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Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover, most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. Further, running is a more universal exercise type. This study assessed whether running SIT can alter body composition (air displacement plethysmography), waist circumference, maximal oxygen consumption, peak running speed, and (or) the blood lipid profile. Fifteen recreationally active women (age, 22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg) completed 6 weeks of running SIT (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min of rest performed 3 times per week). Training decreased body fat mass by 8.0% (15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ± 3.4 kg, P = 0.002) and waist circumference by 3.5% (80.1 ± 4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm, P = 0.048), whereas it increased fat-free mass by 1.3% (45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg, P = 0.05), maximal oxygen consumption by 8.7% (46 ± 5 to 50 ± 6 mL/(kg·min), P = 0.004), and peak running speed by 4.8% (16.6 ± 1.7 to 17.4 ± 1.4 km/h, P = 0.026). There were no differences in food intake assessed by 3-day food records (P > 0.329) or in blood lipids (P > 0.595), except for a slight decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ± 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.034). Running SIT is a time-efficient strategy for decreasing body fat while increasing aerobic capacity, peak running speed, and fat-free mass in healthy young women.
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ARTICLE
Running sprint interval training induces fat loss in women
Tom J. Hazell, Craig D. Hamilton, T. Dylan Olver, and Peter W.R. Lemon
Abstract: Data on whether sprint interval training (SIT) (repeated supermaximal intensity, short-duration exercise) affects body
composition are limited, and the data that are available suggest that men respond more favourably than do women. Moreover,
most SIT data involve cycling exercise, and running may differ because of the larger muscle mass involved. Further, running is
a more universal exercise type. This study assessed whether running SIT can alter body composition (air displacement plethys-
mography), waist circumference, maximal oxygen consumption, peak running speed, and (or) the blood lipid profile. Fifteen
recreationally active women (age, 22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg) completed 6 weeks of running SIT
(4 to 6, 30-s “all-out” sprints on a self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min of rest performed 3 times per week). Training
decreased body fat mass by 8.0% (15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ± 3.4 kg, P= 0.002) and waist circumference by 3.5% (80.1 ± 4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm,
P= 0.048), whereas it increased fat-free mass by 1.3% (45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg, P= 0.05), maximal oxygen consumption by 8.7%
(46±5to50±6mL/(kg·min), P= 0.004), and peak running speed by 4.8% (16.6 ± 1.7 to 17.4 ± 1.4 km/h, P= 0.026). There were no
differences in food intake assessed by 3-day food records (P> 0.329) or in blood lipids (P> 0.595), except for a slight decrease in
high-density lipoprotein concentration (1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ± 0.24 mmol/L, P= 0.034). Running SIT is a time-efficient strategy for
decreasing body fat while increasing aerobic capacity, peak running speed, and fat-free mass in healthy young women.
Key words: body composition, female, high-intensity interval training, body fat, lean mass.
Résumé : Il y a peu d’études traitant de l’entraînement par intervalles au sprint (répétition d’un exercice d’intensité maximale
de courte durée, SIT) et de son effet sur la composition corporelle et, selon des études disponibles, de son impact plus favorable
chez les hommes comparativement aux femmes. En outre, la majorité des études sur le SIT traitent d’exercices sur vélo; les
exercices de course pourraient avoir un effet différent, car ils sollicitent plus de muscles. De plus, la course est une activité plus
pratiquée sur la planète. Cette étude vérifie si un SIT a
`la course modifie la composition corporelle (pléthysmographie par
déplacement d’air), le tour de taille (« WC »), du consommation maximale d’oxygène, la vitesse de pointe a
`la course et/ou le profil
sanguin des lipides. Quinze femmes physiquement actives par loisir (22,9 ± 3,6 ans; 163,9 ± 5,1 cm; 60,8 ± 5,2 kg) effectuent
6 semaines de SIT a
`la course (4 a
`6 sprints de 30 s a
`fond de train sur un tapis roulant autopropulsé intercalés de 4 min de repos,
3 fois par semaine). L’entraînement suscite une diminution de 8,0 % de la masse adipeuse (de 15,1 ± 3,6 a
`13,9 ± 3,4 kg; P= 0,002)
et de 3,5 % du WC (de 80,1 ± 4,2 a
`77,3 ± 4,4 cm; P= 0,048); la masse maigre augmente de 1,3 % (de 45,7 ± 3,5 a
`46,3 ± 2,9 kg;
P= 0,05), la consommation maximale d’oxygène augmente de 8,7 % (de 46±5a
`50 ± 6 mL/(kg·min), P= 0.004) et la vitesse de pointe
a
`la course augmente de 4,8 % (de 16,6 ± 1,7 a
`17,4 ± 1,4 km/h; P= 0,026). On n’observe pas de différence d’apport alimentaire
(évalué au moyen d’un carnet alimentaire de 3 jours; P> 0,329) et des lipides sanguins (P> 0,595), sauf en ce qui concerne une
légère diminution de la concentration des lipoprotéines de haute densité (de 1,34 ± 0,28 a
`1,24 ± 0,24 mmol/L; P= 0,034). Un SIT
a
`la course est une stratégie économe sur le plan temporel pour diminuer la masse adipeuse tout en augmentant la capacité
aérobie, la vitesse de pointe a
`la course et la masse maigre chez de jeunes femmes en bonne santé. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
Mots-clés : composition corporelle, femme, entraînement par intervalle de haute intensité, gras corporel, masse maigre.
Introduction
Currently, a high percentage of Canadians are overweight or
obese, partly because of a lack of physical activity. To achieve
health benefits, the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for
adults (18–64 years of age) recommend 150 min per week of
moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity in bouts
of 10 min or more, as well as some muscle- and bone-strengthening
activities using the major muscle groups, at least 2 days per week
(Tremblay et al. 2011). Although most appreciate the health benefits
of regular physical activity, few meet this recommendation, and
lack of time is the often-cited reason (Kimm et al. 2006;Reichert
et al. 2007;Stutts 2002;Trost et al. 2002). As a result, many could
benefit from a time-efficient exercise modality, especially one
that will reduce body fat and (or) improve cardiovascular fitness.
Sprint interval training (SIT) involves repeated, 30-s “all-out”
exercise efforts, typically on a cycle ergometer, in which the
power output rises quickly and then decreases precipitously over
the 30 s (Gibala et al. 2006;Hazell et al. 2010). This type of exercise
can be distinguished from more conventional high-intensity in-
terval training (HIT) because the intensity with SIT is much
greater, typically “all-out” (i.e., supermaximal), and the durations
are much shorter (10–30 s). A recent review suggested a need for
consistency in terminology with regard to interval training,
which will be important in future research (Weston et al. 2013).
Importantly, SIT results in training and performance adaptations
similar to those of both HIT and traditional endurance training,
including increased maximal oxygen consumption (V
˙O
2max
), im-
proved time trial performance, and increased peak power, but
Received 1 November 2013. Accepted 28 February 2014.
T.J. Hazell.* Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada.
C.D. Hamilton,* T.D. Olver, and P.W.R. Lemon. School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A
3K7, Canada.
Corresponding author: Tom J. Hazell (e-mail: tom.hazell@uleth.ca).
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
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with a much reduced time commitment (Burgomaster et al. 2006,
2008;Gibala et al. 2006;Helgerud et al. 2007;MacPherson et al.
2011;Nybo et al. 2010;Trapp et al. 2008). Although HIT has been
shown to produce a number of positive health benefits, including
improved insulin sensitivity (Hood et al. 2011;Metcalfe et al. 2012;
Tjønna et al. 2013;Trapp et al. 2008), cardiac function (Sijie et al.
2012), blood lipid profile (Tjønna et al. 2013), and fat oxidation
(Astorino et al. 2013), to date, any health benefit focus of SIT has
been primarily on insulin sensitivity (Babraj et al. 2009;Gillen
et al. 2012;Little et al. 2011,Richards et al. 2010;Sandvei et al. 2012;
Whyte et al. 2010). Consequently, there has been much less study
of the effects of SIT on more general health measures such as body
composition and (or) cardiovascular disease markers, and there is
a dearth of information available on exercise modes other than
cycling.
Interestingly, some studies have demonstrated that HIT can
improve body composition in both normal-weight (Trapp et al.
2008;Tremblay et al. 1994) and overweight (Gillen et al. 2013;
Heydari et al. 2012;Sijie et al. 2012) participants, although others
found no improvement in normal-weight participants (Nybo
et al. 2010;Tjønna et al. 2013). Two SIT studies demonstrated no
changes in body mass (Burgomaster et al. 2008;Hazell et al. 2010),
and 1 reported no change in skinfold fat measures (Astorino et al.
2011), although these studies took place over only 2 weeks, during
which time changes in body mass or composition would not be
expected. Further, skinfold measures may not be sensitive enough to
detect changes in body composition (Sillanpää et al. 2013). In con-
trast, we have shown that 6 weeks of running SIT reduced fat mass
by 12.4% (MacPherson et al. 2011). This suggests that body mass
(and perhaps skinfold fat) measures are inadequate in assessing
body composition changes and (or) that running SIT is somehow
different from cycling. Further, of 10 participants in our SIT
group, only the men (n= 6) lost body fat (3.3 kg), and they did so in
the absence of changes in dietary intake (MacPherson et al. 2011).
Consequently, sex differences may exist with respect to the effects
of SIT on body fat loss, but the wide range of body fatness and the
small number of women (n= 4) in the SIT group in this study
(MacPherson et al. 2011) may have biased these observations. Of
course, any beneficial changes in body composition with SIT
would enhance its value for many struggling with overweight and
obesity.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to revisit our previous
running SIT work but with a larger and more homogeneous sam-
ple of women to address the potential benefits of running SIT on
body composition, especially relative to any potential sex differ-
ences. We also examined whether running SIT may be an effective
modality for favourably altering cardiovascular disease risk mark-
ers through modulation of the blood lipid profile.
Materials and methods
Twenty healthy, recreationally active women (not currently
participating in a structured exercise training program more than
2 times per week) volunteered for this study (mean ± SD: age,
22.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 163.9 ± 5.1 cm; mass, 60.8 ± 5.2 kg). Prior to
study initiation, the experimental procedures and potential risks
were explained fully, and all participants provided written, in-
formed consent and completed the Physical Activity Readiness
Questionnaire (Thomas et al. 1992). The University of Western
Ontario Ethics Committee for Research on Human Subjects ap-
proved this study.
Study design
Participants completed 6 weeks of running SIT (3 times per
week). Before and after treatment, all underwent a densitometric
body composition test via air displacement (BodPod, COSMED
USA Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA), waist circumference measurement,
V
˙O
2max
test, and fasted blood lipid profile, and completed a 3-day
food record. Post-testing began between 48 and 96 h after the final
training session to eliminate any acute exercise effects and was
completed over a 2-day period.
Familiarization
Prior to baseline testing, participants reported to the laboratory
for an introduction to all testing and training procedures, to min-
imize any potential learning effects.
Baseline tests
Baseline testing was performed over 2 days and was completed
at least 48 h before the start of any training. The participants had
refrained from alcohol, caffeine, and physical exercise during the
previous 12 h.
Blood lipid profile
Venous blood samples were obtained between 0700 and 1100 h,
after a 12-h overnight fast. Time of day was replicated as closely as
possible following treatment. Blood samples were drawn from a
vein in the antecubital region into an 8.5-mL serum-separating
tube plus blood collection tube (BD Vacutainer, Becton, Dickinson
and Company, Franklin Lakes, N.J., USA). The samples were placed
in ice for 20–30 min and then centrifuged for 15 min at 3500 r/min
(2000g) at 4 °C (Allegra 21R, Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, Calif.,
USA). Subsequently, the serum was aliquoted into 2-mL tubes and
frozen at −20 °C until analysis for high-density lipoprotein (HDL),
triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein
(LDL) content was calculated by subtracting HDL from total cho-
lesterol (Friedewald et al. 1972). The total cholesterol/HDL ratio
and the TG/HDL ratio were calculated.
At the start of the study, participants (n= 15) were asked to
identify which phase of the menstrual cycle they were in (12 in
follicular and 3 in luteal) and whether or not they were using oral
contraceptives (7 were using and 8 were not) because both these
factors are known to affect blood lipid values (Berenson et al.
2009;Woods et al. 1987). This information was used in the analysis
to help determine if any changes in the blood lipid profile were
caused by the treatment, oral contraceptive use, or menstrual
cycle phase.
Body composition
Body composition (lean mass and fat mass) was determined by
whole-body densitometry using air displacement (Noreen and
Lemon 2006) via the BodPod. Testing was done in accordance with
the manufacturer’s instructions as detailed in the manual. Briefly,
participants wore approved clothing (i.e., tight swimsuit or com-
pression shorts, a Lycra cap, and a sports bra). Thoracic gas volume
was estimated for all subjects using the predictive equation inte-
gral to the BodPod software (McCrory et al. 1998;Weyers et al.
2002), and the measured body density was used in the Siri equa-
tion to estimate body composition (Siri 1961).
Waist circumference
Waist circumference was measured with a tape measure (Myo-
tape
,
Accu-Measure, LLC, Greenwood Village, Colo., USA) directly
against the skin above the superior border of the iliac crest (Mason
and Katzmarzyk 2009;Wang et al. 2003). Participants were in-
structed to breathe normally and to relax their arms at their sides.
Duplicate measurements (to the nearest 0.5 cm) were taken by a
single technician at the end of normal expiration, following a
12-h overnight fast, and the average was recorded.
V
˙O
2max
test
Participants performed a 5-min warm-up on the treadmill
(Desmo Pro, Woodway USA, Waukesha, Wis., USA) at 8 km/h
(5 miles per hour). Following the warm-up, a Hans Rudolph silicon
facemask (8490 Series, Hans Rudolph Inc., Shawnee, Mo., USA)
was positioned over the nose and mouth using strapping around
the head and, after checking for leaks, was connected via a flow
sensor to a breath-by-breath gas analysis system (Vmax Legacy,
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Sensormedics, Yorba Linda, Calif., USA). The system was cali-
brated before testing by using gases of known concentration and
flow using a 3-L syringe. Participants then performed a progres-
sive incremental-speed treadmill test (at 0% grade) to determine
V
˙O
2max
. The speed started at 8.8 km/h (5.5 miles per hour) and
increased 0.8 km/h (0.5 miles per hour) every minute until voli-
tional exhaustion. The duration of the test varied from 6 to 12 min.
Oxygen uptake was measured continuously throughout the test.
Heart rate was monitored and recorded throughout using a Polar
RST200TM heart rate monitor (Polar Electro Inc., Lachine, Que.,
Canada). V
˙O
2max
was taken as the greatest value averaged over a
30-s collection period. All the participants achieved a plateau in
oxygen consumption (V
˙O
2
) (<2 mL/kg increase in V
˙O
2
despite an
increase in workload demanding an increase of 2.5 mL/kg) and at-
tained a maximal HR within 10 beats of the age-predicted maximum.
Nutritional intake
Participants completed a 3-day food record after receiving de-
tailed verbal instructions, written instructions, and recording
sheets. All food, beverage, and supplement intake was recorded as
accurately as possible for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day, and
these records were analyzed for energy, protein, carbohydrate,
and fat content using Food Processor SQL (10.5, Esha Research Inc.,
Salem, Ore., USA).
Exercise training
Training commenced 48 h after the last baseline measure and
consisted of 4 repeated, 30-s running maximal efforts with 4 min
of recovery (active recovery between bouts was encouraged (i.e.,
walking)), 3 times per week. Each sprint was completed on a tread-
mill (Woodway) set in dynamic mode (self-propelled), allowing the
subject to become the power source (i.e., the treadmill was pro-
pelled as fast as the subject ran and slowed as the individual
fatigued, creating a safe environment, unlike a motorized tread-
mill). Training volume increased linearly over the training pro-
gram (4 bouts in weeks 1 and 2, 5 in weeks 3 and 4, and 6 in weeks
5 and 6). The treadmill was interfaced with a computer to allow peak
speed (km/h) and heart rate data collection during each bout using
MED-PRO software (Woodway USA Personal Trainer, version 4.4).
After the completion of each training session, subjects were asked to
give a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on a scale of 1 to 10 (Borg
1982).
Post-training tests
Post-training testing was identical to the baseline testing and
was completed 2–5 days after the final training session. All mea-
sures were made at the same time of day as the pretesting mea-
sures.
Statistical analyses
Statistical analyses were performed using Sigma Stat for Windows
(version 3.5). After testing for normality and variance homogeneity,
paired ttests were used to test significance between pre- and post-
training measures. The significance level was set at P< 0.05. All data
are presented as means ± SD.
Results
Initial recruitment consisted of 20 participants. Five of the
20 SIT participants did not complete the training: 2 withdrew
because of unrelated illness and 1 because of the time commit-
ment, and 2 became injured during the study (1 of the participants
injured her knee playing volleyball, and the other reported severe
lower back pain caused by scoliosis that may have been aggra-
vated by the sprinting). Consequently, 15 SIT participants finished
the training and completed all testing sessions.
Dietary intake
There were no pre-to post-training differences in total energy
intake (1931 ± 485 to 1903 ± 216 kcal/day or 8084 ± 2032 to 7966 ±
905 kJ/day, P= 0.791), carbohydrate intake (254 ± 61 to 265 ±
38 g/day, P= 0.355), fat intake (62 ± 24 to 58 ± 16 g/day, P= 0.623),
or protein intake (80 ± 20.8 to 84 ± 21 g/day, P= 0.329).
Body composition
Six weeks of running SIT decreased body mass from 60.8 ± 5.2 to
60.3 ± 4.8 kg (P= 0.048) (Fig. 1a), fat mass from 15.1 ± 3.6 to 13.9 ±
3.4 kg (P= 0.002) (Fig. 1c), body fat percentage from 24.7 ± 4.9 to
23.0 ± 4.6% (P= 0.003) (Fig. 1c), and waist circumference from 80.1 ±
Fig. 1. Body composition changes over 6 weeks (pre- and post-SIT measurements). (a) Total body mass. (b) Fat-free mass. (c) Fat mass and body
fat %. (d) Waist circumference. *, Significant difference (P< 0.05).
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4.2 to 77.3 ± 4.4 cm (P< 0.001) (Fig. 1d), whereas it increased fat-free
mass from 45.7 ± 3.5 to 46.3 ± 2.9 kg (P= 0.050) (Fig. 1b).
V
˙O
2max,
peak running speed, and RPE
SIT increased V
˙O
2max
by 8.7% (46±5to50±6mL/(kg·min),
P= 0.004). Peak running speed, achieved during the first 30-s bout
of the last session, increased by 3.8% or 0.64 km/h (P= 0.026) with
training compared with the first 30-s bout of the first session.
There was no significant difference (P= 0.302) in RPE between the
first and last training session or among any of the training ses-
sions, and the average RPE over the entire training study was
9.06 ± 0.17 (10-point scale).
Blood lipid panel profile
Training had no effect on the concentrations of total choles-
terol (P= 0.571), TG (P= 0.464), or LDL (P= 0.595), the TG/HDL ratio
(P= 0.086), or the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (P= 0.112) (Table 1).
Running SIT decreased HDL slightly, from 1.34 ± 0.28 to 1.24 ±
0.24 mmol/L (P= 0.034).
Discussion
This study demonstrated that 6 weeks of running SIT improved
body composition, aerobic capacity, and peak running speed in
healthy young women without changes in dietary intake. Specif-
ically, running SIT induced an 8.0% fat loss (−1.2 kg), a 3.5% reduc-
tion in waist circumference (−2.8 cm), a 1.3% increase in fat-free
mass (+0.6 kg), an 8.7% increase in V
˙O
2max
(+4 mL/(kg·min)), and a
4.3% increase in peak running speed (+0.64 km/h), all significant
changes. These observations are novel because they indicate that
running SIT produces aerobic and anaerobic benefits similar to
those of cycle SIT and that these effects are not sex specific. How-
ever, our previous 3.3-kg fat loss in men using the same training
program (MacPherson et al. 2011) appears to be greater than the
1.2 kg observed here, even considering the obvious differences in
body mass, so more study regarding potential sex effects is
needed. Although these results differ from those of several previ-
ous cycling SIT studies, those studies were either of insufficient
duration to cause changes (Astorino et al. 2011,Hazell et al. 2010)
and (or) did not assess body composition (Burgomaster et al. 2008).
Future research is warranted to determine if 6 weeks of cycling
SIT results in an improvement in body composition similar to that
produced by the running SIT used here.
Previous studies using less intense forms of HIT but over longer
training periods have reported similar fat losses in inactive young
women (Trapp et al. 2008), overweight women (Gillen et al. 2013;
Sijie et al. 2012), overweight men (Heydari et al. 2012), and a mixed
sample of men and women (Tremblay et al. 1994). Apparently,
some of the observed reduction in fat mass with running SIT was
from the abdominal area as reflected by a decrease in waist cir-
cumference (−2.8 cm or 3.5%), and this is particularly important
because of the inverse relationship between abdominal fat and
health (Canoy 2008). Interestingly, this absolute fat loss was sim-
ilar to that achieved with 2 weeks of SIT (Whyte et al. 2010) or less
intense HIT (Leggate et al. 2012) in obese men. Further, other HIT
results have demonstrated decreases in trunk fat in inactive
women (Trapp et al. 2008), although the mechanism related to the
decrease in visceral adiposity remains to be clarified. Possible sex
differences in insulin sensitivity with SIT may be involved
(Metcalfe et al. 2012). From all these data, we conclude that SIT can
induce significant body fat loss in women and that the absence of
fat loss observed in the women in our previous study was likely
caused by the small sample size (n= 4).
As with our previous studies in men, the running SIT body fat
loss in these women is impressive, especially considering the
training consisted of only 6–9 min per week (45 min over the
entire 6-week study). As alluded to previously, the mechanisms for
fat loss with SIT are not well understood, but HIT increases plasma
glycerol concentration both acutely (McCartney et al. 1986) and
chronically (Trapp et al. 2008), suggesting that lipids may serve as
an important energy source both during and following this type of
exercise. Further, HIT improves lipid transport into skeletal mus-
cle and increases the enzyme activity related to aerobic energy
production (Burgomaster et al. 2008;Parra et al. 2000,Perry et al.
2008;Rodas et al. 2000;Talanian et al. 2007;Tremblay et al. 1994).
Prolonged increased postexercise metabolism may also contrib-
ute (Chan and Burns 2013;Hazell et al. 2012), although this is
controversial because others have not observed an increase (Kelly
et al. 2013;Williams et al. 2013). Our recent 24-h data indicate that
although continuous exercise (30 min at 70% V
˙O
2max
) results in a
much greater exercise V
˙O
2
compared with SIT, there is a consis-
tent and prolonged increase in V
˙O
2
over the remainder of the day
with SIT, resulting in similar 24-h total energy expenditures for
both exercise types (Hazell et al. 2012). Therefore, although the
amount of energy used during a SIT exercise bout is small, the
increased energy expenditure over the remainder of the day is
sufficient to result in fat loss over 6 weeks of SIT.
Our dietary intake records indicate no pre- to post-treatment
change in overall energy, protein, fat, and (or) carbohydrate in-
take, so it appears that the observed fat losses were not caused by
obvious decreases in energy or macronutrient intake, although
food record data can be inaccurate (Yang et al. 2010). Recent HIT
studies suggest that appetite suppression may be involved (Boutcher
2011;Sim et al. 2013;Williams et al. 2013), so more detailed assess-
ments of the effects of SIT on food intake (especially on exercising
days) are needed before a definite conclusion on its effects on appe-
tite can be drawn. Regardless, it is reasonable to assume that the
combination of a low-energy diet and SIT would promote even
greater fat loss.
The increase in fat-free mass (+0.6 kg) seen in the current study
is similar to that of our previous 6-week SIT study (MacPherson
et al. 2011), indicating that the running sprints on our self-
propelled treadmill generate enough external resistance to stim-
ulate an increase in fat-free mass (likely muscle mass because of
the short duration of the training program). Such results may not
occur with over-the-ground running.
Cycling SIT has been shown to increase V
˙O
2max
in several stud-
ies (Astorino et al. 2011;Burgomaster et al. 2005,2006,2007,2008;
Gibala et al. 2006;Hazell et al. 2010;Howarth et al. 2007;
MacDougall et al. 1998;McKenna et al. 1997;Parra et al. 2000;
Rodas et al. 2000), and our results (+8.7%) are consistent with these
as well as those of our previous running SIT study (MacPherson
et al. 2011). Apparently, these improvements in aerobic power
with SIT are largely the result of increased mitochondrial volume
and content and oxidative enzyme activity (Burgomaster et al.
2005,2006,2007,2008;Gibala et al. 2006;MacDougall et al. 1998)
and are not caused by increases in maximal cardiac output
(MacPherson et al. 2011). However, it has been shown recently
that, in untrained men, 2 weeks of HIT with more bouts (8–12) of
longer duration (60 s) at a lower intensity (95%–100% V
˙O
2max
) in-
creased submaximal exercise cardiac output via increases in
stroke volume and end-diastolic volume (Esfandiari et al. 2014).
Perhaps an exercise duration longer than 30 s is required to stim-
ulate increases in stroke volume. More research varying exercise
duration and intensity is needed to determine the underlying
mechanisms (central vs peripheral) responsible for the adapta-
Table 1. Pre- and post-training blood lipid profiles.
Pretraining Post-training P
HDL (mmol/L) 1.34±0.44 1.23±0.39 0.034*
LDL (mmol/L) 2.48±0.91 2.55±0.85 0.595
TG (mmol/L) 1.11±0.56 1.07±0.48 0.464
CHOL (mmol/L) 4.33±1.39 4.26±1.25 0.571
Note: Data are presented as means ± SD. HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL,
low-density lipoprotein; TG, triglycerides; CHOL, total cholesterol.
*Significant difference (P< 0.05).
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tions observed with this type of training. Moreover, running SIT
increased pre- to post-training peak running speed (+3.8%), consis-
tent with the findings of our previous study (MacPherson et al.
2011). Other cycling SIT investigations have observed increases in
peak power output ranging from 4.2% to 10.6% (Astorino et al.
2011;Burgomaster et al. 2006;Hazell et al. 2010).
Running SIT did not affect TG or LDL but it did result in a very
small decrease in HDL. Although previous research demonstrated
increased HDL in both men and women using either aerobic or
interval exercise (Durstine et al. 1987;Mosher et al. 2005;Musa
et al. 2009;Stasiulis et al. 2010;Thompson et al. 1991), small de-
creases in HDL have been demonstrated in women during weight
loss (Dattilo and Kris-Etherton 1992;Grandjean et al. 1998;
Kraemer et al. 1997;Thompson et al. 1979). Apparently, the nega-
tive energy balance necessary for weight loss produces a decrease
in HDL that returns to pre-weight-loss concentrations after weight
loss ceases and body weight is stabilized. Further, the absence of
an increase in HDL could be because all the participants were
young, active, healthy, and normocholesterolemic; HDL increases
are less likely with greater baseline values (Herd et al. 2000). The
observed absence of a change in LDL in healthy normal-weight
individuals agrees with the results of prior studies (Durstine et al.
2002;Thompson et al. 1997) that found changes in hypercholes-
terolemic individuals only. Our participants had normal choles-
terol concentrations and no reduction in dietary fat intake; thus,
changes were unlikely. Further, no TG changes were found in the
current study, consistent with other SIT work (Whyte et al. 2010),
although aerobic training can decrease TG in normo- and hyper-
triglyceridemic participants (Durstine and Haskell 1994;Stasiulis
et al. 2010). Perhaps blood fat improvements in a young healthy
population should not be expected, and future work should investi-
gate SIT effects in populations with abnormal blood lipid profiles.
Limitations
We did not use a control group in the current study because it is
well known that changes in body mass, body fat %, TC, HDL, LDL,
TG (LeMura et al. 2000;Mosher et al. 2005;Stasiulis et al. 2010), and
(or) exercise capacities (Burgomaster et al. 2005,2006,2008)do
not occur without a treatment. The number of combined control
subjects in these studies was 140. Other confounding factors in-
clude the effects of menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives. As
mentioned, the time of menstrual cycle was recorded but it was
not controlled, and because of the length of the training (6 weeks),
the women were in a different phase of their menstrual cycle for
the pre- and post-training measures and this may have affected
our blood fat results. Twelve women started the study in the fol-
licular phase of their menstrual cycle and 3 started in the luteal
phase. There were no apparent differences with SIT training for
these women. Oral contraceptive use may affect blood fats but
again, there were no differences in this study between the women
taking them (n= 7) and those who did not (n= 8).
Conclusions
Six weeks of running SIT (3 times per week) reduced both body
fat and waist circumference in young women while increasing
fat-free mass, peak running speed, and aerobic fitness. These ad-
aptations were achieved despite a very low volume of total exer-
cise, suggesting that running SIT is an effective and time-efficient
exercise strategy to improve health and fitness in young women.
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... Interval exercise is a time-efficient style of training involving repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of active or passive recovery. Studies have shown that high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can improve cycling performance (Hazell et al., 2010), cardiorespiratory fitness (Hazell et al., 2010;Astorino et al., 2011), and body composition (Hazell et al., 2014). Current terminology defines HIIE as 'near maximal' repeated efforts performed at intensities between 85 and 95% of maximal heart rate and sprint interval exercise (SIE) as efforts performed at maximal or supramaximal intensities (Hazell et al., 2010;Gillen et al., 2014;MacInnis and Gibala, 2017;Wood et al., 2016). ...
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The purpose of this investigation was to compare changes in circulating lymphocyte subset cell counts between high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), sprint interval exercise (SIE), and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). Recreationally active men (n = 11; age: 23 ± 4 yr; height: 179.9 ± 4.5 cm; body mass: 79.8 ± 8.7 kg; body fat %:12.6 ± 3.8%; V̇O2max: 46.6 ± 3.9 ml⋅kg⁻¹⋅min⁻¹) completed a maximal graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and three duration-matched cycling trials (HIIE, SIE, and MICE) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. HIIE consisted of fifteen 90-s bouts at 85% V̇O2max interspersed with 90-s active recovery periods. SIE consisted of fifteen 20-s bouts at 130% maximal power and 160-s active recovery periods. MICE was a continuous bout at 65% V̇O2max. Total exercise duration was 53 min in all three trials, including warm-up and cool-down. Blood was collected before, immediately post, 30 min, 2 h, 6 h, and 24 h post-exercise. Changes in lymphocyte subset counts, and surface expression of various markers were analyzed via flow cytometry. Changes were assessed using mixed model regression analysis with an autoregressive first order repeated measures correction. Significant decreases were observed in absolute counts of CD56dim NK cells, CD19⁺ B cells, CD4⁺ T cells, and CD8⁺ T cells 30 min and 24-h post-exercise in all three trials. Despite resulting in greater total work and oxygen consumption, MICE elicited similar changes in lymphocyte subset counts and receptor expression compared to both SIE and HIIE. Similarly, while the two interval trials resulted in differing oxygen consumption and total work, no differences in the lymphocyte response were observed. Though both forms of exercise resulted in declines in circulating lymphocyte cell counts, neither exercise type provides an immune-related advantage when matched for duration.
... Allison and colleagues [52] found that a low-volume SIT protocol, involving 3 × 20 s stair climbing-based sprints, increased VȮ 2 peak in inactive young women to a comparable extent as that previously observed with 3 × 20 s cycling sprints (~ 12%; [53]) when performed thrice-weekly for 6 weeks. Improved CRF was also observed following 6-12 weeks of running-based SIT, involving 4-10 × 30 s sprints, in recreationally active women [54] and inactive women with overweight/obesity [55], and walking-based HIIT, involving 6 × 1 min efforts at 90% heart rate reserve, in older women (60-85 years) with T2D [56]. However, VȮ 2 peak has been reported to be unchanged following 8-16 weeks of thrice-weekly 6-10 × 1 min low-volume HIIT that used running/walking intervals in women who are older (60-75 years) [57] or with polycystic ovary syndrome [58]. ...
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Interval training is a form of exercise that involves intermittent bouts of relatively intense effort interspersed with periods of rest or lower-intensity exercise for recovery. Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) induce physiological and health-related adaptations comparable to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in healthy adults and those with chronic disease despite a lower time commitment. However, most studies within the field have been conducted in men, with a relatively limited number of studies conducted in women cohorts across the lifespan. This review summarizes our understanding of physiological responses to low-volume interval training in women, including those with overweight/obesity or type 2 diabetes, with a focus on cardiorespiratory fitness, glycemic control, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial content. We also describe emerging evidence demonstrating similarities and differences in the adaptive response between women and men. Collectively, HIIT and SIT have consistently been demonstrated to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in women, and most sex-based comparisons demonstrate similar improvements in men and women. However, research examining insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial responses to HIIT and SIT in women is limited and conflicting, with some evidence of blunted improvements in women relative to men. There is a need for additional research that examines physiological adaptations to low-volume interval training in women across the lifespan, including studies that directly compare responses to MICT, evaluate potential mechanisms, and/or assess the influence of sex on the adaptive response. Future work in this area will strengthen the evidence-base for physical activity recommendations in women.
... Participants were encouraged to perform as many repetitions as possible for each exercise aiming to maintain the exercise intensity at levels higher than 75% of maximal heart rate (MHR). Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceive exertion (RPE) were monitored and recorded with telemetry (Polar Team Solution, Polar Electro-Oy, Kempele, Finland) and the Borg scale (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), respectively. After a 4-week adaptive and familiarization period, training had 3 phases of progressive intensity; i.e., phase 1 (weeks 1-7), phase 2 (weeks [8][9][10][11][12][13][14] and phase 3 (weeks 15-20) (Figure 2). ...
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This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a 5-month high-intensity hybrid type neuromuscular training program with nontraditional implements on cardiometabolic health, redox status, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in inactive overweight and obese women. Forty-nine inactive female participants with overweight and obesity (age: 36.4 ± 4.4 years; BMI: 29.1 ± 2.9 kg/m 2) were randomly assigned to either a control (C, n = 21) or a training group (TR, n = 28). TR followed a 20-week supervised, progressive, time-efficient (3 days/week; 6-15 min net exercise time) program implementing loaded fundamental movement patterns with prescribed work-to-rest time intervals (20-40 s, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1) in a circuit fashion (2-3 rounds). Cardiometabolic risk factors were measured at baseline and post-training as secondary outcomes of a larger randomized controlled trial. At post-intervention, TR demonstrated favorable changes in resting heart rate (−7%, p = 0.043), high-density lipoprotein (+18.1%, p = 0.029), atherogenic index (−17%, p = 0.045), mean arterial pressure (−4.5%, p = 0.03), waist circumference (−6.2%, p = 0.005), waist-to-hip ratio (−4.6%; p = 0.015), metabolic syndrome severity score (−222%, p = 0.024), full 30-year CVD risk (−15.8%, p = 0.002) and hard 30-year CVD risk (−17.6%, p = 0.01), vascular age (−7.8%, p = 0.002), protein carbonyls (−45.7%, p = 0.001), catalase activity (+15.2%, p = 0.023), and total antioxidant capacity (+11.4%, p = 0.002) relative to C. Additionally, TR induced beneficial changes in fasting glucose (−3.4%, p = 0.002), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (−15.7%, p < 0.001), di-astolic blood pressure (−5.6%, p < 0.001), reduced glutathione (+39.8%, p < 0.001), 10-year CVD risk (−17.4%, p = 0.011), and total bilirubin (−21.7%, p < 0.001) compared to baseline. These results suggest that hybrid-type neuromuscular training may improve aspects of cardiometabolic health and anti-oxidant status in inactive overweight and obese women providing a time-efficient (∼100 min/week) exercise approach in a real-world gym setting.
... Participants visited the laboratory on two separate occasions prior to any experiments for familiarization sessions. During the initial visit, body composition (Bod Pod V R , COSMED, Concord, CA), _ VO 2 max (running treadmill test), 18 and maximal sprinting speed (treadmill test) were determined. At least 48 h following the first visit, participants returned and were familiarized with the cognitive tests and the high intensity intermittent running protocol to be used to simulate the soccer match in order to eliminate potential learning effects during the experimental trials. ...
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Often cognitive function is affected adversely during prolonged, high intensity exercise. We assessed whether hydrothermally modified corn starch (HMS) ingestion minimizes cognitive decline with soccer play. 11 men (177.7 ± 6.8 cm, 77.3 ± 7.9 kg, 22 ± 3 y, 12.8 ± 4.9% body fat, [Formula: see text]O 2 max = 57.1 ± 3.9 ml•kg BM ⁻¹ •min ⁻¹ ; mean ± SD) completed 60 min simulated soccer matches with HMS (8% CHO; 0.7 g•kg BM ⁻¹ •h ⁻¹ ; 2.8 kcal·kg BM ⁻¹ •h ⁻¹ ) vs isoenergetic dextrose (DEX) consumed 30 min prior to the match and at half time. Compared to DEX, blood glucose was lower (p < 0.001) with HMS at 15 (5.3 ± 0.6 vs 7.7 ± 1.4 mmol•L ⁻¹ ) and 30 min post ingestion (5.6 ± 0.6 vs 8.3 ± 1.0 mmol•L ⁻¹ ), and greater (p = 0.004) after 15 min of play (5.8 ± 0.5 vs 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol•L ⁻¹ ). With HMS, perceived exertion ratings were reduced throughout the match (p = 0.025 at 15 min). Flanker test incongruent trial reaction time (p = 0.040) and conflict cost (p = 0.019) were both better with HMS. These data suggest that HMS ingestion minimizes cognitive decline during soccer play. More study is warranted to elucidate fully the cognition benefits of HMS ingestion for sport performance.
... The duration can be from 10 s to 6 min and is performed with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:1-3:1 [9]. In this sense, HIIT has been shown to be a time-efficient strategy to promote a number of beneficial physiological adaptations, including enhanced maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) [10,11], increased fat oxidation [12,13], improved exercise capacity [11], increased insulin sensitivity [14], and improvements in body composition [15] in adult women. ...
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Nutritional strategies may have an effect on body composition and physical performance. Intermittent fasting (IF) is an eating pattern that cycles between periods of eating and fasting in specified time periods. Moreover, it is a common strategy among members of the athlete population that are looking for weight loss. However, this strategy may negatively affect physical performance, as compared to other weight loss strategies. The main purpose of this research was to use a cross-over design to study the effects of HIIT, with or without intermittent fasting, on muscular and anaerobic performance in 14 active women (27 ± 6 y). To assess performance, body composition (anthropometry), hand-grip strength, and counter-movement jump (CMJ) height was measured, and a 30 s Wingate test was completed assessed. HIIT + IF reduced fat mass (1 kg, p < 0.05, d = 1.1; 1.5%, p < 0.01, d = 1.0) and increased CMJ height (6.2 cm, p < 0.001, d = 1.8). In addition, the change in CMJ height in HIIT + IF was higher over HIIT (5.2 cm, p < 0.001, d = 1.9). In conclusion, intermittent fasting could be a nutritional strategy to decrease fat mass and increase jumping performance. However, longer duration programs would be necessary to determine whether other parameters of muscle performance could be positively affected by IF.
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Monografia jest odpowiedzią na pilną i ważną potrzebę prowadzenia interdyscyplinarnych badań oraz popularyzacji wiedzy w obszarze zintegrowanej problematyki prozdrowotnej aktywności fizycznej (AF). Stanowi efekt prac badawczych prowadzonych i nadzorowanych głównie przez pracowników Katedry Turystyki i Prozdrowotnej Aktywności Fizycznej Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego im. Jerzego Kukuczki w Katowicach (AWF) we współpracy ze studentami i absolwentami kierunków przygotowujących do pełnienia roli promotorów aktywnego stylu życia. Motywem powstania monografii było, nie tylko przedstawienie wybranych zagadnień z zakresu prozdrowotnej AF, ale i aktywizacja studentów AWF w do podejmowania działalności naukowej związanej z tą tematyką. Zebrany zbiór prac empirycznych zamieszczonych w monografii dostarcza nowych i interesujących informacji w obszarze problematyki prozdrowotnej AF w aspekcie promocji zdrowia, jak również zarysowuje aspekty stanowiące implikacje do dalszych badań w tym zakresie.
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We aimed to examine speed of movement and its interactive association with fatness to changes in cardiometabolic risk factors over one year in children. The analysis included 8345 children aged 6–13 years. Cardiometabolic risk score was computed by summing Z-scores of waist circumference, the average of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (multiplied by −1), and triglycerides. Both high baseline and improvement in speed of movement were associated with favourable changes in percent body fat, lipids, and cardiometabolic risk score. Percentages of the association between baseline speed of movement and changes in cardiometabolic risk score, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol explained by baseline BMI were 24.6% (19.6–29.1%), 26.2% (19.7–31.1%), and 12.5% (9.6–15.4%), respectively. The corresponding number for percent body fat was 47.0% (40.4–54.1%), 43.3% (36.7–51.7%), and 29.8% (25.0–34.6%), respectively. Speed of movement mediated the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk factors. Improved speed of movement was associated with a lower increase in blood pressure in obese children only. Speed of movement is a strong predictor of changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Fatness and speed of movement are interactively associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Speed of movement may attenuate the positive association between fatness and blood pressure.
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The aim of this study is to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training applied in different forms on aerobic and anaerobic performances in combat sports. 31 male amateur combat athletes (karate 6, taekwondo 7, kickboxing 7, judo 6, wrestling 5) voluntarily took part in this study. Combat athletes participating in the study were randomly divided into 3 groups as Tabata (n=11), Running (n=10), and Control (n=10). All subjects applied to the training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Combat athletes in the Tabata group performed an exercise series consisting of burpees, mountain climbers, jumping jacks and squats for each unit of training, with the principle of 20x10 second as 2 repetition. The first week of this study programme was determined as 4 sets for unit training, the second week 5, the third week 6, and the fourth week 7 sets, and a 2-minute rest period was given between sets. Combat athletes in the Running group performed their best run for 30 seconds on a 150-meter flat surface with a change of direction. This program consisted of 4 repetitions in first week, 6 in second week, 8 in third week and 10 in fourth week, with a rest period of 4 minutes between each run. Combat athletes in the control group only participated in their branch training. Before the study, after the 2nd and 4th weeks, the 20m shuttle run test was applied to determine the aerobic capacity, and the Wingate anaerobic power test was applied to determine the anaerobic capacity. Descriptive statistics method was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation of all data. (Anova) post-hoc Tukey Test was used to determine between group differences. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to compare intra-groups results from pre, secondary and post measurements. İn the secondary tests, when the differences between the groups were examined, it was determined that there was a statistically significant increase in favor of the tabata group between the tabata and control groups in the MaxVO² values. In the MaxVO² values, when the post-test data were examined, a significant difference was found in favor of both the Tabata and the Running group compared to the control group. When the secondary and post-test values were examined in the peak power and mean power values, a statistically significant difference was found only between the tabata and control groups in favor of the tabata group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the minimum power values. As a result, when considering the evaluations between and within groups, it can be said that tabata and based on running high intensity interval training methods can be effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic performance in a short time in combat sports athletes.
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Background: High-intensity training is comprised of sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study compared high-intensity training with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat percentage for overweight or obese persons. Methods: A systematic search of randomized controlled trials using the health science databases occurred up to April, 2020. Twenty-six studies were included for complete analysis. A total of 784 participations were analyzed. The unstandardized mean difference for each outcome measurement was extracted from the studies and pooled with the random effects model. Results: MICT was significantly better at improving CRF compared with SIT (mean difference = -0.92; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.21; P = .01; I2 = 10%). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between MICT versus HIIT on CRF (mean difference = -0.52; 95% confidence interval, -1.18 to 0.13; P = .12; I2 = 23%). There was no significant difference in body fat percentage between MICT versus HIIT and MICT versus SIT. Conclusions: MICT was significantly better at improving CRF than SIT in overweight or obese persons.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of endurance exercise (END; 65% V̇O2peak for 60 min) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIE; four 30 s Wingates separated by 4.5 min of active rest) on cardiorespiratory, hormonal, and subjective appetite measures that may account for the previously reported superior fat loss with low volume HIE compared with END. Recreationally active males (n = 18) completed END, HIE, and control (CON) protocols. On each test day, cardiorespiratory measures including oxygen uptake (V̇O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were recorded and blood samples were obtained at baseline (BSL), 60 min after exercise, and 180 min after exercise (equivalent times for CON). Subjective measures of appetite (hunger, fullness, nausea, and prospective consumption) were assessed using visual analogue scales, administered at BSL, 0, 60, 120, and 180 min after exercise. No significant differences in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were observed between conditions. RER was significantly (P < 0.05) depressed in HIE compared with CON at 60 min after exercise, yet estimates of total fat oxidation over CON were not different between HIE and END. No differences in plasma adiponectin concentrations between protocols or time points were present. Epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated immediately after exercise in HIE compared with CON. Several subjective measures of appetite were significantly (P < 0.05) depressed immediately following HIE. Our data indicate that increases in EPOC or fat oxidation following HIE appear unlikely to contribute to the reported superior fat loss compared with END.
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Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases.
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Kraemer, William J., Jeff S. Volek, Kristine L. Clark, Scott E. Gordon, Thomas Incledon, Susan M. Puhl, N. Travis Triplett-McBride, Jeffrey M. McBride, Margot Putukian, and Wayne J. Sebastianelli.Physiological adaptations to a weight-loss dietary regimen and exercise programs in women. J. Appl. Physiol. 83(1): 270–279, 1997.—Thirty-one women (mean age 35.4 ± 8.5 yr) who were overweight were matched and randomly placed into either a control group (Con; n = 6), a diet-only group (D; n = 8), a diet+aerobic endurance exercise training group (DE; n = 9), or a diet+aerobic endurance exercise training+strength training group (DES; n = 8). After 12 wk, the three dietary groups demonstrated a significant ( P ≤ 0.05) reduction in body mass, %body fat, and fat mass. No differences were observed in the magnitude of loss among groups, in fat-free mass, or in resting metabolic rate. The DE and DES groups increased maximal oxygen consumption, and the DES group demonstrated increases in maximal strength. Weight loss resulted in a similar reduction in total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among dietary groups. These data indicate that weight loss during moderate caloric restriction is not altered by inclusion of aerobic or aerobic+resistance exercise, but diet in conjunction with training can induce remarkable adaptations in aerobic capacity and muscular strength despite significant reductions in body mass.
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This study examined the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on cardiac function in young, healthy men. Sixteen previously untrained men (mean age of 25.1 ± 4.1 years) were randomly assigned to HIT and CMT (n = 8 each) and assessed before and after six sessions over a 12-day training period. HIT consisted of 8-12 intervals of cycling for 60 s at 95-100 % of pre-training maximal aerobic power ([Formula: see text]O2max), interspersed by 75 s of cycling at 10 % [Formula: see text]O2max. CMT involved 90-120 min of cycling at 65 % pre-training [Formula: see text]O2max. Left ventricular (LV) function was determined at rest and during submaximal exercise (heart rate ~105 bpm) using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Training resulted in increased calculated plasma volume (PV) in both groups, accompanied by improved [Formula: see text]O2max in HIT (HIT: from 39.5 ± 7.1 to 43.9 ± 5.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1); CMT: from 39.9 ± 5.9 to 41.7 ± 5.3 mL kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.001). Resting LV function was not altered. However, increased exercise stroke volume (P = 0.02) and cardiac output (P = 0.02) were observed, secondary to increases in end-diastolic volume (P < 0.001). Numerous Doppler and speckle tracking indices of diastolic function were similarly enhanced during exercise in both training groups and were related to changes in PV. Short-term HIT and CMT elicit rapid improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max and LV filling without global changes in cardiac performance at rest.