ODS and phenyl SPs, but in the amide-type a dual retention mechanism was found, showing zones with predominant hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, depending on both the compound and the experimental conditions. A high content of acetonitrile (>75%) and low concentration of formic acid in the mobile phase promote the hydrophilic separation mechanism for MPAEs on the amide SP. So, this dual separation mechanism can be modulated modifying the pH and content of organic modifier in the mobile phase, allowing greater flexibility to develop improved methods. Taking advantage of this, a separation method was optimized in this amide column using a Box-Wilson Central Composite experimental design, which allows separating the studied MPAEs with a time-saving of around 40% comparing to the conventional phenyl SP.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Chromatography A
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