Evaluation of AAP Guidelines for Cholesterol Screening in Youth. Project HeartBeat!

Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6431 Fannin, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 08/2009; 37(1 Suppl):S71-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.04.008
Source: PubMed


The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) criterion for screening for hypercholesterolemia in children is family history of hypercholesterolemia or cardiovascular disease or BMI > or =85th percentile. This paper aims to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of dyslipidemia screening using AAP criteria along with either family history or BMI.
Height, weight, plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and family history were obtained for 678 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years, enrolled from 1991 to 1993 in Project HeartBeat!. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV screening of each lipid component using family history alone, BMI > or =85th percentile alone, or family history and/or BMI > or =85th percentile, were calculated using 2008 AAP criteria (total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides > or =90th percentile; HDL-C <10th percentile).
Sensitivity of detecting abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides using family history alone ranged from 38% to 43% and significantly increased to 54%-66% using family history and/or BMI. Specificity significantly decreased from approximately 65% to 52%, and there were no notable changes in PPV. In black children, cholesterol screening using the BMI > or =85th percentile criterion had higher sensitivity than when using the family history criterion. In nonblacks, family history and/or BMI > or =85th percentile had greater sensitivity than family history alone.
When the BMI screening criterion was used along with the family history criterion, sensitivity increased, specificity decreased, and PPV changed trivially for detection of dyslipidemia. Despite increased screening sensitivity by adding the BMI criterion, a clinically significant number of children still may be misclassified.

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    ABSTRACT: Major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors begin development in childhood and adolescence. Project HeartBeat! studied early development of these risk factors as growth processes. Growth, body composition, sexual maturation, major CVD risk factors, and cardiac structure and function were monitored every 4 months for up to 4 years among 678 children and adolescents (49.1% girls; 20.1% blacks) aged 8, 11, or 14 years at study entry. All resided in The Woodlands or Conroe TX. Interviews were conducted at entry and annually on diet, physical activity, and health history of participants and their families. Data were collected from 1991 to 1995, and study investigators continue data analysis and reporting. Overlap in ages at examination among three cohorts (aged 8-12, 11-15, and 14-18 years at baseline) and use of multilevel modeling methods permit analysis of some 5500 observations on each principal variable for the synthetic cohort from ages 8 to 18 years. The mixed-longitudinal design provides trajectories of change with age, for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; systolic, and fourth-phase and fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass. These trajectories are then related to concurrent measures of multiple indices of body composition and sexual maturation and adjusted for energy intake and physical activity. The data provide valuable insights into risk factor development and suggest a fresh approach to understanding influences on blood lipids, blood pressure, and left ventricular mass during the period of childhood and adolescence, a period of dynamic change in these risk factors.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · American journal of preventive medicine
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