ArticleLiterature Review
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Possible LRRK2-induced abnormalities in corticostriatal synaptic transmission are suggested by the key role this protein plays in synaptogenesis and synaptic function (Esteves et al., 2014;Benson et al., 2018;Chen et al., 2018; Figure 1). Several studies, some of which investigating synaptic fraction preparations (Biskup et al., 2006;Piccoli et al., 2011), showed that LRRK2 is highly expressed in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum compared to other brain areas (Taymans et al., 2006;Westerlund et al., 2008;Mandemakers et al., 2012;Davies et al., 2013;Giesert et al., 2013;West et al., 2014). ...
... Many of the proteins encoded by genes causing recessive, atypical forms of PD, such as parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, are involved in mitochondrial homeostatic processes (Lin and Beal, 2006;McCoy and Cookson, 2012;Kalia and Lang, 2015;Bose and Beal, 2016). The investigation of the pathophysiological consequences of LRRK2 mutations also unveiled a mitochondrial regulatory role for this protein (Esteves et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2019). Indeed, the presence of LRRK2 mutations has been linked to abnormalities in mitochondrial ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics, mitophagy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and calcium homeostasis (Figure 2). ...
... The investigation of the molecular pathways linking LRRK2 and α-syn has attracted a lot of attention (Esteves et al., 2014;Schapansky et al., 2015;Cresto et al., 2019;Outeiro et al., 2019). A possible role for LRRK2 in the formation of abnormally folded α-syn aggregates was suggested by histopathological studies showing that LRRK2 could be found in the context of LBs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is thought to rely on a complex interaction between the patient’s genetic background and a variety of largely unknown environmental factors. In this scenario, the investigation of the genetic bases underlying familial PD could unveil key molecular pathways to be targeted by new disease-modifying therapies, still currently unavailable. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are responsible for the majority of inherited familial PD cases and can also be found in sporadic PD, but the pathophysiological functions of LRRK2 have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we will review the evidence obtained in transgenic LRRK2 experimental models, characterized by altered striatal synaptic transmission, mitochondrial dysfunction, and α-synuclein aggregation. Interestingly, the processes triggered by mutant LRRK2 might represent early pathological phenomena in the pathogenesis of PD, anticipating the typical neurodegenerative features characterizing the late phases of the disease. A comprehensive view of LRRK2 neuronal pathophysiology will support the possible clinical application of pharmacological compounds targeting this protein, with potential therapeutic implications for patients suffering from both familial and sporadic PD.
... LRRK2 is a large 286 kDa cytoplasmic protein and contains several functional domains (Li et al., 2011). Studies suggest that LRRK2 is involved in multiple cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, neuronal outgrowth, mitochondrial dynamics, autophagy, endocytosis, and protein interactions (Mata et al., 2006;Raquel Esteves et al., 2014). PD-linked LRRK2 mutations cause neuronal degeneration although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. ...
... Disease-linked mutations mostly occur in one of LRRK2's two enzymatic sites: a GTPase domain and a kinase domain (Lee et al., 2012;Martin et al., 2014). These regions have shown considerable overlap and interplay in PD pathology in previous studies (Gilsbach and Kortholt, 2014;Raquel Esteves et al., 2014). The majority of LRRK2 PD mutations can lead to increased kinase activity and altered GTP binding/GTPase activities (Smith et al., 2006;Xiong et al., 2012). ...
... The majority of LRRK2 PD mutations can lead to increased kinase activity and altered GTP binding/GTPase activities (Smith et al., 2006;Xiong et al., 2012). The LRRK2-R1441C mutation occurs in the GTPase domain, and mutations at this residue have previously shown a combination of decreased GTPase activity, a possible increase in GTP-binding affinity, and a subsequently overactivated kinase activity (Xiong et al., 2012;Liao et al., 2014;Raquel Esteves et al., 2014). Studies on LRRK2 kinase and GTPase domain inhibitors suggest that LRRK2 kinase and GTPase functions play critical roles in neurodegeneration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is a large protein with implications in genetic and sporadic causes of Parkinson's disease. The physiological functions of LRRK2 are largely unknown. In this report, we investigated whether LRRK2 alters neural transport using live-cell imaging techniques and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of the PD-linked mutant, LRRK2-R1441C, induced mitochondrial, and lysosomal transport defects in neurites of SH-SY5Y cells. Most importantly, recently identified GTP-binding inhibitors, 68 and FX2149, can reduce LRRK2 GTP-binding activity and attenuates R1441C-induced mitochondrial and lysosomal transport impairments. These results provide direct evidence and an early mechanism for neurite injury underlying LRRK2-induced neurodegeneration. This is the first report to show that LRRK2 GTP-binding activity plays a critical role during neurite transport, suggesting inhibition of LRRK2 GTP-binding could be a potential novel strategy for PD intervention.
... These results suggest a role for the LRRK2 pathway in compulsive alcohol intake. LRRK2 is a multifunctional protein with kinase and GTPase activities (24), involved in neuronal vesicle trafficking (25) and synaptic plasticity (26). In this regard, LRRK2 regulates the subcellular distribution of protein kinase A (PKA) and the phosphorylation of its targets, thus influencing glutamatergic neurotransmission (27). ...
... More recently, SNPs in LRRK2 were associated with cancer (55,56) and inflammatory conditions (including infectious and autoimmune diseases) (57). LRRK2 is a complex protein with different functional regions, including protein-protein interaction, GTPase, and kinase activity domains (24). Alterations in LRRK2 kinase function have been shown to affect dopaminergic function (26,28,58,59) via disruption of synaptic vesicle formation and trafficking (60), signal transmission (26), and receptor function (28). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Genetics influence the vulnerability to alcohol use disorders, and among the implicated genes, three previous studies have provided evidences for the involvement of LRRK2 in alcohol dependence (AD). LRRK2 expression is broadly dysregulated in postmortem brain from AD humans, as well as in the brain of mice with alcohol dependent-like behaviors and in a zebrafish model of alcohol preference. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of variants in the LRRK2 gene with AD in multiethnic populations from South and North America. Methods: Alcohol-screening questionnaires [such as CAGE and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)] were used to determine individual risk of AD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were done in three independent populations (898 individuals from Bambuí, Brazil; 3,015 individuals from Pelotas, Brazil; and 1,316 from the United States). Linkage disequilibrium and conditional analyses, as well as in silico functional analyses, were also conducted. Results: Four LRRK2 variants were significantly associated with AD in our discovery cohort (Bambuí): rs4768231, rs4767971, rs7307310, and rs1465527. Two of these variants (rs4768231 and rs4767971) were replicated in both Pelotas and US cohorts. The consistent association signal (at the LRRK2 locus) found in populations with different genetic backgrounds reinforces the relevance of our findings. Conclusion: Taken together, these results support the notion that genetic variants in the LRRK2 locus are risk factors for AD in humans.
... LRRK2 consists of a catalytic core incorporating Ras of complex proteins (Roc), Cterminal of Roc (COR), and kinase domains, which is flanked by several proteinprotein interaction domains ( Figure 1) [4]. Seven LRRK2 missense mutations segregate with PD, namely N1437H, and R1441C/G/H in the Roc domain, Y1699C in the COR domain, and G2019S and I2020T in the kinase domain [4]. ...
... LRRK2 consists of a catalytic core incorporating Ras of complex proteins (Roc), Cterminal of Roc (COR), and kinase domains, which is flanked by several proteinprotein interaction domains ( Figure 1) [4]. Seven LRRK2 missense mutations segregate with PD, namely N1437H, and R1441C/G/H in the Roc domain, Y1699C in the COR domain, and G2019S and I2020T in the kinase domain [4]. Additional variants that increase PD susceptibility have been identified in the COR (R1628P) and WD40 (G2385R) domains [5,6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a central protein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its normal function has proved stubbornly hard to elucidate. Even though it remains unclear how pathogenic mutations affect LRRK2 to cause PD, recent findings provide increasing cause for optimism. We summarise here the developing consensus over the effect of pathogenic mutations in the Ras of complex proteins and C-terminal of Roc domains on LRRK2 GTPase activity. This body of work has been greatly reinforced by our own study of the protective R1398H variant contained within the LRRK2 GTPase domain. Collectively, data point towards the pathogenicity of GTP-bound LRRK2 and strengthen a working model for LRRK2 GTPase function as a GTPase activated by dimerisation. Together with the identification of the protective R1398H variant as a valuable control for pathogenic mutations, we have no doubt that these triumphs for the LRRK2 field will accelerate research towards resolving LRRK2 function and towards new treatments for PD. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
... Current evidence suggests that the increased kinase activity caused by the LRRK2 G2019S -mutation (LRRK2 G2019S ), associated with the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, vesicle trafficking and chaperone mediated autophagy [7][8][9], plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of LRRK2 G2019S -associated PD, but the molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration remain largely unknown [10]. ...
... Neuronal function is strongly dependent on oxidative metabolism and efficient organelle clearance, and mitochondrial homeostasis greatly depends on adequate mitochondrial dynamics, turnover and renewal through autophagy, which makes the study of mitochondrial function and autophagy highly relevant in the elucidation of pathological pathways leading to neurodegeneration [7,8]. Recent studies have characterized mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagy impairment in LRRK2 G2019Sassociated PD [9][10][11]. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies in LRRK2 G2019S -associated PD consisting of drug testing in experimental models directed to reverse mitochondrial alterations, and LRRK2 inhibition as a therapeutic target for impaired autophagy in PD, have been tested with positive outcomes [12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mutations in leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction has been described as etiologic factors in different experimental models of PD. We aimed to study the role of mitochondria and autophagy in LRRK2 G2019S -mutation, and its relationship with the presence of PD-symptoms. Methods: Fibroblasts from six non-manifesting LRRK2 G2019S -carriers (NM-LRRK2 G2019S ) and seven patients with LRRK2 G2019S -associated PD (PD-LRRK2 G2019S ) were compared to eight healthy controls (C). An exhaustive assessment of mitochondrial performance and autophagy was performed after 24-h exposure to standard (glucose) or mitochondrial-challenging environment (galactose), where mitochondrial and autophagy impairment may be heightened. Results: A similar mitochondrial phenotype of NM-LRRK2 G2019S and controls, except for an early mitochondrial depolarization (54.14% increased, p = 0.04), was shown in glucose. In response to galactose, mitochondrial dynamics of NM-LRRK2 G2019S improved (- 17.54% circularity, p = 0.002 and + 42.53% form factor, p = 0.051), probably to maintain ATP levels over controls. A compromised bioenergetic function was suggested in PD-LRRK2 G2019S when compared to controls in glucose media. An inefficient response to galactose and worsened mitochondrial dynamics (- 37.7% mitochondrial elongation, p = 0.053) was shown, leading to increased oxidative stress. Autophagy initiation (SQTSM/P62) was upregulated in NM-LRRK2 G2019S when compared to controls (glucose + 118.4%, p = 0.014; galactose + 114.44%, p = 0.009,) and autophagosome formation increased in glucose media. Despite of elevated SQSTM1/P62 levels of PD-NM G2019S when compared to controls (glucose + 226.14%, p = 0.04; galactose + 78.5%, p = 0.02), autophagosome formation was deficient in PD-LRRK2 G2019S when compared to NM-LRRK2 G2019S (- 71.26%, p = 0.022). Conclusions: Enhanced mitochondrial performance of NM-LRRK2 G2019S in mitochondrial-challenging conditions and upregulation of autophagy suggests that an exhaustion of mitochondrial bioenergetic and autophagic reserve, may contribute to the development of PD in LRRK2 G2019S mutation carriers.
... A third protein associated with PD is LRRK2, which under normal circumstances forms a complex with RHOT1/Miro1 essential for its proteasomal degradation, but not when carrying a PDassociated mutation [134]. LRRK2 downregulation increases autophagy, and causes accumulation of autophagic structures [135]. Therefore, LRRK2 could also genetically link PD development with impairment in mitophagy. ...
... Therefore, LRRK2 could also genetically link PD development with impairment in mitophagy. Yet, while LRRK2 is found on mitochondria, and the G2019S variant alters mitochondrial morphology, ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, there is no direct link between this protein and mitophagy [135]. While the roles of PINK1, PRKN and LRRK2 in preventing PD can be linked to mitophagy, it remains unclear why other proteins involved in this pathway are not found mutated in PD patients and why related mutations lead to ALS rather than PD. ...
Article
Full-text available
The catabolic process of macroautophagy, through the rapid degradation of unwanted cellular components, is involved in a multitude of cellular and organismal functions that are essential to maintain homeostasis. Those functions include adaptation to starvation, cell development and differentiation, innate and adaptive immunity, tumor suppression, autophagic cell death, and maintenance of stem cell stemness. Not surprisingly, an impairment or block of macroautophagy can lead to severe pathologies. A still increasing number of reports, in particular, have revealed that mutations in the autophagy-related (ATG) genes, encoding the key players of macroautophagy, are either the cause or represent a risk factor for the development of several illnesses. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the diseases and disorders currently known that are or could be caused by mutations in core ATG proteins but also in the so-called autophagy receptors, which provide specificity to the process of macroautophagy. Our compendium underlines the medical relevance of this pathway and underscores the importance of the eventual development of therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating macroautophagy.
... Polymorphisms in the Lrkk2 gene shows a high association with sporadic PD, but the effects are highly variable and no single mechanism has as yet emerged, how Lrkk2 might be causally involved in PD. It seems that no such single, unique relationship exists (Esteves et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Cynefin scheme is a concept of knowledge management, originally devised to support decision making in management, but more generally applicable to situations, in which complexity challenges the quality of insight, prediction, and decision. Despite the fact that life itself, and especially the brain and its diseases, are complex to the extent that complexity could be considered their cardinal feature, complex problems in biomedicine are often treated as if they were actually not more than the complicated sum of solvable sub-problems. Because of the emergent properties of complex contexts this is not correct. With a set of clear criteria Cynefin helps to set apart complex problems from “simple/obvious,” “complicated,” “chaotic,” and “disordered” contexts in order to avoid misinterpreting the relevant causality structures. The distinction comes with the insight, which specific kind of knowledge is possible in each of these categories and what are the consequences for resulting decisions and actions. From student's theses over the publication and grant writing process to research politics, misinterpretation of complexity can have problematic or even dangerous consequences, especially in clinical contexts. Conceptualization of problems within a straightforward reference language like Cynefin improves clarity and stringency within projects and facilitates communication and decision-making about them.
... These findings suggest that presenilin and PINK1 play important roles in the RO/PQ-induced neurotoxicity through the mechanisms involved in mitochondria-associated membranes. Esteves et al., 2014;Surmeier et al., 2017). Dysfunction of mitochondrial respiratory chain components was found in the brain, skeletal https://doi. ...
... Neuropathologisch zeigt sich ein heterogenes Bild: Interessanterweise wurden sowohl dem iPS ähnliche Befunde erhoben, mit Verlust von dopaminergen Neuronen und Lewy-Körper-Aggregation im Hirnstamm, als auch von einem Fehlen von Lewy-Körper-Ablagerungen berichtet [13]. Das LRRK2-Gen kodiert für eine Serin-Threonin-Kinase, pathologisch werden Auswirkungen u. a. auf endosomale und synaptische Transportund Recyclingprozesse diskutiert [8]. Aktuell wird eine Phase 1-Studie zur Inhibition der LRRK2-Kinase-Funktion durchgeführt. ...
Article
Full-text available
Monogene, also auf einem einzelnen Gendefekt beruhende Parkinson-Syndrome (PS), machen ca. 5 % aller Parkinson-Erkrankungen aus. Hierbei konnten in den letzten 20 Jahren drei autosomal-dominant (SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35) und drei autosomal-rezessiv (Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1) vererbte kausale Parkinson-Gene identifiziert und validiert werden. Während pathogene Veränderungen in SNCA sehr selten sind, früh beginnen und mit einer dementiellen Entwicklung einhergehen können, sind pathogene Varianten in LRRK2 unter den monogenen PS am häufigsten und Patienten klinisch nicht vom idiopathischen PS zu unterscheiden. Bei Patienten mit Erkrankungsbeginn vor dem 40. Lebensjahr sollte zunächst an Veränderungen im Parkin- und PINK1-Gen gedacht werden und, ebenso wie bei Patienten mit positiver Familienanamnese, eine genetische Beratung erfolgen. In jüngerer Zeit haben die dynamischen Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der Parkinson-Genetik zu neuen therapeutischen Ansätzen und ersten aktuell durchgeführten genspezifischen klinischen Studien geführt. Neben den etablierten monogenen PS existieren zum jetzigen Zeitpunkt noch nicht validierte Parkinson-Kandidatengene und gut charakterisierte genetische Risikofaktoren. Da monogene PS auch für das idiopathische PS Modellerkrankungen darstellen, sind in der Zukunft sowohl für monogene PS als auch für das idiopathische PS weitere Fortschritte auf dem Weg zur personalisierten Medizin zu erwarten.
... Consisting of 2527 amino acids, the LRRK2 protein is a serine-threonine kinase, which can catalyze the phosphorylation of cellular proteins involved in the MAPK signaling pathway [21]. Numerous studies have shown that the LRRK2 gene is associated with autosomal dominant PD [22]. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that LRRK2 modulates the eIF4E/4E-BP signaling pathway to stimulate eIF4E-mediated protein translation. ...
Article
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), as a long chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA), has been reported to be upregulated in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. Hence, to investigate the role of MALAT1 in PD, N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) was used to induce PDin vitroin the MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cell line and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to induce PDin vivoin C57BL/6 mice. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot assay showed that the expression levels of MALAT1 and leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) were increased, and that of miR-205-5p was decreased in the midbrains of mice in which PD was induced by MPTP. MALAT1 suppressed the expression of miR-205-5p in MN9D cells. The results of luciferase reporter assay indicated that LRRK2 was a direct target of miR-205-5p. Transfection with the miR-205-5p mimics decreased, whereas transfection with miR-205-5p inhibitor increased the expression levels of LRRK2 mRNA and protein. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays showed that overexpression of LRRK2 reduced the viability and promoted apoptosis in MN9D cells treated with MPP+. MALAT1 knockdown exerted a protective effect on the viability and apoptosis of MN9D cells treated with MPP+, which was abrogated by LRRK2 overexpression and miR-205-5p inhibition. Our study demonstrates that the MALAT1/miR-205-5p axis regulates MPP+-induced apoptosis in MN9D cells by targeting LRRK2, thereby improving our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PD.
... In the case of the ROCO proteins, the literature-derived PPI network incorporates a potential bias toward the LRRK2 interactome, due to extensive investigation into LRRK2 in relation to PD. [44,45] This is evidenced by the nearly twofold increase in the number of LRRK2 interactors (from 62 to 113) compared to a previous analysis performed in 2014 using an earlier version of the same data processing pipeline. [4] Conversely, the distribution of nodes amongst the other ROCO proteins highlights the comparative neglect of research into characterizing the DAPK1, LRRK1, and MASL1 interactomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Signal transduction cascades governed by kinases and GTPases are a critical component of the command and control of cellular processes, with the precise outcome partly determined by direct protein‐protein interactions (PPIs). Here, we use the human ROCO proteins as a model for investigating PPI signalling events – taking advantage of the unique dual kinase/GTPase activities and scaffolding properties of these multidomain proteins. We report PPI networks that encompasses the human ROCO proteins, developed using two complementary approaches. First, using our recently developed weighted PPI network analysis (WPPINA) pipeline, a confidence‐weighted overview of validated ROCO protein interactors was obtained from peer‐reviewed literature. Second, novel ROCO PPIs were assessed experimentally via protein microarray screens. We compared the networks derived from these orthologous approaches to identify common elements within the ROCO protein interactome; functional enrichment analysis of this common core of the network identified stress response and cell projection organisation as shared functions within this protein family. Despite the presence of these commonalities, our results suggest that many unique interactors and therefore some specialised cellular roles have evolved for different members of the ROCO proteins. Overall, this multi‐approach strategy to increase the resolution of protein interaction networks represents a prototype for the utility of PPI data integration in understanding signalling biology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... This suggests that a series of age-related disfunctions may contribute to the development of PD. Proteins accumulation, genetic factors, autophagy, mitophagy, and lower protection against oxidative stress have been proposed as possible age-related PD factors [6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most frequent degenerative disorder, the risk of which increases with age. A preclinical PD diagnostic test does not exist. We identify PD blood metabolites and metabolic pathways significantly correlated with age to develop personalized age-dependent PD blood biomarkers. Results We found 33 metabolites producing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) value of 97%. PCA revealed that they belong to three pathways with distinct age-dependent behavior: glycine, threonine and serine metabolism correlates with age only in PD patients; unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis correlates with age only in a healthy control group; and, finally, tryptophan metabolism characterizes PD but does not correlate with age. Conclusions The targeted analysis of the blood metabolome proposed in this paper allowed to find specific age-related metabolites and metabolic pathways. The model offers a promising set of blood biomarkers for a personalized age-dependent approach to the early PD diagnosis.
... The R1628P and S1647T variants are located in the C terminal of Ras of complex proteins domain, whereas the G2385R variant is located in the WD40 domain. 6 Thus, these coding variants may contribute to PD development through distinct mechanisms and additively lower the ...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic factors provide valuable clues to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD), owing to their roles in disease development. Mutations in 9 genes have been conclusively linked to monogenic PD over the past 2 decades.¹ Among Asian populations, the S1647T, R1628P, and G2385R variants of LRRK2 are established risk factors for PD.² Clinically, patients who have these LRRK2 risk variants share substantial similarities with patients with sporadic PD. It has been suggested that the G2385R variant is associated with a lower age at onset (AAO) of PD.³ However, it is unknown whether the presence of multiple LRRK2 risk variants modulates the AAO of PD. We hypothesize that increases in the genetic burden of LRRK2 risk variants may be associated with a younger AAO. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a correlation study among a cohort of participants with PD who carried the LRRK2 risk variants S1647T, R1628P, and G2385R.
... LRRK2 est une protéine qui possède de nombreux sites d'autophosphorylation (Kamikawaji et al., 2009;Lobbestael et al., 2012;Webber et al., 2011). Six sites putatifs d'autophosphorylation sont présents dans le domaine LRR, tous orientés vers la face extérieure de la protéine (T1024, S1025, S1124, S1253, S1283, S1292 (Esteves et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
Les protéines alpha-synucléine (α-syn) et leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) sont deux protéines ayant un rôle majeur dans la physiopathologie de la maladie de Parkinson (MP) et interviennent aussi bien dans les formes dites sporadiques que dans les formes familiales. La mutation G2019S du gène codant pour LRRK2 est la mutation la plus fréquente. Cette mutation induit une augmentation de l’activité kinase de LRRK2 qui conduit à sa toxicité. Plusieurs hypothèses convergent vers l’idée que LRRK2 et l’α-syn interagiraient pour conduire à la dysfonction et/ou la mort des neurones dopaminergiques (DA) de la substance noire (SNc) dans la MP. Dans la première partie de cette étude, différentes formes sauvage (WT) ou mutée (G2019S) de LRRK2 ont été surexprimées spécifiquement dans les neurones de la SNc via l’utilisation de vecteurs lentiviraux (LV) et adéno-viraux associés (AAV). La question principale de cette étude était d’évaluer si l’expression spécifiquement neuronale de LRRK2 induisait la dégénérescence des neurones DA de la SNc. Nous avons généré des constructions comportant uniquement la partie C-terminale de LRRK2 (ΔLRRK2) en aval du domaine LRR. In vitro, le fragment ΔLRRK2G2019S présente une activité kinase supérieure au fragment ΔLRRK2WT avec une augmentation d’activité comparable à la forme entière de LRRK2. In vivo, six mois après l’injection (PI) de ΔLRRK2 WT ou G2019S dans la SNc, les mesures du nombre de neurones montrent que seul le fragment ΔLRRK2G2019S induit une mort neuronale significative (30%) comparé à la forme ΔLRRK2WT, uniquement lorsque l’expression est générée via des vecteurs AAV. Ces résultats suggèrent que l’expression purement neuronale d’un fragment contenant le domaine kinase de LRRK2 est suffisante pour induire une dégénérescence de la SN. Dans la seconde partie du projet, nous avons étudié l’hypothèse que ΔLRRK2G2019S via son activité kinase amplifiée, pourrait augmenter la toxicité le l’α-syn mutée A53T. Pour répondre à cette question, les vecteurs AAV codant pour ΔLRRK2 G2019S ou une forme inactive de la kinase (ΔLRRK2G2019S/D1994A), et celui codant pour l’α-syn A53T ont été co-injectés dans la SNc. Les analyses réalisées à 6 et 15 semaines PI montrent que ΔLRRK2G2019S augmente la mort neuronale induite par l’α-syn A53T d’une manière kinase dépendante. Tous ces résultats supportent l’hypothèse que l’existence d’une interaction fonctionnelle entre LRRK2 et l’α-syn pourrait jouer un rôle fondamental dans la physiopathologie de la MP offrant des possibilités de stratégie de neuroprotection ciblant l’interaction LRRK2/α-syn.
... The potential role of chaperones in the pathobiology of PD is broadened by their capacity to regulate the stability and function of PD-relevant proteins other than -synuclein, including LRRK2 (PARK8), PINK1 (PARK6), parkin (PARK2), and DJ-1 (PARK7). LRRK2 plays a regulatory role in vesicular trafficking, microtubule dynamics and mitochondrial health [69]. Mutations in LRRK2 are associated with autosomal dominant PD, and common genetic variants are associated with an increased risk of developing sporadic PD [70]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the presence of pathological intracellular aggregates primarily composed of misfolded α -synuclein. This pathology implicates the molecular machinery responsible for maintaining protein homeostasis (proteostasis), including molecular chaperones, in the pathobiology of the disease. There is mounting evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that various molecular chaperones are downregulated, sequestered, depleted, or dysfunctional in PD. Current therapeutic interventions for PD are inadequate as they fail to modify disease progression by ameliorating the underlying pathology. Modulating the activity of molecular chaperones, cochaperones, and their associated pathways offers a new approach for disease modifying intervention. This review will summarize the potential of chaperone-based therapies that aim to enhance the neuroprotective activity of molecular chaperones or utilize small molecule chaperones to promote proteostasis.
... It has already been reported that LRRK2 is expressed in neurons and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and several types of immune cells [8][9][10][11][12]. Accumulated evidence suggests that LRRK2 plays a key role in axonal extension, autophagy, proliferation, and survival of neurons in the CNS [13,14]. While many studies have demonstrated that LRRK2 is expressed in brain neurons and associated with physiological functions in the CNS, it has remained unclear whether LRRK2 is expressed and has a physiological function in peripheral neurons. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a recently discovered molecule associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. It regulates many central neuronal functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and axonal extension. However, in contrast to the well-documented function of LRRK2 in central neurons, it is unclear whether LRRK2 is expressed in enteric neurons and affects the physiology of the gut. AimsBy examining LRRK2-KO mice, this study investigated whether enteric neurons express LRRK2 and whether intestinal neuronal peptides and IgA are quantitatively changed. Methods Intestinal protein lysates and sections prepared from male C57BL/6 J mice were analyzed by Western blotting and immunostaining using anti-LRRK2 antibody, respectively. Intestinal neuronal peptide-mRNAs were quantified by real-time PCR in wild-type mice and LRRK2-KO mice. Intestinal IgA was quantified by ELISA. Lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry to evaluate the ratio of B1 to B2 B cells. ResultsWestern analysis and immunostaining revealed that LRRK2 is expressed in enteric neurons. The amounts of mRNA for vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, and substance P were increased in LRRK2-KO mice accompanied by an increment of IgA. However, the intestinal B cell subpopulations were not altered in LRRK2-KO mice. Conclusions For the first time, we have revealed that LRRK2 is expressed in enteric neurons and related to quantitative alterations of neuronal peptide and IgA. Our study highlights the importance of LRRK2 in enteric neurons as well as central neurons.
... mutations might lead to neuropathology in cPD 165,166 . Nevertheless, recent work has shown that, although patients with cPD with the most common LRRK2 mutation (G2019S) can manifest LP, not all these individuals do 167 , and most patients with cPD with other LRRK2 mutations do not have LP 167 ; these observations dissociate SNc degeneration, which is a common feature in cPD associated with LRRK2 mutations, from LP. ...
Article
Intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn)-rich protein aggregates called Lewy pathology (LP) and neuronal death are commonly found in the brains of patients with clinical Parkinson disease (cPD). It is widely believed that LP appears early in the disease and spreads in synaptically coupled brain networks, driving neuronal dysfunction and death. However, post-mortem analysis of human brains and connectome-mapping studies show that the pattern of LP in cPD is not consistent with this simple model, arguing that, if LP propagates in cPD, it must be gated by cell- or region-autonomous mechanisms. Moreover, the correlation between LP and neuronal death is weak. In this Review, we briefly discuss the evidence for and against the spreading LP model, as well as evidence that cell-autonomous factors govern both α-syn pathology and neuronal death.
... Human LRRK2 is an attractive PD therapeutic target (Taymans and Greggio, 2016). However, its physiological and pathological functions remain to be fully characterized (Esteves et al., 2014). In this study, we demonstrate that knocking down Lrrk by RNAi does not affect the integrity and normal function of DAergic neurons in transgenic flies. ...
Article
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been linked to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. However, it is still unresolved whether LRRK2 in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons may or may not aggravate the phenotype. We demonstrate that knocking down (KD) the Lrrk gene by RNAi in DAergic neurons untreated or treated with paraquat (PQ) neither affected the number of DAergic clusters, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels, lifespan nor locomotor activity when compared to control (i.e. TH/+) flies. KD transgenic Lrrk flies dramatically increased locomotor activity in presence of TH enzyme inhibitor alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (aMT), whereas no effect on lifespan was observed in both fly lines. Most importantly, KD Lrrk flies had reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) index alone or in presence of PQ and the antioxidant minocycline (MC, 0.5 mM). Taken together, these findings suggest that Lrrk appears unessential for the viability of DAergic neurons in D. melanogaster. Moreover, Lrrk might negatively regulate homeostatic levels of dopamine, thereby dramatically increasing locomotor activity, extending lifespan, and reducing oxidative stress (OS). Our data also indicate that reduced expression of Lrrk in the DAergic neurons of transgenic TH>Lrrk-RNAi/+ flies conferred PQ resistance and absence of neurodegeneration. The present findings support the notion that reduced/suppressed LRRK2 expression might delay or prevent motor symptoms and/or frank Parkinsonism in individuals at risk to suffer autosomal dominant Parkinsonism (AD-P) by blocking OS-induced neurodegenerative processes in the DAergic neurons.
... Abnormal protein synthesis, cytoskeletal dynamics, and mitochondrial transport have all been implicated in LRRK2 pathogenesis [26]. Studies in C. elegans [12] and Drosophila [27] suggest an antagonistic effect of lrk-1 and pink-1 [13] with clear, if complex, interactions between these two genes, not unlike in our study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in PINK1 (PARK6), a serine/threonine kinase involved in mitochondrial homeostasis, are associated with early onset Parkinson’s disease. Fibroblasts from Parkinson’s disease patients with compound heterozygous mutations in exon 7 (c.1488 + 1G > A; c.1252_1488del) showed no apparent signs of mitochondrial impairment. To elucidate changes primarily caused by lack of functional PINK1, we over-expressed wild-type PINK1, which induced a significant downregulation of LRRK2 (PARK8). Indeed, we found that LRRK2 protein basal levels were significantly higher in the mutant PINK1 fibroblasts. To examine the interaction between the two PARK genes in a disease-relevant cell context, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from mutant, carrier and control fibroblasts by lentiviral-mediated re-programming. Efficiency of neural induction and dopamine differentiation using a floor-plate induction protocol was similar in all genotypes. As observed in fibroblasts, PINK1 mutant neurons showed increased LRRK2 expression both at the RNA and protein level and transient over-expression of wild-type PINK1 efficiently downregulated LRRK2 levels. Additionally, we confirmed a dysregulation of LRRK2 expression in fibroblasts from patients with a different homozygous mutation in PINK1 exon 4, c.926G > A (G309D). Thus, our results identify a novel role of PINK1 modulating the levels of LRRK2 in Parkinson’s disease fibroblasts and neurons, suggest a convergent pathway for these PARK genes, and broaden the role of LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12035-016-0303-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... LRRK2 is a complex kinase consisting of LRR, ROC, COR, kinase, and WD40 domains [37]. Accumulated evidence suggests that LRRK2 plays a key role in axonal extension, autophagy, proliferation, and survival of neurons [38,39]. In addition to neurons, LRRK2 is highly expressed in immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and microglia [40][41][42][43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic to neurons. In the brain, microglial αSYN clearance is closely related to neuronal survival. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the one of the other genes implicated in familial and sporadic PD. While LRRK2 is known to be expressed in microglia, its true function remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated αSYN clearance by microglia isolated from LRRK2-knockout (KO) mice. Results In LRRK2-KO microglia, αSYN was taken up in larger amounts and cleared from the supernatant more effectively than for microglia isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. This higher clearance ability of LRRK2-KO microglia was thought to be due to an increase of Rab5-positive endosomes, but not Rab7- or Rab11-positive endosomes. Increased engagement between Rab5 and dynamin 1 was also observed in LRRK2-KO microglia. Conclusion LRRK2 negatively regulates the clearance of αSYN accompanied by down-regulation of the endocytosis pathway. Our findings reveal a new functional role of LRRK2 in microglia and offer a new insight into the mechanism of PD pathogenesis.
... A number of LRRK2 substrates involved in diverse signalling pathways have been identified. For example, LRRK2 participates in vesicle trafficking, mitochondria function, microtubule dynamics, immunity and protein translational regulation through interaction with various proteins (8). Despite its role in different cellular pathways, the molecular mechanism of LRRK2-induced neurodegeneration is still unclear. ...
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by slow, progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The cause of neuronal death in PD is largely unknown, but several genetic loci, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), have been identified. LRRK2 has guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) and kinase activities, and mutations in LRRK2 are the major cause of autosomal-dominant familial PD. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from lysine residues on histone tails, promoting transcriptional repression via condensation of chromatin. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 binds to and directly phosphorylates HDAC3 at Ser-424, thereby stimulating HDAC activity. Specifically, LRRK2 promoted the deacetylation of Lys-5 and Lys-12 on histone H4, causing repression of gene transcription. Moreover, LRRK2 stimulated nuclear translocation of HDAC3 via the phoshorylation of karyopherin subunit α2 and α6. HDAC3 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation were increased in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) treatment. LRRK2 also inhibited myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2D activity, which is required for neuronal survival. LRRK2 ultimately promoted 6-OHDA-induced cell death via positive modulation of HDAC3. These findings suggest that LRRK2 affects epigenetic histone modification and neuronal survival by facilitating HDAC3 activity and regulating its localization.
... Recent evidence has shown that there is interaction between APP and PD-related protein, called Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). LRRK2 is a protein which has been associated with diverse cellular mechanisms such as alpha-synuclein phosphorylation, autophagy-lysosomal pathway, microtubule dynamics, synthesis and trafficking of vesicles, mitochondrial function and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) [27,28]. The interaction between LRRK2 and APP occurs at intracellular domain of APP(AICD), causing phosphorylation of APP at Thr 668 which promotes the transcriptional activity of AICD and its translocation to the nucleus. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second commonest neurodegenerative disorder in the world with a rising prevalence. The pathophysiology is multifactorial but aggregation of misfolded α-synuclein is considered to be a key underpinning mechanism. Amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau deposition are also comorbid associations and especially Aβ deposition is associated with cognitive decline in PD. Some existing evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 is predictive of future cognitive impairment in PD. Recent studies also show that CSF Aβ is associated with the postural instability and gait difficulties (PIGD) or the newly proposed cholinergic subtype of PD, a possible risk factor for cognitive decline in PD. The glial-lymphatic system, responsible for convective solute clearance driven by active fluid transport through aquaporin-4 water channels, may be implicated in brain amyloid deposition. A better understanding of the role of this system and more specifically the role of Aβ in PD symptomatology, could introduce new treatment and repurposing drug-based strategies. For instance, apomorphine infusion has been shown to promote the degradation of Aβ in rodent models. This is further supported in a post-mortem study in PD patients although clinical implications are unclear. In this review, we address the clinical implication of cerebral Aβ deposition in PD and elaborate on its metabolism, its role in cognition and motor function/gait, and finally assess the potential effect of apomorphine on Aβ deposition in PD.
... It has already been reported that LRRK2 is expressed in neurons, astroglia, and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS), and several types of immune cells (Higashi et al., 2007;Kubo et al., 2010;Liu et al., 2011;Moehle et al., 2012). Accumulated evidence suggests that LRRK2 plays a key role in endocytosis, axonal extension, autophagy, proliferation, and survival of neurons (Esteves et al., 2014;Maekawa et al., 2016a,b). While many studies have been focusing on the role of LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of motor dysfunction in PD, some groups have reported an association between LRRK2 and the subtle non-motor phenotypes of PD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a molecule associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. It regulates many central neuronal functions, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and axonal extension. Recently, it has been revealed that LRRK2 is related to anxiety/depression-like behavior, implying an association between LRRK2 and stress. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the stress pathway and its relationship to gastrointestinal motility in LRRK2-knockout (KO) mice. The mice were subjected to acute restraint stress, and analyzed for activation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) using an immunohistochemical approach. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was assessed by Western blotting. The KO mice showed a lower number of c-Fos-positive cells and disruption of the ERK signaling pathway in the PVN in the presence of restraint stress. Stress responses in terms of both upper and lower gastrointestinal motility were alleviated in the mice, accompanied by lower c-Fos immunoreactivity in enteric excitatory neurons. Our present findings suggest that LRRK2 is a newly recognized molecule regulating the stress pathway in the PVN, playing a role in stress-related gastrointestinal dysmotility.
... The majority of reports though suggest roles for LRRK2 in the highly integrated pathways of inflammation, autophagy/lysosomal function and mitochondrial function, all of which are also highly implicated in PD pathogenesis. [34][35][36][37] Overexpression models are not perfect, as there is no current evidence that LRRK2 is overexpressed in human PD; however, their use has predominated as mice with PD-causing knockin mutations in endogenous LRRK2 show almost no constitutive nigral neurodegenerative phenotype, even with aging. [38][39][40] It is also noteworthy that the majority of overexpression-based studies do not directly demonstrate a pathogenic role for LRRK2 kinase activity, but rather provide models that could be used for testing LRRK2 inhibitors to better prove this hypothesis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Farzaneh Atashrazm,1 Nicolas Dzamko2 1Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick; 2School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia Abstract: Major advances in understanding how genetics underlies Parkinson’s disease (PD) have provided new opportunities for understanding disease pathogenesis and potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. One such target is leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), an enigmatic enzyme implicated in both familial and idiopathic PD risk. Both academia and industry have promoted the development of potent and selective inhibitors of LRRK2, and these are currently being employed to assess the safety and efficacy of such compounds in preclinical models of PD. This review examines the evidence that LRRK2 kinase activity contributes to the pathogenesis of PD and outlines recent progress on inhibitor development and early results from preclinical safety and efficacy testing. This review also looks at some of the challenges remaining for translation of LRRK2 inhibitors to the clinic, if indeed this is ultimately warranted. As a disease with no current cure that is increasing in prevalence in line with an aging population, there is much need for developing new treatments for PD, and targeting LRRK2 is currently a promising option. Keywords: synuclein, inflammation, lysosome, Rab, inhibitor, autophagy
... Figure 10. Implication du gène LRRK2 dans les mécanismes cellulaires [165]. LRRK2 peut affecter la fonction mitochondriale, le système ubiquitine-protéasome, la voie autophagie-lysosomale, la dynamique des microtubules ainsi que le trafic de vésicules et de protéines, la phosphorylation de l'alpha-synucléine et les cellules du système immunitaire. ...
Thesis
La Tunisie a vu une grande variété d'envahisseurs et de migrants allant de la population berbère autochtone aux Arabes et Européens. Cette région est caractérisée par les grands pedigrees, les faibles taux de migration et les taux élevés de consanguinité qui augmentent le risque des maladies autosomiques récessives y compris les maladies neuro-dégénératives. Dans notre pays, la prévalence de la maladie de Parkinson (MP) augmente jusqu’à 43/100000 personnes et devient un problème de santé majeur. La MP est une maladie neuro-dégénérative dont la forme idiopathique débute en moyenne vers 60 ans. Au cours des 20 dernières années, plusieurs gènes ont été identifiés chez des patients qui ont développé leurs premiers symptômes avant l’âge de 40 ans. Notre étude a montré que la structure génétique de la MP en Tunisie est distincte des autres populations, puisque plus de 50% des cas avaient une origine génétique. La fréquence des formes monogéniques chez les patients avec un âge de début tardif de la MP était relativement élevée et similaire à celle des patients avec un âge de début précoce. Ces formes étaient essentiellement dues à la mutation LRRK2-p.G2019S (identifiée chez 44.4% des cas) qui s'avère être une mutation fondatrice apparue chez un seul ancêtre commun d’origine berbère. Sur le plan clinique, nous avons montré que les patients porteurs de la mutation LRRK2-p.G2019S avaient un âge de début de la MP plus précoce mais avec un phénotype plus bénin que celui des formes idiopathiques. Une deuxième mutation fondatrice d’origine berbère (p.Q456*) a été identifiée sur le gène PINK1. La fréquence élevée inhabituelle des mutations sur ce gène peut être limitée à la population tunisienne berbère. Nos résultats ont aussi confirmé que les mutations sur le gène PARK2 et sur le gène GBA ne constituent pas un facteur de risque fréquent de la MP en Tunisie. En plus de ces mutations sur les gènes connus, nous avons identifié 4 nouveaux gènes candidats dans la MP. Cette structure génétique particulière de la MP en Tunisie pourrait être principalement le résultat de l'origine historique berbère de notre population Tunisienne.
... It is highly expressed in the lung, spleen, kidney and peripheral immune cells (neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells), while in the brain, there is a comparatively low level of LRRK2 expression [10][11][12]. In the cell, the protein is mainly cytoplasmic and prevalently associated with microtubules, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network (TGN), endosomes and lysosomes, where it has been linked to different processes, including cytoskeleton remodeling, neurite morphology, cell processes outgrowth, mitochondrial functions, protein synthesis, proteostasis, autophagy, vesicular trafficking and inflammation [13,14]. In the years several LRRK2 kinase substrates [9,[15][16][17][18][19] and binding partners have been identified [20][21][22][23][24]. Interestingly, many of these binding partners interact with the Roc domain, indicating ...
Article
Missense mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). In the years LRRK2 has been associated with several organelles and related pathways in cell. However, despite the significant amount of research done in the past decade, the contribution of LRRK2 mutations to PD pathogenesis remains unknown. Growing evidence highlights that LRRK2 controls multiple processes in brain immune cells, microglia and astrocytes, and suggests that deregulated LRRK2 activity in these cells, due to gene mutation, might be directly associated with pathological mechanisms underlying PD. In this brief review, we recapitulate and update the last LRRK2 functions dissected in microglia and astrocytes. Moreover, we discuss how dysfunctions of LRRK2-related pathways may impact glia physiology and their cross-talk with neurons, thus leading to neurodegeneration and progression of PD.
... Mutations in the gene encoding LRRK2 have been linked to familial and sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) cases. [1] Trafficking of vesicles: LRRK2 localizes to vesicles, where it interacts with vesicular proteins [2]In presynaptic vesicles, LRRK2 silencing leads to a redistribution of vesicles, alters recycling dynamics, and increases vesicle kinetics. ...
... LRRK2 has been linked to a wide range of biological processes and several LRRK2 kinase substrates have been proposed (Boon et al., 2014;Wallings et al., 2015;Roosen and Cookson, 2016;Rosenbusch and Kortholt, 2016;Tang, 2016). LRRK2 signaling is involved in mitochondrial regulation, autophagy and cell death, actin and microtubule dynamics, synthesis and transport of vesicles as well as neurotransmitter, immune responses, and the activity of the intestinal network (Esteves et al., 2014). Impaired mitochondrial activity is a common characteristic of both, iPD and familial PD, and several genes linked to PD play an important role in mitochondrial quality control (Narendra et al., 2008;Youle and van der Bliek, 2012;Liu et al., 2017;Toyofuku et al., 2019;Delcambre et al., 2020;Weindel et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease world-wide. Mutations in the multidomain protein Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most frequent cause of hereditary PD. Furthermore, recent data suggest that independent of mutations, increased kinase activity of LRRK2 plays an essential role in PD pathogenesis. Isolated mitochondria of tissue samples from PD patients carrying LRRK2 mutations display a significant impairment of mitochondrial function. However, due to the complexity of the mitochondrial signaling network, the role of LRRK2 in mitochondrial metabolism is still not well understood. Previously we have shown that D. discoideum Roco4 is a suitable model to study the activation mechanism of LRRK2 in vivo . To get more insight in the LRRK2 pathways regulating mitochondrial activity we used this Roco4 model system in combination with murine RAW macrophages. Here we show that both Dictyostelium roco4 knockout and cells expressing PD-mutants show behavioral and developmental phenotypes that are characteristic for mitochondrial impairment. Mitochondrial activity measured by Seahorse technology revealed that the basal respiration of D. discoideum roco4- cells is significantly increased compared to the WT strain, while the basal and maximal respiration values of cells overexpressing Roco4 are reduced compared to the WT strain. Consistently, LRRK2 KO RAW 264.7 cells exhibit higher maximal mitochondrial respiration activity compared to the LRRK2 parental RAW264.7 cells. Measurement on isolated mitochondria from LRRK2 KO and parental RAW 264.7 cells revealed no difference in activity compared to the parental cells. Furthermore, neither D. discoideum roco4- nor LRRK2 KO RAW 264.7 showed a difference in either the number or the morphology of mitochondria compared to their respective parental strains. This suggests that the observed effects on the mitochondrial respiratory in cells are indirect and that LRRK2/Roco proteins most likely require other cytosolic cofactors to elicit mitochondrial effects.
... This increase was associated with poorer CMA efficiency since the clearance of lysosomal specific substrates with a KFERQ motif was lower on LRRK2 knock-in midbrain cells. This is consistent with evidence that demonstrates that LRRK2 regulates the activity of a subset of Rab GTPases, which are responsible for membrane mobilization, vesicle assembly, and transportation [198,199]. G2019S is the most common mutation in LRRK2-associated PD, and mutated LRRK2 is thought to halt the autophagic process. For example, differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells expressing this mutant form of LRRK2 presented much smaller neurites and an aberrant accumulation of LC3 vesicles [200]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Macroautophagy, a quality control mechanism, is an evolutionarily conserved pathway of lysosomal degradation of protein aggregates, pathogens, and damaged organelles. As part of its vital homeostatic role, macroautophagy deregulation is associated with various human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. There are several lines of evidence that associate protein misfolding and mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Macroautophagy has been implicated in the degradation of different protein aggregates such as Aβ, tau, alpha-synuclein (α-syn), and mutant huntingtin (mHtt) and in the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria. Taking these into consideration, targeting autophagy might represent an effective therapeutic strategy to eliminate protein aggregates and to improve mitochondrial function in these disorders. The present review describes our current understanding on the role of macroautophagy in neurodegenerative disorders and focuses on possible strategies for its therapeutic modulation.
... Of note, mitochondrial impairment occurs early in PD pathogenesis, especially at the level of complex I, and animal models of PD are generated after administration of complex I inhibitors such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) [104]. Relevantly, familial PD is mainly characterized by mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, such as Parkin, α-synuclein, and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) [103,[105][106][107]. On the other hand, exposure to pesticides that disrupt the mitochondrial function increases the likelihood of developing PD [108]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondria are the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most of them deriving from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Among the numerous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems present in mitochondria, mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) emerges as the main line of defense for maintaining the appropriate mitochondrial redox environment. mGSH's ability to act directly or as a co-factor in reactions catalyzed by other mitochondrial enzymes makes its presence essential to avoid or to repair oxidative modifications that can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequently to cell death. Since mitochondrial redox disorders play a central part in many diseases, harboring optimal levels of mGSH is vitally important. In this review, we will highlight the participation of mGSH as a contributor to disease progression in pathologies as diverse as Alzheimer's disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in the signaling of new prescribed drugs and in other pathologies (or in other unmet medical needs, such as gender differences or coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) treatment) is still being revealed; guaranteeing that research on mGSH will be an interesting topic for years to come.
... The precise biological role of LRRK2 is not fully understood. However, to date, the protein has been shown to be involved in different cellular processes such as the regulation of cytoskeleton, neurite morphology, inflammatory processes, regulation of mitochondrial fission, protein synthesis, proteostasis, and vesicular trafficking (Esteves et al., 2014). The multitude of proposed functions can be summarized by findings from protein interaction network analysis that point to a role for LRRK2 in intracellular organization, intracellular transport, and protein localization (Manzoni et al., 2015;Porras et al., 2015;Tomkins et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are linked to autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), and genetic variations at the LRRK2 locus are associated with an increased risk for sporadic PD. This gene encodes a kinase that is physiologically multiphosphorylated, including clusters of both heterologous phosphorylation and autophosphorylation sites. Several pieces of evidence indicate that LRRK2's phosphorylation is important for its pathological and physiological functioning. These include a reduced LRRK2 heterologous phosphorylation in PD brains or after pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity as well as the appearance of subcellular LRRK2 accumulations when this protein is dephosphorylated at heterologous phosphosites. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanisms governing LRRK2 phosphorylation levels and the cellular consequences of changes in LRRK2 phosphorylation remain incompletely understood. In this review, we present current knowledge on LRRK2 phosphorylation, LRRK2 phosphoregulation, and how LRRK2 phosphorylation changes affect cellular processes that may ultimately be linked to PD mechanisms.
... It was observed that locomotor defects have occurred due to low levels of striatal mitochondrial complex I (NDUFS4), striatal synaptosomes, and synaptic vesicular proton pump protein (V-ATPase H) that lowered dopamine uptake in PD mouse than wildtype mouse (31). Moreover, LRRK2 mutants reported significant mitochondrial abnormalities, including damaged mitochondrial DNA, abnormal morphology, movement, and homeostasis, low ATP production, decreased membrane potential, reduced respiratory chain complex IV activity, increased mitochondrial proton leakage, disturbed calcium handling, and impaired mitochondrial degradation (32)(33)(34)(35). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the crucial factors involved in PD’s pathogenicity, which emerges from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. These factors cause differential molecular expression in neurons, such as varied transcriptional regulation of genes, elevated oxidative stress, α‐synuclein aggregation and endogenous neurotoxins release, which induces epigenetic modifications and triggers energy crisis by damaging mitochondria of the dopaminergic neurons (DN). So far, these events establish a complicated relationship with underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial anomalies in PD, which has remained unclear for years and made PD diagnosis and treatment extremely difficult. Therefore, in this review, we endeavored to discuss the complex association of epigenetic modifications and other associated vital factors in mitochondrial dysfunction. We propose a hypothesis that describes a vicious cycle in which mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress act as a hub for regulating DA neuron's fate in PD. Oxidative stress triggers the release of endogenous neurotoxins (CTIQs) that lead to mitochondrial dysfunction along with abnormal α‐synuclein aggregation and epigenetic modifications. These disturbances further intensify oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, amplifying the synthesis of CTIQs and works vice versa. This vicious cycle may result in the degeneration of DN to hallmark Parkinsonism. Furthermore, we have also highlighted various endogenous compounds and epigenetic marks (neurotoxic and neuroprotective), which may help for devising future diagnostic biomarkers and target specific drugs using novel PD management strategies. Impact of the epigenetic regulator on mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
... The LRRK2 protein has been found to localize, among other sites, to mitochondrial structures where it interacts with a number of key regulators of mitochondrial fission/fusion, as well as to mitochondrial autophagy and motility (Biskup et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2012, Rosenbusch and Kortholt, 2016. Several other studies have found prominent signs of mitochondrial dysfunction relating both to size and distribution as a result of the G2019S mutation (MacLeod et al., 2006, Mortiboys et al., 2010, Li et al., 2014, Esteves et al., 2014, Singh et al., 2019, which strongly implies a role for LRRK2 in mitochondrial homeostasis. The initiating process leading to these mitochondrial alterations, however, are still elusive. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene have been widely linked to Parkinson's disease. The G2019S variant has been shown to contribute uniquely to both familial and sporadic forms of the disease. LRRK2-related mutations have been extensively studied, yet the wide variety of cellular and network events directly or indirectly related to these mutations remain poorly understood. In this study, we structured multi-nodal human neural networks carrying the G2019S mutation using custom-designed microfluidic chips coupled to microelectrode-arrays. By applying live imaging approaches, immunocytochemistry and computational modelling, we have revealed alterations in both the structure and function of the resulting neural networks when compared to controls. We provide first evidence of increased neuritic density associated with the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, while previous studies have found either a strong decrease, or no change, compared to controls. Additionally, we corroborate previous findings regarding increased baseline network activity compared to control neural networks. Furthermore, we can reveal additional network alterations attributable to the specific mutation by selectively inducing transient overexcitation to confined parts of the structured multi-nodal networks. These alterations, which we were able to capture both at the micro- and mesoscale manifested as differences in relative network activity and correlation, as well as in mitochondria activation, neuritic remodelling, and synaptic alterations. Our study thus provides important new insights into early signs of neural network pathology significantly expanding upon the current knowledge relating to the G2019S Parkinson's disease mutation.
... LRRK2 gene product is a large multi-domain protein with two catalytic domains: a GTPase (ROC-COR) domain and a serine/threonine-directed protein kinase domain. Pathogenic mutations are found predominantly in these two domains, suggesting that LRRK2 enzymatic activities are involved in PD pathogenesis (Cookson, 2010), (Esteves, Swerdlow and Cardoso, 2014). Yet, how LRRK2 mutations in the two distinct functional domains contribute to PD pathogenesis and whether they act through a common mechanism is unknown. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
LRRK2 is a kinase expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs), cells which lose dopaminergic input in Parkinson disease (PD). R1441C and G2019S are the most common pathogenic mutations of LRRK2. How these mutations alter the structure and function of individual synapses on direct and indirect pathway SPNs is unknown and may reveal pre-clinical changes in dopamine-recipient neurons that predispose towards disease. Here, R1441C and G2019S knock-in mice enabled thorough evaluation of dendritic spines and synapses on pathway-identified SPNs. Biochemical synaptic preparations and super-resolution imaging revealed increased levels and altered organization of glutamatergic AMPA receptors in LRRK2 mutants. Relatedly, decreased frequency of excitatory post-synaptic currents accompanied changes in dendritic spine nano-architecture, and single-synapse currents, evaluated using 2-photon glutamate uncaging. Overall, LRRK2 mutations reshaped synaptic structure and function, an effect exaggerated in R1441C dSPNs. These data open the possibility of new neuroprotective therapies aimed at SPN synapse function, prior to disease onset.
... LRRK2 encodes a serine/threonine kinase called dardarin, after the Basque word for tremor. The native protein appears to transit between a monomeric and dimeric form [83,84]. LRRK2 is involved in many cellular functions such as regulation of neurite growth and cytoskeletal dynamics, maintenance of lysosomal function, and synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) [85]. After neurotransmission, the replenishment of synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters is ensured by the SVE [86]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by a triad of motor symptoms (akinesia, rigidity, resting tremor) related to loss of dopaminergic neurons mainly in the Substantia nigra pars compacta. Diagnosis is often made after a substantial loss of neurons has already occurred, and while dopamine replacement therapies improve symptoms, they do not modify the course of the disease. Although some biological mechanisms involved in the disease have been identified, such as oxidative stress and accumulation of misfolded proteins, they do not explain entirely PD pathophysiology, and a need for a better understanding remains. Neurodegenerative diseases, including PD, appear to be the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The latter can alter gene expression by causing epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, post-translational modification of histones and non-coding RNAs. Regulation of genes responsible for monogenic forms of PD may be involved in sporadic PD. This review will focus on the epigenetic mechanisms regulating their expression, since these are the genes for which we currently have the most information available. Despite technical challenges, epigenetic epidemiology offers new insights on revealing altered biological pathways and identifying predictive biomarkers for the onset and progression of PD.
... Proteins encoded by the human genes of the monogenic forms of PD, SNCA, VPS35, LRRK2, and ATP13A2 serve to maintain normal neuronal transport functions [36,[51][52][53][54][55][56]. Mutations in these genes can contribute to the disruption of endo-and exocytosis and intracellular transport, which results in the incorrect redistribution of neurotransmitters, primarily dopamine (DA), in the synaptic gap and presynaptic terminals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Processes of intracellular and extracellular transport play one of the most important roles in the functioning of cells. Changes to transport mechanisms in a neuron can lead to the disruption of many cellular processes and even to cell death. It was shown that disruption of the processes of vesicular, axonal, and synaptic transport can lead to a number of diseases of the central nervous system, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we studied changes in the expression of genes whose protein products are involved in the transport processes (Snca, Drd2, Rab5a, Anxa2, and Nsf) in the brain tissues and peripheral blood of mice with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced models of PD. We detected changes in the expressions of Drd2, Anxa2, and Nsf at the earliest modeling stages. Additionally, we have identified conspicuous changes in the expression level of Anxa2 in the striatum and substantia nigra of mice with MPTP-induced models of PD in its early stages. These data clearly suggest the involvement of protein products in these genes in the earliest stages of the pathogenesis of PD.
... As mentioned above, several gene mutations causing familial PD are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In particular, the autosomal dominant G2019S mutation of the common late-onset familial PD gene LRRK2 is involved in the reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, thus leading to mitochondrial dysfunction [71] as well as other functions such as neuronal differentiation [72]. Although the physiological role of SNCA is still unclear, a series of experimental evidence has shown that it is implicated in synaptic transmission, gene expression in the nucleus, as well as mitochondrial function [73]. ...
... The LRRK2 gene contains approximately 144 kilobases with 51 exons, which encodes a 2527-amino acid protein leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (LRKK2) (also known as dardarin, which means trembling or unsteady) with both kinase and GTPase activity [90]. LRRK2 gene is identified to be the most common cause of both familial and sporadic PD. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common types of neurological disorder prevailing worldwide and is rapidly increasing in the elderly population across the globe. The cause of PD is still unknown, but a number of genetic as well as environmental factors contributing to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease have been identified. The hallmark of PD includes dopamine deficiency (neurotransmitter imbalance) due to the gradual loss of dopaminergic nerves in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Studying the mutation of associated genes is particularly informative in understanding the fundamental molecular and pathogenic changes in PD. Intracellular accumulation of misfolded or degraded protein due to mutated gene leads to the manifestation of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress followed by multifaceted patho-physiologic symptoms. Other studies include the appearance of motor and non-motor responses like resting tremor, muscle stiffness, slow movement and anxiety, anaemia, constipation, rapid eye movement and sleep behaviour disorder. Many bioactive natural compounds have shown positive pharmacological results in treating a number of extensive disease models of PD. Despite the availability of an end number of potent medicinal plants around the world, limited research has been done associated with various neurological disorders, including PD. The currently available dopamine-based drug treatments have several side effects; further, they are not effective enough to combat PD completely. Therefore, various plant-based compounds with medicinal benefits have grabbed lots of attention from researchers to deal with various life-threatening neurodegenerative disorders like PD. On the basis of literature available to date, here, we have discussed and addressed the molecular basis, current scenario, and the best possible treatment of PD for the future with minimal or no side-effects using various key bioactive compounds from natural origin/medicinal plants.
Article
Synapses are critical for neuronal communication and brain function. To maintain neuronal homeostasis, synapses rely on autophagy. Autophagic alterations cause neurodegeneration and synaptic dysfunction is a feature in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), where the loss of synapses precedes dopaminergic neuron loss, various PD-causative proteins are involved in the regulation of autophagy. So far only a few factors regulating autophagy at the synapse have been identified and the molecular mechanisms underlying autophagy at the synapse is only partially understood. Here, we describe Endophilin-B (EndoB) as a novel player in the regulation of synaptic autophagy in health and disease. We demonstrate that EndoB is required for autophagosome biogenesis at the synapse, whereas the loss of EndoB blocks the autophagy induction promoted by the PD mutation LRRK2G2019S. We show that EndoB is required to prevent neuronal loss. Moreover, loss of EndoB in the Drosophila visual system leads to an increase in synaptic contacts between photoreceptor terminals and their post-synaptic synapses. These data confirm the role of autophagy in synaptic contact formation and neuronal survival.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause Parkinson’s disease with a similar clinical presentation and progression to idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, and common variation is linked to disease risk. Recapitulation of the genotype in rodent models causes abnormal dopamine release and increases the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to insults, making LRRK2 a valuable model for understanding the pathobiology of Parkinson’s disease. It is also a promising druggable target with targeted therapies currently in development. LRRK2 mRNA and protein expression in the brain is highly variable across regions and cellular identities. A growing body of work has demonstrated that pathogenic LRRK2 mutations disrupt striatal synapses before the onset of overt neurodegeneration. Several substrates and interactors of LRRK2 have been identified to potentially mediate these pre-neurodegenerative changes in a cell-type-specific manner. This review discusses the effects of pathogenic LRRK2 mutations in striatal neurons, including cell-type-specific and pathway-specific alterations. It also highlights several LRRK2 effectors that could mediate the alterations to striatal function, including Rabs and protein kinase A. The lessons learned from improving our understanding of the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations in striatal neurons will be applicable to both dissecting the cell-type specificity of LRRK2 function in the transcriptionally diverse subtypes of dopaminergic neurons and also increasing our understanding of basal ganglia development and biology. Finally, it will inform the development of therapeutics for Parkinson’s disease.
Article
Background: The gender effect in the prevalence of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) associated Parkinson disease (PD) remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the gender effect among these patients. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify the potential related studies published before December 2017. Case-control studies with separated data of sex and mutation status were included in further analyses. We pooled relative risk (RR) using fixed-effect model. The publication bias and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results: Sixty-four studies with 32452 patients diagnosed with PD were included. Higher prevalence of female patients with LRRK2-associated PD was observed with a pooled RR of 1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.30, P<0.001). Further subgroup analyses showed that higher prevalence of female patients was only obtained in G2019S mutation patients (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P<0.001), but not in G2385R variant patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.91-1.17, P = 0.651). No significant heterogeneity and publication bias were observed in additional analyses. Conclusions: Higher female prevalence of LRRK2 mutation suggests roles of gender-related risk factors in PD patients, especially who carried G2019S mutation. Contrary to idiopathic PD, no sex difference was observed in prevalence of patients carried G2385R variant.
Article
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known as one of the most common degenerative disorders related to the damage of the central nervous system (CNS). This brain disorder is also characterized by the formation of Lewy bodies in the cytoplasm of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which consequently leads to motor and non-motor symptoms. With regard to the growing trend in the number of cases with PD and its effects on individuals, families, and communities, immediate treatments together with diagnostic methods are required. In this respect, long non-coding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) represent a large class of ncRNAs with more than 200 nucleotides in length, playing key roles in some important processes including gene expression, cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, apoptosis, and cell cycle. They are highly expressed in the CNS and previous studies have further reported that the expression profile of lncRNAs is disrupted in human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Since the levels of some lncRNAs change over time in the brains of patients with PD, a number of previous studies have examined their potentials as biomarkers for this brain disorder. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to review the advances in the related literature on lncRNAs as diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarkers for PD.
Article
Parkinson's disease is neuropathologically characterised by loss of catecholamine neurons in vulnerable brain regions including substantia nigra pars compacta and locus coeruleus. This review discusses how the susceptibility of these regions is defined by their shared biochemical characteristics that differentiate them from other neurons. Parkinson's disease is biochemically characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of iron, diminished copper content and depleted glutathione levels in these regions. This review also discusses this neuropathology, and provides evidence for how these pathological features are mechanistically linked to each other. This leads to the conclusion that disruption of mitochondrial function, or iron, copper or glutathione metabolism in isolation provokes the pathological impairment of them all. This creates a vicious cycle that drives pathology leading to mitochondrial failure and neuronal cell death in vulnerable brain regions.
Article
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in multiple cellular processes and signaling pathways. LRRK2 mutations are associated with autosomal-inherited Parkinson's disease (PD), and evidence suggests that LRRK2 pathogenic variants generally increase kinase activity. Therefore, inhibition of LRRK2 kinase function is a promising therapeutic strategy for PD treatment. The search for drug-like molecules capable of reducing LRRK2 kinase activity in PD led to the design of selective LRRK2 inhibitors predicted to be within the CNS drug-like space. This review highlights the journey that translates chemical tools for interrogating the role of LRRK2 in PD into promising drug candidates, addressing the challenges in discovering selective and brain-penetrant LRRK2 modulators and exploring the structure–activity relationship of distinct LRRK2 inhibitors.
Article
Full-text available
LRRK2 is a kinase expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs), cells which lose dopaminergic input in Parkinson’s disease (PD). R1441C and G2019S are the most common pathogenic mutations of LRRK2. How these mutations alter the structure and function of individual synapses on direct and indirect pathway SPNs is unknown and may reveal pre-clinical changes in dopamine-recipient neurons that predispose towards disease. Here, R1441C and G2019S knock-in mice enabled thorough evaluation of dendritic spines and synapses on pathway-identified SPNs. Biochemical synaptic preparations and super-resolution imaging revealed increased levels and altered organization of glutamatergic AMPA receptors in LRRK2 mutants. Relatedly, decreased frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents accompanied changes in dendritic spine nano-architecture, and single-synapse currents, evaluated using 2-photon glutamate uncaging. Overall, LRRK2 mutations reshaped synaptic structure and function, an effect exaggerated in R1441C dSPNs. These data open the possibility of new neuroprotective therapies aimed at SPN synapse function, prior to disease onset.
Article
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway for the maintenance of protein homeostasis. Its inhibition causes accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins; this accumulation has been associated with several of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Several genetic factors have been identified for most neurodegenerative diseases, however, most cases are considered idiopathic, thus making the study of the mechanisms of protein accumulation a relevant field of research. It is often mentioned that the biggest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases is aging, and several groups have reported an age-related alteration of the expression of some of the 26S proteasome subunits and a reduction of its activity. Proteasome subunits interact with proteins that are known to accumulate in neurodegenerative diseases such as α-synuclein in Parkinson's, tau in Alzheimer's, and huntingtin in Huntington's diseases. These interactions have been explored for several years, but only until recently, we are beginning to understand them. In this review, we discuss the known interactions, the underlying patterns, and the phenotypes associated with the 26S proteasome subunits in the etiology and progression of neurodegenerative diseases where there is evidence of proteasome involvement. Special emphasis is made in reviewing proteasome subunits that interact with proteins known to have an age-related altered expression or to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases to explore key effectors that may trigger or augment their progression. Interestingly, while the causes of age-related reduction of some of the proteasome subunits are not known, there are specific relationships between the observed neurodegenerative disease and the affected proteasome subunits.
Article
Parkinson disease-associated mutations within the GTPase domain Ras of complex proteins (ROC) of leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) result in an abnormal over-activation of its kinase domain. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Recent study has shown that LRRK2 G-domain cycles between monomeric and dimeric conformations upon binding to GTP or guanosine diphosphate, and that the Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated R1441C/G/H mutations impair the G-domain monomer-dimer dynamics and trap the G-domain in a constitutive monomeric conformation. That led us to question whether other disease-associated mutations in G-domain would also affect its conformation. Here, we report that another PD-associated N1437H mutation also impairs its monomer-dimer conformational dynamics and GTPase activity. In contrast with mutations at R1441, ROCN1437H was found to be locked in a stable dimeric conformation in solution and its GTPase activity was ∼4-fold lower than that of the wild-type. Furthermore, the N1437H mutation reduced the GTP binding affinity by ∼2.5-fold when compared with other pathogenic G-domain mutations. Moreover, ROCN1437H was found to have a slower GTP dissociation rate, indicating that N1437H might interrupt the nucleotide exchange cycle. Taken together, our data support that conformational dynamics is important for LRRK2 GTPase activity and that the N1437H mutation impairs GTPase activity by locking the ROC domain in a persistently dimeric state.-Huang, X., Wu, C., Park, Y., Long, X., Hoang, Q. Q., Liao, J. The Parkinson's disease-associated mutation N1437H impairs conformational dynamics in the G domain of LRRK2.
Article
Parkinson disease (PD) treatment options have conventionally focused on dopamine replacement and provision of symptomatic relief. Current treatments cause undesirable adverse effects, and a large unmet clinical need remains for treatments that offer disease modification and that address symptoms resistant to levodopa. Advances in high-throughput drug screening methods for small molecules, developments in disease modelling and improvements in analytical technologies have collectively contributed to the emergence of novel compounds, repurposed drugs and new technologies. In this Review, we focus on disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies under development for PD. We review cellular therapies and repurposed drugs, such as nilotinib, inosine, isradipine, iron chelators and anti-inflammatories, and discuss how their success in preclinical models has paved the way for clinical trials. We provide an update on immunotherapies and vaccines. In addition, we review non-pharmacological interventions targeting motor symptoms, including gene therapy, adaptive deep brain stimulation (DBS) and optogenetically inspired DBS. Given the many clinical phenotypes of PD, individualization of therapy and precision of treatment are likely to become important in the future.
Article
Neuronal microtubules are key determinants of cell morphology, differentiation, migration and polarity, and contribute to intracellular trafficking along axons and dendrites. Microtubules are strictly regulated and alterations in their dynamics can lead to catastrophic effects in the neuron. Indeed, the importance of the microtubule cytoskeleton in many human diseases is emerging. Remarkably, a growing body of evidence indicates that microtubule defects could be linked to Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis. Only a few of the causes of the progressive neuronal loss underlying this disorder have been identified. They include gene mutations and toxin exposure, but the trigger leading to neurodegeneration is still unknown. In this scenario, the evidence showing that mutated proteins in Parkinson’s disease are involved in the regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton is intriguing. Here, we focus on α-Synuclein, Parkin and Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2), the three main proteins linked to the familial forms of the disease. The aim is to dissect their interaction with tubulin and microtubules in both physiological and pathological conditions, in which these proteins are overexpressed, mutated or absent. We highlight the relevance of such an interaction and suggest that these proteins could trigger neurodegeneration via defective regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton.
Article
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S (glycine to serine) is the most common mutation associated with sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD) with 80% penetrance by age 70. This mutation is found worldwide, with up to 40% of individuals in the North African Arab population carrying the mutation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients carrying the LRRK2 G2019S mutation have been a critical source of cells for generating dopaminergic neurons and studying G2019S-related pathology. These studies have elucidated LRRK2-related mechanisms of mitochondrial dysregulation, increased reactive oxygen species, truncated and simplified neurites, and cell death. These phenotypes are thought to result from the G2019S mutation increasing substrate access and therefore increasing the catalytic rate of the serine/threonine kinase. In this article, we critically review the contributions of in vitro modeling to the current knowledge on LRRK2 G2019S. We also analyze the role of patient-derived cell lines for the identification and validation of therapeutic targets, emphasizing their importance as part of a 3R approach to translational research and personalized medicine.
Article
Full-text available
Degenerating neurons of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patient brains exhibit granules of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) that localize to autophagocytosed mitochondria. Here we show that 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) elicits activity-related localization of ERK1/2 in mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells, and these events coincide with induction of autophagy and precede mitochondrial degradation. Transient transfection of wild-type (WT) ERK2 or constitutively active MAPK/ERK Kinase 2 (MEK2-CA) was sufficient to induce mitophagy to a degree comparable with that elicited by 6-OHDA, while constitutively active ERK2 (ERK2-CA) had a greater effect. We developed green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs of WT, CA, and kinase-deficient (KD) ERK2 to study the role of ERK2 localization in regulating mitophagy and cell death. Under basal conditions, cells transfected with GFP-ERK2-WT or GFP-ERK2-CA, but not GFP-ERK2-KD, displayed discrete cytoplasmic ERK2 granules of which a significant fraction colocalized with mitochondria and markers of autophagolysosomal maturation. The colocalizing GFP-ERK2/mitochondria granules are further increased by 6-OHDA and undergo autophagic degradation, as bafilomycin-A, an inhibitor of autolysosomal degradation, robustly increased their detection. Interestingly, increasing ERK2-WT or ERK2-CA expression was sufficient to promote comparable levels of macroautophagy as assessed by analysis of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). In contrast, the level of mitophagy was more tightly correlated with ERK activity levels, potentially explained by the greater localization of ERK2-CA to mitochondria compared to ERK2-WT. These data indicate that mitochondrial localization of ERK2 activity is sufficient to recapitulate the effects of 6-OHDA on mitophagy and autophagic cell death.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in LRRK2, encoding the multifunctional protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are a common cause of Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has been suggested to influence the cytoskeleton as LRRK2 mutants reduce neurite outgrowth and cause an accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. This might cause alterations in the dynamic instability of microtubules suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Here, we describe a direct interaction between LRRK2 and β-tubulin. This interaction is conferred by the LRRK2 Roc domain and is disrupted by the familial R1441G mutation and artificial Roc domain mutations that mimic autophosphorylation. LRRK2 selectively interacts with three β-tubulin isoforms: TUBB, TUBB4 and TUBB6, one of which (TUBB4) is mutated in the movement disorder dystonia type 4 (DYT4). Binding specificity is determined by lysine-362 and alanine-364 of β-tubulin. Molecular modelling was used to map the interaction surface to the luminal face of microtubule protofibrils in close proximity to the lysine-40 acetylation site in α-tubulin. This location is predicted to be poorly accessible within mature stabilized microtubules, but exposed in dynamic microtubule populations. Consistent with this finding, endogenous LRRK2 displays a preferential localization to dynamic microtubules within growth cones, rather than adjacent axonal microtubule bundles. This interaction is functionally relevant to microtubule dynamics, as mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from LRRK2 knockout mice display increased microtubule acetylation. Taken together, our data shed light on the nature of the LRRK2-tubulin interaction, and indicate that alterations in microtubule stability caused by changes in LRRK2 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
Article
Full-text available
LRRK2 is one of the most important genetic contributors to Parkinson's disease (PD). Point mutations in this gene cause an autosomal dominant form of PD, but to date no cellular phenotype has been consistently linked with mutations in each of the functional domains (ROC, COR and Kinase) of the protein product of this gene. In this study, primary fibroblasts from individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the three central domains of LRRK2 were assessed for alterations in the autophagy/lysosomal pathway using a combination of biochemical and cellular approaches. Mutations in all three domains resulted in alterations in markers for autophagy/lysosomal function compared to wild type cells. These data highlight the autophagy and lysosomal pathways as read outs for pathogenic LRRK2 function and as a marker for disease, and provide insight into the mechanisms linking LRRK2 function and mutations.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most frequent cause of familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). The neuropathology of LRRK2-related PD is heterogeneous and can include aberrant tau phosphorylation or neurofibrillary tau pathology. Recently, LRRK2 has been shown to phosphorylate tau in vitro; however, the major epitopes phosphorylated by LRRK2 and the physiological or pathogenic consequences of these modifications in vivo are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we identified multiple sites on recombinant tau that are phosphorylated by LRRK2 in vitro, including pT149 and pT153, which are phospho-epitopes that to date have been largely unexplored. Importantly, we demonstrate that expression of transgenic LRRK2 in a mouse model of tauopathy increased the aggregation of insoluble tau and its phosphorylation at T149, T153, T205, and S199/S202/T205 epitopes. These findings indicate that tau can be a LRRK2 substrate and that this interaction can enhance salient features of human disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00401-013-1188-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Article
Full-text available
Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) is one of the most important genetic contributors to Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including macroautophagy. To test whether LRRK2 has a role in regulating autophagy, a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of LRRK2 was applied to human neuroglioma cells and downstream readouts of autophagy examined. The resulting data demonstrate that inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity stimulates macroautophagy in the absence of any alteration in the translational targets of mTORC1, suggesting that LRRK2 regulates autophagic vesicle formation independent of canonical mTORC1 signaling. This study represents the first pharmacological dissection of the role LRRK2 plays in the autophagy/lysosomal pathway, emphasizing the importance of this pathway as a marker for LRRK2 physiological function. Moreover it highlights the need to dissect autophagy and lysosomal activities in the context of LRRK2 related pathologies with the final aim of understand their aetiology and identify specific target for disease modifying therapies in patients.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether loss of LRRK2 function accounts for neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons in PD is not known, nor is it known whether LRRK2 kinase activity modulates the susceptibility of dopamine (DA) neurons to the selective dopaminergic toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). To better understand the role of LRRK2 in DA neuronal survival and its role in the susceptibility of DA neurons to MPTP, we generated LRRK2 knock-out (KO) mice lacking the kinase domain of LRRK2. Here, we show that LRRK2 KO mice are viable and have no major abnormalities and live to adulthood. The dopaminergic system is normal in LRRK2 KO mice as assessed via HPLC for DA and its metabolites and via stereologic assessment of DA neuron number in young and aged mice. Importantly, there is no significant difference in the susceptibility of LRRK2 KO and wild-type mice to MPTP. These results suggest that LRRK2 plays little if any role in the development and survival of DA neurons under physiologic conditions. Thus, PD due to LRRK2 mutations are likely not due to a loss of function. Moreover, LRRK2 is not required for the susceptibility of DA neurons to MPTP.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in LRRK2 are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The most prevalent LRRK2 mutation is the G2019S coding change, located in the kinase domain of this complex multi-domain protein. The majority of G2019S autopsy cases feature typical Lewy Body pathology with a clinical phenotype almost indistinguishable from idiopathic PD (iPD). Here we have investigated the biochemical characteristics of α-synuclein in G2019S LRRK2 PD post-mortem material, in comparison to pathology-matched iPD. Immunohistochemistry with pS129 α-synuclein antibody showed that the medulla is heavily affected with pathology in G2019S PD whilst the basal ganglia (BG), limbic and frontal cortical regions demonstrated comparable pathology scores between G2019S PD and iPD. Significantly lower levels of the highly aggregated α-synuclein species in urea-SDS fractions were observed in G2019S cases compared to iPD in BG and limbic cortex. Our data, albeit from a small number of cases, highlight a difference in the biochemical properties of aggregated α-synuclein in G2019S linked PD compared to iPD, despite a similar histopathological presentation. This divergence in solubility is most notable in the basal ganglia, a region that is affected preclinically and is damaged before overt dopaminergic cell death.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We found LRRK2 to be degraded in lysosomes by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), whereas the most common pathogenic mutant form of LRRK2, G2019S, was poorly degraded by this pathway. In contrast to the behavior of typical CMA substrates, lysosomal binding of both wild-type and several pathogenic mutant LRRK2 proteins was enhanced in the presence of other CMA substrates, which interfered with the organization of the CMA translocation complex, resulting in defective CMA. Cells responded to such LRRK2-mediated CMA compromise by increasing levels of the CMA lysosomal receptor, as seen in neuronal cultures and brains of LRRK2 transgenic mice, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons and brains of Parkinson's disease patients with LRRK2 mutations. This newly described LRRK2 self-perpetuating inhibitory effect on CMA could underlie toxicity in Parkinson's disease by compromising the degradation of α-synuclein, another Parkinson's disease-related protein degraded by this pathway.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although biochemical studies have shown that certain PD mutations confer elevated kinase activity in vitro on LRRK2, there are no methods available to directly monitor LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo. We demonstrate that LRRK2 autophosphorylation on Ser(1292) occurs in vivo and is enhanced by several familial PD mutations including N1437H, R1441G/C, G2019S, and I2020T. Combining two PD mutations together further increases Ser(1292) autophosphorylation. Mutation of Ser(1292) to alanine (S1292A) ameliorates the effects of LRRK2 PD mutations on neurite outgrowth in cultured rat embryonic primary neurons. Using cell-based and pharmacodynamic assays with phosphorylated Ser(1292) as the readout, we developed a brain-penetrating LRRK2 kinase inhibitor that blocks Ser(1292) autophosphorylation in vivo and attenuates the cellular consequences of LRRK2 PD mutations in vitro. These data suggest that Ser(1292) autophosphorylation may be a useful indicator of LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo and may contribute to the cellular effects of certain PD mutations.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene cause autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 encodes a multi-domain protein containing a Ras-of-complex (Roc) GTPase domain, a C-terminal of Roc domain and a protein kinase domain. LRRK2 can function as a GTPase and protein kinase although the interplay between these two enzymatic domains is poorly understood. While guanine nucleotide binding is critically required for the kinase activity of LRRK2, the contribution of GTP hydrolysis is not known. In general, the molecular determinants regulating GTPase activity and how the GTPase domain contributes to the properties of LRRK2 remains to be clarified. Here, we identify a number of synthetic missense mutations in the GTPase domain that functionally modulate GTP binding and GTP hydrolysis and we employ these mutants to comprehensively explore the contribution of GTPase activity to the kinase activity and cellular phenotypes of LRRK2. Our data demonstrate that guanine nucleotide binding and, to a lesser extent, GTP hydrolysis are required for maintaining normal kinase activity and both activities contribute to the GTP-dependent activation of LRRK2 kinase activity. Guanine nucleotide binding but not GTP hydrolysis impairs the dimerization, structure and stability of LRRK2. Furthermore, GTP hydrolysis regulates the LRRK2-dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons but is unable to robustly modulate the effects of the familial G2019S mutation. Our study elucidates the role of GTPase activity in regulating kinase activity and cellular phenotypes of LRRK2 and has important implications for validation of the GTPase domain as a molecular target for attenuating LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been associated with familial and sporadic cases of Parkinson disease. Mutant LRRK2 causes in vitro and in vivo neurite shortening, mediated in part by autophagy, and a parkinsonian phenotype in transgenic mice; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because mitochondrial content/function is essential for dendritic morphogenesis and maintenance, we investigated whether mutant LRRK2 affects mitochondrial homeostasis in neurons. Mouse cortical neurons expressing either LRRK2 G2019S or R1441C mutations exhibited autophagic degradation of mitochondria and dendrite shortening. In addition, mutant LRRK2 altered the ability of the neurons to buffer intracellular calcium levels. Either calcium chelators or inhibitors of voltage-gated L-type calcium channels prevented mitochondrial degradation and dendrite shortening. These data suggest that mutant LRRK2 causes a deficit in calcium homeostasis, leading to enhanced mitophagy and dendrite shortening.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the genes encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and α-synuclein are associated with both autosomal dominant and idiopathic forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). α-Synuclein is the main protein in Lewy bodies, hallmark inclusions present in both sporadic and familial PD. We show that in PD brain tissue, the levels of LRRK2 are positively related to the increase in α-synuclein phosphorylation and aggregation in affected brain regions (amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex), but not in the unaffected visual cortex. In disease-affected regions, we show co-localization of these two proteins in neurons and Lewy body inclusions. Further, in vitro experiments show a molecular interaction between α-synuclein and LRRK2 under endogenous and over-expression conditions. In a cell culture model of α-synuclein inclusion formation, LRRK2 co-localizes with the α-synuclein inclusions, and knocking down LRRK2 increases the number of smaller inclusions. In addition to providing strong evidence for an interaction between LRRK2 and α-synuclein, our results shed light on the complex relationship between these two proteins in the brains of patients with PD and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00109-012-0984-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most frequent known cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the therapeutic potential of small molecules targeting the LRRK2 kinase domain, we characterized two LRRK2 kinase inhibitors, TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1, for their effects against LRRK2 activity in vitro and in C. elegans models of LRRK2-linked neurodegeneration. TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 potently inhibited in vitro kinase activity of LRRK2 wild-type and mutant proteins, attenuated phosphorylation of cellular LRRK2, and rescued neurotoxicity of mutant LRRK2 in transfected cells. To establish whether LRRK2 kinase inhibitors can mitigate pathogenesis caused by different mutations including G2019S and R1441C located within and outside of the LRRK2 kinase domain, respectively, we evaluated effects of TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 against R1441C- and G2019S-induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans models. TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 rescued the behavioral deficit characteristic of dopaminergic impairment in transgenic C. elegans expressing human R1441C- and G2019S-LRRK2. The inhibitors displayed nanomolar to low micromolar rescue potency when administered either pre-symptomatically or post-symptomatically, indicating both prevention and reversal of the dopaminergic deficit. The same treatments also led to long-lasting prevention and rescue of neurodegeneration. In contrast, TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 were ineffective against the neurodegenerative phenotype in transgenic worms carrying the inhibitor-resistant A2016T mutation of LRRK2, suggesting that they elicit their neuroprotective effects in vivo by targeting LRRK2 specifically. Our findings indicate that the LRRK2 kinase activity is critical for neurodegeneration caused by R1441C and G2019S mutations, suggesting that kinase inhibition of LRRK2 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for PD.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most frequent known cause of late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the therapeutic potential of small molecules targeting the LRRK2 kinase domain, we characterized two LRRK2 kinase inhibitors, TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1, for their effects against LRRK2 activity in vitro and in C. elegans models of LRRK2-linked neurodegeneration. TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 potently inhibited in vitro kinase activity of LRRK2 wild-type and mutant proteins, attenuated phosphorylation of cellular LRRK2, and rescued neurotoxicity of mutant LRRK2 in transfected cells. To establish whether LRRK2 kinase inhibitors can mitigate pathogenesis caused by different mutations including G2019S and R1441C located within and outside of the LRRK2 kinase domain, respectively, we evaluated effects of TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 against R1441C- and G2019S-induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans models. TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 rescued the behavioral deficit characteristic of dopaminergic impairment in transgenic C. elegans expressing human R1441C- and G2019S-LRRK2. The inhibitors displayed nanomolar to low micromolar rescue potency when administered either pre-symptomatically or post-symptomatically, indicating both prevention and reversal of the dopaminergic deficit. The same treatments also led to long-lasting prevention and rescue of neurodegeneration. In contrast, TTT-3002 and LRRK2-IN1 were ineffective against the neurodegenerative phenotype in transgenic worms carrying the inhibitor-resistant A2016T mutation of LRRK2, suggesting that they elicit their neuroprotective effects in vivo by targeting LRRK2 specifically. Our findings indicate that the LRRK2 kinase activity is critical for neurodegeneration caused by R1441C and G2019S mutations, suggesting that kinase inhibition of LRRK2 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for PD.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) have been linked to inherited forms of PD (Parkinson's disease). Substantial pre-clinical research and drug discovery efforts have focused on LRRK2 with the hope that small-molecule inhibitors of the enzyme may be valuable for the treatment or prevention of the onset of PD. The pathway to develop therapeutic or neuroprotective agents based on LRRK2 function (i.e. kinase activity) has been facilitated by the development of both biochemical and cell-based assays for LRRK2. LRRK2 is phosphorylated on Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973 in the N-terminal domain of the enzyme, and these sites of phosphorylation are likely to be regulated by upstream enzymes in an LRRK2 kinase-activity-dependent manner. Knowledge of these phosphorylation sites and their regulation can be adapted to high-throughput-screening-amenable platforms. The present review describes the utilization of LRRK2 phosphorylation as indicators of enzyme inhibition, as well as how such assays can be used to deconvolute the pathways in which LRRK2 plays a role.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a major cause of familial Parkinsonism, and the G2019S mutation of LRRK2 is one of the most prevalent mutations. The deregulation of autophagic processes in nerve cells is thought to be a possible cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we observed that G2019S mutant fibroblasts exhibited higher autophagic activity levels than control fibroblasts. Elevated levels of autophagic activity can trigger cell death, and in our study, G2019S mutant cells exhibited increased apoptosis hallmarks compared to control cells. LRRK2 is able to induce the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK kinases (MEK). The use of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene (U0126), a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2, reduced the enhanced autophagy and sensibility observed in G2019S LRRK2 mutation cells. These data suggest that the G2019S mutation induces autophagy via MEK/ERK pathway and that the inhibition of this exacerbated autophagy reduces the sensitivity observed in G2019S mutant cells.
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors that results in degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the brain. We analyzed neural cells generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from PD patients and presymptomatic individuals carrying mutations in the PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) and LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) genes, and compared them to those of healthy control subjects. We measured several aspects of mitochondrial responses in the iPSC-derived neural cells including production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial respiration, proton leakage, and intraneuronal movement of mitochondria. Cellular vulnerability associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in iPSC-derived neural cells from familial PD patients and at-risk individuals could be rescued with coenzyme Q(10), rapamycin, or the LRRK2 kinase inhibitor GW5074. Analysis of mitochondrial responses in iPSC-derived neural cells from PD patients carrying different mutations provides insight into convergence of cellular disease mechanisms between different familial forms of PD and highlights the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in this neurodegenerative disease.
Article
Full-text available
The G2019S leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), clinically and pathologically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. Mitochondrial abnormalities are a common feature in PD pathogenesis and we have investigated the impact of G2019S mutant LRRK2 expression on mitochondrial bioenergetics. LRRK2 protein expression was detected in fibroblasts and lymphoblasts at levels higher than those observed in the mouse brain. The presence of G2019S LRRK2 mutation did not influence LRRK2 expression in fibroblasts. However, the expression of the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in both fibroblast and neuroblastoma cells was associated with mitochondrial uncoupling. This was characterized by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased oxygen utilization under basal and oligomycin-inhibited conditions. This resulted in a decrease in cellular ATP levels consistent with compromised cellular function. This uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was associated with a cell-specific increase in uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 and 4 expression. Restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential by the UCP inhibitor genipin confirmed the role of UCPs in this mechanism. The G2019S LRRK2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and UCP4 mRNA up-regulation were LRRK2 kinase-dependent, whereas endogenous LRRK2 levels were required for constitutive UCP expression. We propose that normal mitochondrial function was deregulated by the expression of G2019S LRRK2 in a kinase-dependent mechanism that is a modification of the normal LRRK2 function, and this leads to the vulnerability of selected neuronal populations in PD.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes.
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which the etiology of 90 percent of the patients is unknown. Pesticide exposure is a major risk factor for PD, and paraquat (PQ), pyridaben (PY) and maneb (MN) are amongst the most widely used pesticides. We studied mRNA expression using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) in the ventral midbrain (VMB) and striatum (STR) of PQ, PY and paraquat+maneb (MNPQ) treated mice, followed by pathway analysis. We found concordance of signaling pathways between the three pesticide models in both the VMB and STR as well as concordance in these two brain areas. The concordant signaling pathways with relevance to PD pathogenesis were e.g. axonal guidance signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as well as pathways not previously linked to PD, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, human embryonic stem cell pluripotency and role of macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Human PD pathways previously identified by expression analysis, concordant with VMB pathways identified in our study were axonal guidance signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, IL-6 signaling, ephrin receptor signaling, TGF-β signaling, PPAR signaling and G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Human PD pathways concordant with the STR pathways in our study were Wnt/β-catenin signaling, axonal guidance signaling and G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (Ppard) and G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) were common genes in VMB and STR identified by network analysis. In conclusion, the pesticides PQ, PY and MNPQ elicit common signaling pathways in the VMB and STR in mice, which are concordant with known signaling pathways identified in human PD, suggesting that these pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. The analysis of these networks and pathways may therefore lead to improved understanding of disease pathogenesis, and potential novel therapeutic targets.
Article
Full-text available
(G2019S) mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Twelve- to sixteen-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice prepared by us displayed progressive degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons and parkinsonism phenotypes of motor dysfunction. LRRK2 is a member of mixed lineage kinase subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs). We hypothesized that (G2019S) mutation augmented LRRK2 kinase activity, leading to overphosphorylation of downstream MAPK kinase (MKK) and resulting in activation of neuronal death signal pathway. Consistent with our hypothesis, (G2019S) LRRK2 expressed in HEK 293 cells exhibited an augmented kinase activity of phosphorylating MAPK kinase 4 (MKK4) at Ser(257), and protein expression of active phospho-MKK4(Ser257) was upregulated in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Protein level of active phospho-JNK(Thr183/Tyr185) and phospho-c-Jun(Ser63), downstream targets of phospho-MKK4(Ser257), was increased in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 mice. Upregulated mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bim and FasL, target genes of phospho-c-Jun(Ser63), and formation of active caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were also observed in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Our results suggest that mutant (G2019S) LRRK2 activates MKK4-JNK-c-Jun pathway in the SN and causes the resulting degeneration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in PD transgenic mice.
Article
Full-text available
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the gene responsible for autosomal-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD), PARK8, but the mechanism by which LRRK2 mutations cause neuronal dysfunction remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated for the first time a transgenic (TG) mouse strain expressing human LRRK2 with an I2020T mutation in the kinase domain, which had been detected in the patients of the original PARK8 family. The TG mouse expressed I2020T LRRK2 in dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and olfactory bulb. In both the beam test and rotarod test, the TG mice exhibited impaired locomotive ability in comparison with their non-transgenic (NTG) littermates. Although there was no obvious loss of DA neurons in either the substantia nigra or striatum, the TG brain showed several neurological abnormalities such as a reduced striatal dopamine content, fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in DA neurons, and an increased degree of microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive primary neurons derived from the TG mouse showed an increased frequency of apoptosis and had neurites with fewer branches and decreased outgrowth in comparison with those derived from the NTG controls. The I2020T LRRK2 TG mouse exhibited impaired locomotive ability accompanied by several dopaminergic neuron abnormalities. The TG mouse should provide valuable clues to the etiology of PD caused by the LRRK2 mutation.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in LRRK2 are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Subjects with PD caused by LRRK2 mutations show pleiotropic pathology that can involve inclusions containing α-synuclein, tau or neither protein. The mechanisms by which mutations in LRRK2 lead to this pleiotropic pathology remain unknown. To investigate mechanisms by which LRRK2 might cause PD. We used systems biology to investigate the transcriptomes from human brains, human blood cells and Caenorhabditis elegans expressing wild-type LRRK2. The role of autophagy was tested in lines of C. elegans expressing LRRK2, V337M tau or both proteins. Neuronal function was measured by quantifying thrashing. Genes regulating autophagy were coordinately regulated with LRRK2. C. elegans expressing V337M tau showed reduced thrashing, as has been noted previously. Coexpressing mutant LRRK2 (R1441C or G2019S) with V337M tau increased the motor deficits. Treating the lines of C. elegans with an mTOR inhibitor that enhances autophagic flux, ridaforolimus, increased the thrashing behavior to the same level as nontransgenic nematodes. These data support a role for LRRK2 in autophagy, raise the possibility that deficits in autophagy contribute to the pathophysiology of LRRK2, and point to a potential therapeutic approach addressing the pathophysiology of LRRK2 in PD.
Article
Full-text available
LRRK2, a Parkinson's disease associated gene, is highly expressed in microglia in addition to neurons; however, its function in microglia has not been evaluated. Using Lrrk2 knockdown (Lrrk2-KD) murine microglia prepared by lentiviral-mediated transfer of Lrrk2-specific small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA), we found that Lrrk2 deficiency attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mRNA and/or protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and stimulation of NF-κB-responsive luciferase reporter activity was also decreased in Lrrk2-KD cells. Interestingly, the decrease in NF-κB transcriptional activity measured by luciferase assays appeared to reflect increased binding of the inhibitory NF-κB homodimer, p50/p50, to DNA. In LPS-responsive HEK293T cells, overexpression of the human LRRK2 pathologic, kinase-active mutant G2019S increased basal and LPS-induced levels of phosphorylated p38 and JNK, whereas wild-type and other pathologic (R1441C and G2385R) or artificial kinase-dead (D1994A) LRRK2 mutants either enhanced or did not change basal and LPS-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation levels. However, wild-type LRRK2 and all LRRK2 mutant variants equally enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that LRRK2 is a positive regulator of inflammation in murine microglia, and LRRK2 mutations may alter the microenvironment of the brain to favor neuroinflammation.
Article
Full-text available
LRRK2 is an autosomal dominant gene whose mutations cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD). The LRRK2 protein contains a functional kinase and a GTPase domain. PD phenotypes caused by LRRK2 mutations are similar to those of idiopathic PD, implying that LRRK2 is an important participant in PD pathogenesis. Of LRRK2's PD-specific mutations, the G2019S is the most frequently observed one. Its over-expression is known to increase kinase activity and neurotoxicity compared to wild type (WT) LRRK2. Here, using a simple colorimetric cell viability assay, we analyzed LRRK2's neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SN4741 cells following treatment with hydrogen peroxide. When WT, G2019S, or empty vector was expressed in SN4741 cells, cell death was modestly and significantly increased in the order of G2019S > WT > vector. When these transfected cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide to mimic oxidative stress, cellular neurotoxicity was enhanced in the same order (i.e. G2019S > WT > vector). Moreover, incubation of SN4741 cells with conditioned medium from cells expressing G2019S and subjected to hydrogen peroxide treatment exhibited 10–15% more cell death than conditioned medium from cells transfected with vector or WT, suggesting that G2019S-expressing cells secrete a factor(s) affecting viability of neighboring cells. The kinase domain was mapped to be responsible for oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, over-expression of WT and G2019S LRRK2 lead to a weak, but significant, increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the order of G2019S > WT as measured by DCFH-DA assay in both the presence and absence of H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, in G2019S-expressing cells, co-expression of the anti-oxidant protein DJ-1 or ERK inhibitor treatment restored survival rate to a level similar to that of cells transfected with control vector under H2O2 treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that the LRRK2 kinase domain increases the generation of ROS and causes enhanced neurotoxicity under H2O2 treatment, which can be at least partially rescued by DJ-1 or the ERK inhibitor.