Langham MC, Magland JF, Epstein CL, Floyd TF, Wehrli FWAccuracy and precision of MR blood oximetry based on the long paramagnetic cylinder approximation of large vessels. Magn Reson Med 62:333-340

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.57). 08/2009; 62(2):333-40. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.21981
Source: PubMed


An accurate noninvasive method to measure the hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%HbO(2)) of deep-lying vessels without catheterization would have many clinical applications. Quantitative MRI may be the only imaging modality that can address this difficult and important problem. MR susceptometry-based oximetry for measuring blood oxygen saturation in large vessels models the vessel as a long paramagnetic cylinder immersed in an external field. The intravascular magnetic susceptibility relative to surrounding muscle tissue is a function of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) and can be quantified with a field-mapping pulse sequence. In this work, the method's accuracy and precision was investigated theoretically on the basis of an analytical expression for the arbitrarily oriented cylinder, as well as experimentally in phantoms and in vivo in the femoral artery and vein at 3T field strength. Errors resulting from vessel tilt, noncircularity of vessel cross-section, and induced magnetic field gradients were evaluated and methods for correction were designed and implemented. Hemoglobin saturation was measured at successive vessel segments, differing in geometry, such as eccentricity and vessel tilt, but constant blood oxygen saturation levels, as a means to evaluate measurement consistency. The average standard error and coefficient of variation of measurements in phantoms were <2% with tilt correction alone, in agreement with theory, suggesting that high accuracy and reproducibility can be achieved while ignoring noncircularity for tilt angles up to about 30 degrees . In vivo, repeated measurements of %HbO(2) in the femoral vessels yielded a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. In conclusion, the data suggest that %HbO(2) can be measured reproducibly in vivo in large vessels of the peripheral circulation on the basis of the paramagnetic cylinder approximation of the incremental field.

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Available from: Felix W Wehrli, Jan 09, 2015
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    • "MR susceptometry-based oximetry is a recently developed method for quantifying SvO2, measured in units of percent-oxygenated hemoglobin (%HbO2) [10,24,33,34]. Because deoxyhemoglobin is paramagnetic, a magnetic susceptibility difference exists between deoxygenated blood and oxygenated blood or tissue. "
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    ABSTRACT: The function of the peripheral microvascular may be interrogated by measuring perfusion, tissue oxygen concentration, or venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) recovery dynamics following induced ischemia. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a magnetic resonance (MR) technique for simultaneous measurement of perfusion, SvO2, and skeletal muscle T2*. Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation, and T2* (PIVOT) is comprised of interleaved pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) and multi-echo gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences. During the PASL post-labeling delay, images are acquired with a multi-echo GRE to quantify SvO2 and T2* at a downstream slice location. Thus time-courses of perfusion, SvO2, and T2* are quantified simultaneously within a single scan. The new sequence was compared to separately measured PASL or multi-echo GRE data during reactive hyperemia in five young healthy subjects. To explore the impairment present in peripheral artery disease patients, five patients were evaluated with PIVOT. Comparison of PIVOT-derived data to the standard techniques shows that there was no significant bias in any of the time-course-derived metrics. Preliminary data show that PAD patients exhibited alterations in perfusion, SvO2, and T2* time-courses compared to young healthy subjects. Simultaneous quantification of perfusion, SvO2, and T2* is possible with PIVOT. Kinetics of perfusion, SvO2, and T2* during reactive hyperemia may help to provide insight into the function of the peripheral microvasculature in patients with PAD.
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    • "Functional magnetic resonance imaging offers multiparametric and noninvasive measurements of blood flow, and relative changes in blood oxygenation, blood volume, and oxygen metabolism (Davis et al, 1998; Mandeville et al, 1998) without depth limitations . However, it is still challenging to isolate pure hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) changes without administration of exogenous contrast agents, especially when measuring a transient functional hemodynamic response in single cerebral vessels (Langham et al, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate vascular function in the lower extremities by making direct time-course measurement of oxygen saturation in the femoral/popliteal arteries and veins during cuff-induced reactive hyperemia with magnetic resonance imaging-based oximetry. Magnetic resonance imaging-based oximetry is a new calibration-free technique taking advantage of the paramagnetic nature of blood that depends on the volume fraction of deoxyhemoglobin in red blood cells. We compared post-occlusive blood oxygenation time-course of femoral/popliteal vessels in: 1) young healthy subjects (YH) (n = 10; mean ankle-brachial index [ABI] 1.0 +/- 0.1, mean age 30 +/- 7 years); 2) peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients (n = 12; mean ABI 0.6 +/- 0.1, mean age 71 +/- 9 years); and 3) age-matched healthy control subjects (AHC) (n = 8; mean ABI 1.1 +/- 0.1, mean age 68 +/- 9 years). Blood oxygenation was quantified at 3.0-T field strength with a field mapping pulse sequence yielding the magnetic susceptibility difference between blood in the vessels and surrounding muscle tissue from which the intravascular blood oxygen saturation is computed as %HbO(2). Significantly longer washout time (42 +/- 16 s vs. 14 +/- 4 s; p < 0.0001) and lower upslope (0.60 +/- 0.20 %HbO(2)/s vs. 1.32 +/- 0.41 %HbO(2)/s; p = 0.0008) were observed for PAD patients compared with healthy subjects (YH and AHC combined). Furthermore, greater overshoot was observed in YH than in AHC (21 +/- 8 %HbO(2) vs. 10 +/- 5 %HbO(2); p = 0.0116). Post-occlusive transient changes in venous blood oxygenation might provide a new measure of vascular competence, which was found to be reduced in subjects with abnormal ABI, manifesting in prolonged recovery during the early phase of hyperemia.
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