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It's the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships

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Abstract

Gratitude and indebtedness are differently valenced emotional responses to benefits provided, which have implications for interpersonal processes. Drawing on a social functional model of emotions, we tested the roles of gratitude and indebtedness in romantic relationships with a daily-experience sampling of both members of cohabiting couples. As hypothesized, the receipt of thoughtful benefits predicted both gratitude and indebtedness. Men had more mixed emotional responses to benefit receipt than women. However, for both men and women, gratitude from interactions predicted increases in relationship connection and satisfaction the following day, for both recipient and benefactor. Although indebtedness may maintain external signals of relationship engagement, gratitude had uniquely predictive power in relationship promotion, perhaps acting as a booster shot for the relationship.

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... When someone receives a benefit they may feel gratitude ('how nice of her'), resentment ('what does he want in return?'), misunderstood ('why would she think I would like that') or indebted ('now I have to find a way to repay them') (Algoe, Gable, & Maisel, 2010). Research shows that people are likely to feel grateful when they perceive that the benefactor is being responsive to their needs (Gordon et al., 2012). ...
... Gratitude is thought to help us to 1) find, 2) remind and 3) bind us to other people (Algoe et al., 2010). 1) Find: when people feel grateful towards others they are more inclined to like them and consider investing in a relationship with them (Algoe, Haidt, & Gable, 2008). ...
... Remind: experiencing gratitude in existing relationships involves assessing the state of the relationship and recognizing the value of the person and the bond. 3) Bind: this results in the person feeling that the relationship is worth further investing in (Algoe et al., 2010). This assessment increases optimism for the future of the relationship. ...
Article
The capacity to cultivate flourishing relationships has important implications for health and well-being (Reis & Gable, 2003). There is increasingly a focus in positive psychology, and related fields, on identifying the positive processes and skills that can be employed to foster warm, momentary connections with others, as well as long-lasting, life-enhancing social bonds. At the basis of many of these skills is a requirement to cultivate an interest and concern for others; an orientation towards supporting and promoting other people’s well-being. This orientation towards others has the potential to positively impact well-being beyond the participants in the interaction. The benefits of positive social connections have been found to ripple out to other people in the network (Fowler & Christakis, 2009). Therefore the potential positive impacts of developing and cultivating positive relationships are substantial and wide-reaching.
... Gratitude, Family Function, Peer Support, and Meaning of Life According to find, remind, and bind theory (Algoe, 2012), gratitude, as a positive emotion, "updates our view of benefactorspecifically, finding new or reminding of current high-quality relationship partners, and helps to bind the people in the relationship more closely together." Studies showed (Algoe et al., 2010) that gratitude promotes relationship-maintenance and relationship-strengthening behaviors across various types of relationships. Individuals with more gratitude feel closer to family members and peers (Algoe et al., 2010), meanwhile report more satisfaction with their relationships and engaging in more relationship-maintenance behaviors, such as trying to resolve conflict and expressing appreciation to each other (Kubacka et al., 2011). ...
... Studies showed (Algoe et al., 2010) that gratitude promotes relationship-maintenance and relationship-strengthening behaviors across various types of relationships. Individuals with more gratitude feel closer to family members and peers (Algoe et al., 2010), meanwhile report more satisfaction with their relationships and engaging in more relationship-maintenance behaviors, such as trying to resolve conflict and expressing appreciation to each other (Kubacka et al., 2011). Moreover, gratitude has three morally relevant functions, namely, moral barometer function, moral motive function, and moral reinforcer function, which can strengthen their family and peer relationships (McCullough et al., 2001). ...
... Second, gratitude affects the meaning of life through peer relationships. Many studies provide evidence to support the central role of gratitude in promoting and maintaining high-quality relationships (Algoe et al., 2010;Kubacka et al., 2011). This study expands on these findings by depicting the path from gratitude to meaning of life through family function and peer relationships. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to explore the influence of gratitude on the meaning of life of college students and the mediating effect of family function and peer relationships. Methods: A total of 1,049 college students (mean age: 18.59 ± 0.96 years) were investigated by gratitude scale, family function scale, peer relationship questionnaire, and meaning of life scale. Results: (1) Gratitude was positively correlated with meaning existence ( r = 0.39, P < 0.05), meaning seeking ( r = 0.23, P < 0.05), and peer relationship ( r = 0.32, P < 0.05); meanwhile, it is also positively correlated with family function ( r = 0.34, P < 0.05); (2) family function partially mediates the relationship between gratitude and meaning of life. Similarly, peer relationship partially mediates the relationship between gratitude and meaning of life. Conclusion: The mediating model showed that grateful individuals can better sense the meaning of life by perceiving good family function and good peer relationships.
... This effect also occurred when study participants were asked to imagine that a friend had helped them or when they were asked to recall such a past experience (Tsang, 2007). In the context of couple relationships, positive interactions within couples were associated with feelings of gratitude for both recipients and benefactors in a 14-day daily diary study (Algoe et al., 2010). ...
... care ("cared for"), which weakened the negative links of insecure attachment (e.g., attachment avoidance) with both commitment and relationship satisfaction (Park et al., 2019). People who feel more gratitude also feel more connectedness, satisfaction, and commitment in their relationship (Algoe et al., 2010;Gordon et al., 2011Gordon et al., , 2012. In a 14-day daily diary study, people feeling gratitude one day felt more connection and greater satisfaction with their relationships the next day (Algoe et al., 2010). ...
... People who feel more gratitude also feel more connectedness, satisfaction, and commitment in their relationship (Algoe et al., 2010;Gordon et al., 2011Gordon et al., , 2012. In a 14-day daily diary study, people feeling gratitude one day felt more connection and greater satisfaction with their relationships the next day (Algoe et al., 2010). Furthermore, perceived positive interaction (e.g., responsiveness) increased feelings of gratitude and further increased relationship maintenance behaviors (Kubacka et al., 2011). ...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced stress and anxiety. According to past studies, positive support within married couples reduces stress during diseases and disasters, but their mechanisms are unclear. To address this gap and help individuals better cope with COVID-19-related psychological distress, this study examined the relationships among daily positive support, daily gratitude, and daily stress within married couples. In this 14-day daily diary study, 54 heterosexually married couples (N = 108) aged 28 to 71 years participated. After reporting their demographic information at the start of the study, they reported their perceived positive support from their partner, daily stress, and feelings of gratitude at the end of each day of the study for 14 consecutive days. Using a multivariate outcome, multilevel cross-classification, we found that daily positive support was negatively associated with daily stress, mediated by daily feelings of gratitude. On a day when a person reported more perceived positive support than others, this person also reported a higher level of feelings of gratitude and a lower level of stress, regardless of age. We found only an actor effect, no partner effect. These findings show how greater daily positive support is linked to greater daily feelings of gratitude, which in turn is linked to less daily stress during an emergent public health crisis. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-021-00387-0.
... For emotions, participants were asked to rate the extent to which they typically feel the following emotions during their interactions with their partner ratings. They provided ratings on 18 items using a modified version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and 3 items assessing gratitude (Algoe et al., 2010). iv All ratings were obtained on Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always) (See SOM for the item descriptives). ...
... iv Gratitude was included as part of the list of emotions because it has been previously linked to many relationship processes (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010, Algoe et al., 2013Joel et al., 2013) and the PANAS does not capture this interpersonally relevant emotion. ...
... For emotions, participants were asked to rate the extent to which they typically feel the following emotions during their interactions with their partner ratings. They provided ratings on 18 items using a modified version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and 3 items assessing gratitude (Algoe et al., 2010). iv All ratings were obtained on Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always) (See SOM for the item descriptives). ...
... iv Gratitude was included as part of the list of emotions because it has been previously linked to many relationship processes (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010, Algoe et al., 2013Joel et al., 2013) and the PANAS does not capture this interpersonally relevant emotion. ...
Article
Introduction: Do people (i.e., metaperceivers) know their romantic partners' (i.e., perceivers') impressions, displaying meta-accuracy? Is it related to relationship well-being? We explored two components of meta-accuracy: 1) positive meta-accuracy (i.e., knowing the perceiver's positive impressions of the metaperceiver), and 2) distinctive meta-accuracy (i.e., knowing the perceiver's unique impressions of the metaperceiver). We first compared baseline levels of each component across three domains (personality, emotions, values), and then, examined and compared their links with relationship well-being. Method: A sample of 205 romantic couples were recruited. The Social Accuracy Model was adapted for analyses. Results: Metaperceivers displayed both positive and distinctive meta-accuracy across all domains, and displayed greater positive emotion meta-accuracy and distinctive personality meta-accuracy compared to the other domains. Positive meta-accuracy in general was related to metaperceivers' relationship well-being and distinctive meta-accuracy in general was related to relationship well-being for metaperceivers and perceivers. Further, positive personality meta-accuracy was related to relationship well-being for metaperceivers, and positive emotion meta-accuracy was related to relationship well-being for metaperceivers and perceivers. Conclusion: Overall, the present research broadens the meta-accuracy literature by expanding it to a novel domain (values) and highlighting the relative contributions of domains that has been previously explored in isolation (personality and emotions).
... Studies conducted in recent years found that kindness is positively correlated with marital satisfaction in both spouses, and negatively correlated with marital conflicts and risk of separation (Dew & Bradford-Wilcox, 2013;Veldorale-Brogan et al., 2010;Wallace-Goddard et al., 2016). The forgiveness and gratitude strengths belonging to the caring factor are also important to maintaining the relationship and were found in numerous studies to correlate with marital quality in both spouses (Algoe et al., 2010;Braithwaite et al., 2011;Fincham et al., 2004;Gordon & Baucom, 2003;Gordon et al., 2011;Joel et al., 2013;Paleari et al., 2005;Wallace-Goddard et al., 2016). ...
... In line with the findings of other studies (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010;Braithwaite et al., 2011;Fincham et al., 2004;Gordon et al., 2011;Joel et al., 2013;Reis et al., 2014), our findings emphasize the relation between the caring factor and marital quality, for both partners, through actor effects. However, the partner effect for caring was found only for women, showing that men's marital quality is related to both partners' interpersonal and emotional qualities. ...
Article
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Numerous studies examined the association between character strengths—positive traits that comprise a good personality—and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, few studies explored the connection between character strengths and marital satisfaction. The present study, conducted on a sample of 177 married couples, aims to examine this connection. Given the findings of previous studies, showing that both spouses’ personality traits contribute to relationship quality, we expect to find a connection between the spouses’ strengths and their marital quality. Using actor-partner interdependence model analyses, we examined the effects of three strengths factors (caring, self-control, and inquisitiveness) of both the individual and the partner on marital quality, evaluated by indices measuring marital satisfaction, intimacy, and burnout. Our findings revealed that the individual’s three strengths factors were related to all of his or her marital quality indices (actor effects). Moreover, women’s caring, inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with men’s marital quality, and men’s inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with women’s marital quality (partner effects). Our findings join the efforts of previous studies to understand the association between character strengths and the various elements of mental well-being, especially romantic relationships.
... Gratitude is a positive emotion that arises in response to one person voluntarily providing a benefit to another person (McCullough et al., 2008) and is linked to a host of positive relationship outcomes (e.g., relationship satisfaction, commitment; Algoe et al., 2010;Park et al., 2019). In the context of relocation, a relocator's gratitude for the accompanying partners' costly moverelated sacrifice may be important for both avoidant and anxious individuals, as it signals recognition and appreciation for the accompanying partners' willingness to move. ...
... Second, we only examined one individual in the relationship, thus limiting our investigation to accompanying partners' perceptions of the relocator's behaviors rather than the relocator's reports of their own behaviors. Past work has found that people miss many prosocial acts from their partners, which can strain the relationship (Visserman et al., 2019), but perceived partner expressions such as gratitude may create an upward spiral, or positive feedback loop, of relationship well-being experienced by both partners (Algoe et al., 2010). This study also included people who had very recently moved for their partner's career and those who were up to 1-year postmove. ...
Article
In a sample of 229 individuals who recently undertook a large-scale sacrifice by relocating for their romantic partner's job or schooling (i.e., accompanying partners), we tested preregistered predictions linking accompanying partners' attachment insecurities (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and relationship functioning (i.e., relationship quality, relationship conflict, and move-related relationship benefits). We also examined whether any negative associations found among accompanying partners' attachment insecurities and relationship functioning could be buffered by partner prosociality in the form of perceived partner gratitude (i.e., partners' expressions of move-related and general gratitude) and perceived partner sacrifice (i.e., partners' daily sacrifice behaviors and general willingness to sacrifice). Results showed that more insecurely attached accompanying partners reported worse relationship functioning after moving than their secure counterparts. Although gratitude and sacrifice did not buffer insecurely attached individuals' relationship conflict, both perceived partner general gratitude and willingness to sacrifice partially buffered avoidantly attached individuals from experiencing lower relationship quality, while move-related gratitude helped avoidantly attached individuals to feel that the move benefitted their relationship. Meanwhile, perceived partner sacrifice behaviors buffered anxiously attached individuals from experiencing lower relationship quality. This is the first study to demonstrate, in an ecologically valid sample, the implications of a large-scale sacrifice for insecurely attached accompanying partners' relationship functioning, as well as the protective effects of perceiving a partner's prosociality following the major life transition of job relocation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... 2 For instance, when a partner indicates that they provided support they might feel needed and valuable (Batson & Powell, 2003) and also experience a sense of reciprocity (Ryon & Gleason, 2018). Similarly, people who perceive greater partner support often feel a sense of gratitude (Algoe et al., 2010) and trust (Cutrona et al., 2005), which may consequently provide a boost to the partner's relationship satisfaction. ...
... Ultimately, this heightened perception of support should result in greater relationship satisfaction for the health-care worker (Girme et al., 2018) as it provides evidence that their partner is an available caregiver (Feeney & Collins, 2003;Girme et al., 2013). However, as evidenced by our findings, perceived support should also be positively associated with the partner's relationship satisfaction, which could be due to the health-care worker feeling a sense of gratitude (Algoe et al., 2010) and trust (Cutrona et al., 2005) toward their partner. ...
Article
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People often rely on partner support and shared reality during stressful and uncertain times. As such, the current research explored how these may relate to relationship satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. To do so, 155 frontline health-care workers and their significant others completed measures of shared reality and relationship satisfaction, while also indicating their levels of perceived or provided support, respectively. We proposed that shared reality would foster partners providing and health-care workers perceiving support which would, in turn, promote greater relationship satisfaction. Overall, both shared reality and partner support were positively associated with relationship satisfaction for health-care workers and their significant others. Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model with Mediation (APIMeM), we found shared reality to be associated with greater relationship satisfaction through health-care workers perceiving greater support from their partner. Our research demonstrates that shared reality may be a way for people under stress to perceive greater partner support, providing relational benefits for the couple as a whole.
... These effects seem to be dependent on a partner's level of responsiveness (i.e., the degree to which people feel that their relationship partners are responsive to them; S.B. Algoe & Zhaoyang, 2015). In fact, there is research to suggest that while indebtedness can help maintain a relationship, gratitude can act as a booster shot for relationships by elevating relationship quality (S.B. Algoe et al., 2010). Furthermore, research also highlights that expressions of gratitude can increase perceptions of social support in a relationship (S.B. ...
... Research has shown that indebtedness is often associated with other negative emotions (Roberts, 2004;Tsang, 2006) whereas gratitude tends to be associated with positive emotions. In close relationships as well, feelings of indebtedness have been shown to reduce relationship quality whereas gratitude can promote relationship quality (S.B. Algoe et al., 2010). Other studies have shown that stronger expectations of return are associated with elevated indebtedness but reduced expressions of gratitude (P. ...
Article
Although individual differences in dispositional gratitude have been shown to relate with both personal well-being and intergenerational beneficence, no work has yet examined whether trait gratitude is correlated with consideration of future consequences for one's self. Across six studies (total N = 2758) we find robust evidence for a significant and positive correlation between dispositional gratitude and consideration of future consequences (CFC): r = 0.33, SE = 0.02, Z = 16.82, p < .001, 95% CI [0.30, 0.37]. Further, we show that related dispositional factors, including feelings of indebtedness and valuing fairness, do not show a similar relationship with CFC. The association between gratitude and CFC also remains significant when controlling for core personality traits. These initial findings highlight that gratitude may be a novel leverage point for increasing individuals' consideration of self-relevant long-term outcomes; in turn, this relationship may prove useful in promoting individual and community well-being in the future.
... If friendship quality, especially same-sex friendships, offers the touted behavioral vaccine of buffering the negative effects of RS on mental well-being, positive psychology interventions to enhance friendship quality may be a future research area. Positive psychology's gratitude practices (e.g., keeping a gratitude journal, showing appreciation, sending thank you notes) can bolster existing friendships perceptions (Algoe et al., 2008(Algoe et al., , 2010. Additionally, kindness booster activities may promote individuals' bonds with friends (Kerr et al., 2015) by simple but meaningful acts such as buying something for a friend or helping out. ...
Article
Previous research shows a link between rejection sensitivity (RS) and various psychological disorders; however, its relation to the positive psychological construct of mental well‐being remains unstudied. This study investigates the relationship between RS and mental well‐being while taking the role of friendship quality into consideration for 323 emerging adults using decision tree analysis. In training (R2 = .29) and test trees (R2 = .18), RS had the strongest relationship with mental well‐being where those higher in RS had lower mental well‐being scores. For those lower in RS, higher combined (same‐sex and opposite‐sex) friendship quality was associated with higher mental well‐being. Whereas for those higher in RS, higher same‐sex friendship quality was associated with higher mental well‐being. As our findings indicate, friendship quality may play a buffering role for emerging adults, keeping their mental well‐being at more preferable levels especially for those with higher RS. Implications for future studies and interventions to boost friendship quality are discussed.
... Watkins et al. (2008) found that grateful processing was beneficial in bringing closure to negative emotional memories. Finally, there is also ample evidence demonstrating that experiencing and expressing gratefulness supports the development and maintenance of high-quality relationships (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010;Grant and Gino, 2010;Lambert and Fincham, 2011;Algoe and Zhaoyang, 2016). Experiencing gratitude draws our attention to people who, by their small or major gesture, demonstrate that they care for us and are responsive to us (Algoe et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This position paper proposes a model for systematic integration of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) in mental healthcare. On the one hand, PPIs can contribute to the decrease of dysfunctional processes underlying mental illness. This evidence is at the core of the new domains of positive clinical psychology and positive psychiatry. On the other hand, a growing number of studies demonstrate that mental health is not merely the absence of mental illness. Mental wellbeing represents a related but separate dimension of mental health. Mental wellbeing reduces the risk of future incidence of mental illness and is highly valued by people receiving psychological treatment as an important aspect of personal and complete recovery and personal growth. This makes mental wellbeing a vital outcome of mental healthcare. PPIs can directly increase mental wellbeing. The model of sustainable mental health is presented integrating the science of positive psychology and mental wellbeing into mental healthcare. This heuristic model can guide both practitioners and researchers in developing, implementing, and evaluating a more balanced, both complaint- and strength-oriented, treatment approach. The role of gratitude interventions is discussed as an example of applying the model. Also, three potential modalities for implementing PPIs as positive psychotherapy in treatment are as: positive psychotherapy as primary treatment, as combinatorial treatment, and as intervention for personal recovery of people with severe or persistent mental disorder. Finally, we argue that longitudinal studies are needed to substantiate the model and the processes involved.
... Food-related behaviors are necessary as most people eat at least once a day, and in relationships and families, intimate moments often include food. Moreover, feeling valued and appreciated in relationships are not fostered by 1-day celebrations but are influenced by frequent thoughtful acts that signal commitment and intimacy (Algoe, Gable, & Maisel, 2010). Food behaviors, therefore, provide multiple opportunities in everyday life for individuals in relationships to improve, sustain, or develop a sense of closeness and intimacy. ...
Article
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There is a paucity of research that systematically examines how food behaviors play a role in intimate partner violence (IPV). Therefore, this qualitative study aims to answer the broad question, what role do food behaviors play in intimate relationships? Food behavior narratives emerging from participants of court-mandated domestic violence (DV) offender treatment programs were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Five themes emerged. Two described inflammatory/harmful roles: (1) food as a trigger for anger and violence and (2) food as a mechanism of “othering.” One theme described the role of food behaviors in promoting unequal and equal relationships: (3) food as an embodiment of gender roles. Two themes described reconciliatory/beneficial roles: (4) food as a mechanism of recognition and (5) and food as a representation of group rapport. Food behaviors can escalate into conflicts but can also be used as a tool to resolve conflicts. Limitations and the need for future research are further discussed.
... This is a positive chain reaction to be encouraged in the family, neighborhood, community, workplace and the like. Algoe et al. (2010) state that individual expressions of gratitude by individuals to others who have helped them strengthen and promote their relationships with others. ...
Article
Social values in Indian society in general and Tamil society in particular are subject to fluctuation, in accordance with on-going social changes ushered in by various modern forces. Consequently, these values metamorphose and degenerate into counter-cultural practices that pose a threat to traditional culture. Modern people attribute new meanings to the unethical practices that they engage in by emphasizing their immediate relevance and necessity for their changing life styles. They believe that their willingness to follow them instead of social values will help them make a profit that sustains their livelihood in this time of change.
... The creation of host-guest relationships in shared accommodations is no longer simply oriented toward economic returns, but also for building family-/friend-like relationships with customers (Zhu et al., 2019). Research in business and management found that customers were more cautious when evaluating the return on investment when their relationship with brand enterprises are purely for business, but were more tolerant for service failures if being treated like friends or family members, under the mentality of "Love me, Love my dog" (Aggarwal, 2004;Algoe, et al., 2010;Reich et al., 2018). This also applies to the accommodation industry. ...
Article
Shared accommodations (e.g., Airbnb) are growing rapidly with ever-increasing attention given to the features of the home decoration style and a homely atmosphere. Similar to an old saying, "Love me, Love my dog", it has been established that the perception of hosts' service quality is integrated with customers' evaluations of house amenities. However, little is known about the influence of service attitude (how it is perceived by guests) on customers' sensory experience, which is key to their loyalty and satisfaction. Through a pilot study analyzing guest houses' online reviews, two experiments as well as a survey, service attitude (i.e., enthusiasm and hospitality) was found to be positively associated with customers' sensory experience. In this process, home-like feelings acted as the mediator, sincerity served as a moderator, and only sincere enthusiasm and hospitality helped promote the home-like feeling for customers. This study sheds light on the customer sensory experience management of shared accommodations from the embodied cognition perspective.
... Receiving costly favors evokes both gratitude and indebtedness. However, if indebtedness predicts the motivation to reciprocate after receiving the favor (Peng et al., 2018), only gratitude predicts relationship promotion (Algoe et al., 2010) or reciprocity behavior (Tsang, 2007). Nonetheless, group-based indebtedness remains a plausible alternative or complementary hypothesis to explain present results. ...
Article
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The present paper investigates a positive, other-oriented moral emotion: group-based gratitude, in reaction to intergroup positive interdependence or outgroup contributions to ingroup’s goals. Three studies support the notion that group-based gratitude plays a role in improving intergroup attitudes between natives and immigrants in the French context. In Study 1, positive intergroup interdependence was associated with group-based gratitude, which in turn was negatively associated with prejudicial attitudes and behavioral intentions. In the last two studies, highlighting historical outgroup contributions elicited group-based gratitude, which in turn reduced prejudice, increased perceived warmth and reciprocity (i.e., helping behavioral intentions), compared to control condition and positive condition. Links with indebtedness and common ingroup are discussed.
... 45,46 Second, it was argued that a less critical, less punishing, and more compassionate view of oneself account for the inverse relationship between gratitude and symptoms of depression and anxiety. 47 Finally, researchers have also found an association of gratitude with greater relationship connection and satisfaction, 48 well-established buffers against psychopathology. 49 The basis of these mechanisms (interpretation of events, views of oneself, relationship connections, and satisfaction) is also closely related to workers, leading to consistent results. ...
Article
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Objectives Gratitude intervention, which requires participants to engage regularly in brief activities designed to cultivate a sense of gratefulness, is known as one of the most effective positive psychological interventions. Although numerous meta-analyses and systematic reviews have been conducted on gratitude intervention, no studies have focused on the working population. This study aimed to systematically summarize the effectiveness of gratitude interventions on workers' mental health and well-being. Methods Systematic search was conducted in February 2021 using five databases. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials implementing gratitude activities among healthy workers and measuring mental health or well-being indicators and original articles or thesis in English. Results Nine out of 1957 articles met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies adopted gratitude list interventions, showing a significant improvement in perceived stress and depression; however, the effects on well-being were inconsistent. Interventions with gratitude list four times or less did not report significant changes in any outcomes. Conclusions Most gratitude interventions incorporated a gratitude list, and some studies included gratitude activities as a part of the combined program. On the other hand, no studies focused on only behavioral gratitude expression among workers. Gratitude interventions might be effective in improving mental health, but their effects on well-being remain unclear. The total number of gratitude lists and reflections might influence the effect on mental health and well-being; however, due to the high heterogeneity of the studies, further studies are needed.
... Gratitude feelings are intrinsic emotions (Algoe, Fredrickson, & Gable, 2013) which means positive and negative emotions that describe consumers feelings about any product and services (Laros & Steenkamp, 2005). Gratitude is a mechanism for building relationships (Algoe, Gable, & Maisel, 2010). When consumers purchase anything it either generates pride or guilt for the transaction (Antonetti & Maklan, 2014). ...
Article
The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between service quality (SQ), with mediating role of gratitude feelings (GF), and moderating role of corporate image (CI) on consumer repurchase intention (CRPI). For empirical analysis data was collected from 157 customers of restaurants of Pakistan. The findings disclosed the significant positive relationship between service and consumer repurchase intentions. The results revealed that customers do not follow their gratitude feelings for revisiting any restaurant, and corporate image also do not increase their interest for repeat purchases.
... It has also been shown to be related to a reduced risk of the emergence of psychopathologies (Kendler et al., 2003), and to lower levels of depression and anxiety (Southwell & Gould, 2017), and trait gratitude predicts lower levels of depressive and anxiety-related symptomatology (Petrocchi & Couyoumdjian, 2016). From a social perspective, gratitude increases the perceived quality of relationships (Algoe et al., 2010), the comfort with which one can express relationship issues (Lambert & Fincham, 2011), and predicts the quantity of prosocial behaviors (Grant & Gino, 2010;McCullough et al., 2001;Tsang & Martin, 2019). These results should be interpreted cautiously though, given the weak to moderate effect sizes observed (for meta-analyses, see Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017). ...
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In the past two decades, gratitude has been shown to be closely related to mental health and well-being. However, there is no consensus about its definition, and self-gratitude was hastily dismissed. This research aimed to analyze how self-gratitude is considered by laypersons. We conducted three online studies to test the hypothesis according to which self-gratitude is prototypically organized. In Study 1, participants (N = 152) listed the features of self-gratitude: 55 categories emerged from the data processing. In Study 2, participants (N = 146) significantly distinguished the features according to their degree of centrality. In Study 3 (N = 108), the analysis showed that the centrality of features influenced cognition through a recognition task. The results provide preliminary evidence of the internal structure of self-gratitude. Overall, this study showed the lay conceptions, allowing us to define self-gratitude as acknowledgment and appreciation of meaningful benefits involving the self.
... Setiap pasangan yang menikah penting untuk meningkatkan kebahagiaan dan kesejahteraannya dalam membina rumah tangga. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan bersyukur terhadap apa yang dilakukannya (Algoe, Gable, & Maisel, 2010). Kebersyukuran dapat meningkatkan individu untuk menikmati manfaat yang mereka peroleh dari suatu hubungan yang positif sehingga mencapai manfaat emosi yang positif (Emmons, Tsang, & McCullough, 2004). ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan kebersyukuran dan kualitas perkawinan pada pasangan penyandang disabilitas. Penelitian dilakukan di Yayasan Penyandang Cacat Mandiri (YPCM) dan Paguyuban Penyandang Paraplegia Yogyakarta (P3Y). Subjek penelitian berjumlah 84 orang dengan menggunakan teknik pengambilan sampel purposive sampling. Alat pengumpulan data menggunakan skala kebersyukuran dan skala kualitas perkawinan. Adapun analisis data penelitian dilakukan dengan uji korelasi menggunakan pearson product moment dan regresi linier sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebersyukuran memiliki hubungan positif dan signifikan terhadap kualitas perkawinan pada pasangan penyandang disabilitas, yaitu diperoleh nilai koefisien korelasi sebesar .980 dengan signifikansi .000 (p< .05). Kebersyukuran memberikan kontribusi sebesar 96% terhadap kualitas perkawinan pada pasangan penyandang disabilitas
... Researchers have studied the adaptive functions of gratitude. For example, experiencing and expressing gratitude have been found to promote high-quality relationships (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010;Grant and Gino, 2010;Lambert and Fincham, 2011;Algoe, 2012;Algoe and Zhaoyang, 2016;O'Connell et al., 2018). Also, as a positive emotion, gratitude will contribute to a more broadened thought-action repertoire (Fredrickson, 2001;Fredrickson and Joiner, 2002) and to positive spirals building durable physical, cognitive, and social resources promoting both the ability to adapt and mental health (Fredrickson, 2001;Fredrickson and Joiner, 2002). ...
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There is a gap of knowledge about the extent to which gratitude is indeed the working mechanism of change in gratitude interventions aiming to promote mental well-being. This study explores the mediational role of gratitude as mood in the context of a recently conducted randomized controlled trial on the effects of a 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being in comparison with a waitlist control group. Gratitude as mood was measured at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Both simple and multiple mediation models were conducted as well as various sensitivity analyses. Results showed a gradual increase of gratitude as mood during the intervention. The effects of the 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being were mediated by increases of gratitude as mood at 4 weeks but not at 2 weeks. These findings suggest a dose-response relationship for gratitude interventions, but more research is warranted.
... Beyond the immediate effects on how a sacrifice for a partner is appraised, a partner's responsiveness may also promote people's willingness and actual efforts toward making the sacrifice when they face the choice to do so. Indeed, partner responsiveness fuels people's motivation to engage in behaviors to maintain the relationship (Algoe et al. 2008(Algoe et al. , 2010Reis & Clark, 2013;Reis et al., 2010;Wieselquist et al., 1999), including efforts to resolve conflicts (Kubacka et al., 2011). More specifically, previous research has demonstrated that when a partner is responsive by demonstrating understanding, validation, and care when asking for a sacrifice, people are more likely to accommodate the request (Farrell et al., 2016). ...
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Romantic partners regularly sacrifice their own self-interest when partners' needs and preferences diverge. The present work examines the role of perceived partner responsiveness (PPR)-impressions that one's partner is understanding, caring, and validating-in positively shaping people's appraisals of their relational sacrifices. In Study 1, a preregistered experiment of romantically involved individuals (N = 548), we manipulated PPR (high, low, or control) in a hypothetical sacrifice scenario. In Study 2, we tracked romantic couples' (N = 126) in-lab conversations about a sacrifice (Study 2a), and their sacrifices in daily life (Study 2b). In Study 3, romantic couples (N = 111) engaged in lab conversations about a sacrifice that entailed making a change that one partner desired from the other, and reported on their progress 2 weeks later. In Study 4, we surveyed romantically involved individuals (N = 230) who recently made a life-changing sacrifice by relocating to a new city or country to support their partner's career. Across studies, results showed that higher PPR fostered more positive sacrifice appraisals (i.e., lower costs and viewing the act as less of a sacrifice, greater satisfaction, greater personal and relational benefits, lower regret) and greater sacrifice behavior (Study 3)-in part due to greater closeness with and lower negative affect toward the partner. Additionally, Study 4 suggested that PPR partly originated from the partner's efforts to fulfill fundamental psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness). Thus, PPR can play a critical role in lightening the load of daily and even life-changing sacrifices. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Indebtedness in response to a benefit or favour has been documented in various studies (e.g., Naito & Sakata, 2010;Naito, Wangwan & Tani, 2005), and gratitude induction studies have been shown to generate feelings of indebtedness (e.g., Layous et al., 2017). As introduced in our 2013 paper, some researchers consider gratitude and indebtedness as intrinsically linked or synonymous (Greenberg, 1980;Tesser, Gatewood & Driver, 1968) while others have made efforts to distinguish between the two, often conceptualising gratitude as a positive emotion and indebtedness as a negative emotion (Algoe, Gable & Maisel, 2010;Watkins, Scheer, Ovnicek & Kolts, 2006). Tsang (2006) noted how differential emotions of gratitude and indebtedness following others' help might be explained through benefactor intentions. ...
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This paper surveys interdisciplinary research on gratitude that has been conducted since the review paper translated into German in this issue ‘Recent work on the concept of gratitude in philosophy and psychology’, was published in the Journal of Value Inquiry in 2013. We share progress on our subsequent research, and report on key developments in the field. We revisit familiar themes regarding conditions placed on gratitude, the structure and moral value of gratitude, and the pedagogical implications of research on gratitude, addressing the issue of how the virtue of gratitude should be promoted and taught. As befits a collection dedicated to exploring gratitude’s potential ‘shadow’, we consider again the valence of gratitude and whether it is as quintessentially positive as many have assumed.
... This finding was somewhat surprising given prior research on the negative impact of the coronavirus on relationship quality (Pieh et al., 2020). Positive psychology research establishes the pivotal role of social connectedness and positive relationships as foundational to wellbeing (Algoe et al., 2010;Reis & Gable, 2003;Seligman, 2011). Although the relationship dimension of the PERMA test was not an indicator of wellbeing, it should be noted that the relational strategy of exercising emotional support was effective in promoting wellbeing among the participants. ...
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We examined wellbeing in 540 university employees before and after the onset of COVID-19, along with the relationships between psychological capital (PsyCap), coping strategies, and wellbeing. Psychological capital and coping strategies predicted wellbeing, with coping strategies demonstrating a mediator effect. Hope and optimism had the largest variance on wellbeing after COVID-19, along with the coping strategies of positive reframing and active coping. The role of proactive interventions to address wellbeing among university employees is discussed.
... Many authors consistently find that on average women score higher on the measures of religious dimensions compared to men [108][109][110]. Likewise, women generally tend to report higher feelings of gratitude and express more gratitude than men [111,112]. In respect to homelessness, the "typical" profile of a homeless person in most countries is a man between 30 and 50 years of age [113,114]. ...
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Although empirical reports draw attention to the pathological aspects of the functioning of the homeless, recent studies show the benefits related to the elevating roles of different positive phenomena in coping with difficulties for this group of people. The main goal was to verify whether there is a direct relationship between religiosity and gratitude among the homeless, and whether this association is moderated by the reported help-seeking since both religiosity and gratitude seem to play an important role in homeless people's lives. In total, 189 homeless persons participated in the study. Their mean age was M = 56.55 (SD = 12.39; range = 27-86). Most respondents were men (n = 119; 63%). The Scale of Religious Attitude Intensity and the Gratitude Questionnaire were used. The outcomes presented a statistically significant positive correlation between religious attitude and gratitude (r = 0.326***, p = 0.001). Help-seeking played a moderatory role in this relationship. Therefore , it can be assumed that the relationship between religiosity attitude intensity and dispositional gratitude is stronger when homeless persons seek specific help from other people or institutions compared to when they do not look for assistance. Homeless people, overcoming their limitations by actively asking for help, can strengthen their bonds with God (faith, religiosity) and with others (dispositional gratitude).
... results also underline the role of strengths-related behavior in romantic relationships: similar to the endorsement of character strengths, both the actor's and the partner's deployment of character strengths (i.e., the extent to which character strengths were shown in the relationship) predicted the actor's relationship satisfaction. While there are, to our knowledge, no published studies that have considered strengths-related behavior at the level of all 24 character strengths, showing gratitude in romantic relationships has also been studied extensively as a powerful predictor of relationship quality and satisfaction (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010). ...
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A growing body of research demonstrates the relevance of character strengths for flourishing in general, but also for important outcomes across different life domains (e.g., work performance and relationship satisfaction). Studies have also shown that there are differences in the extent to which character strengths are applied, that is, perceived as relevant and shown in behavior in a given context, between work and private life, but they have not considered other life domains. This study aims to close this gap by examining the life domains of work, education, leisure, close personal relationships, and romantic relationships. The present study investigates whether (a) strengths-related behavior across different life domains explains additional variance in flourishing beyond the trait level of each respective character strength and studies (b) differences in the relevance of character strengths and strengths-related behavior across different life domains, and examines (c) their relationships with flourishing. A sample of 203 German-speaking adults (78.8% females; mean age = 29.4 years) completed self-reports assessing flourishing and character strengths. They also indicated which of the five life domains were personally relevant to them (i.e., on average 4.23 life domains) and reported the character strengths' perceived relevance and the frequency of displaying strengths-related behavior for each of these life domains separately. The results demonstrate that (a) strengths-related behavior averaged across all relevant life domains explained unique variance in flourishing above the trait-level of character strengths in some cases (e.g., creativity, kindness, and fairness), (b) different life domains were characterized by specific profiles of character strength—regarding both their relevance and strength-related behavior. Moreover, (c) character strengths and strengths-related behavior in different life domains both showed substantial correlations with flourishing. In some cases, these associations were domain-specific (e.g., displaying love of learning in the context of education was related to higher levels of flourishing). In conclusion, we suggest that examining strengths-related behavior across different life domains represents a worthwhile addition to research on character strengths.
... According to the emotions-as-information theory (Schwarz, 2012) a heightened ability to differentiate between positive emotions may lead to a range of different affective and cognitive responses depending on the specific emotion. Algoe et al. (2010) found that experiencing feelings of gratitude in the context of a romantic relationship has been associated with increased feelings of relationship quality. Research shows that in individuals with anorexia, those with low positive emotional differentiation engaged in more vomiting, laxative use, exercising, weighing, restricting, and checking for fat. ...
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The focus of this review is on positive emotional granularity. Emotional granularity is the level of specificity that characterizes verbal representations of an affective experience. Although there has been research on negative emotional granularity, relatively less attention has been given to the study of positive emotional granularity. Positive emotions are theorized to motivate an individual to “broaden and build” one’s scope of cognition, attention, and behavior. Distinct positive emotion concepts may provide individuals with more informational value than that provided by global mood. Indeed, individuals who are higher in positive emotional granularity report being better at coping with stressful experiences. In this review, we discuss growing research on positive emotional granularity and well-being. Issues of measurement, interventions, and considerations for future lines of research are discussed.
... In a study by Bartlett et al. (2012), participants who were helped by a confederate they did not know while doing a task were more willing to work with the confederate due to the emotion of gratitude than those in a control condition where they were not helped. The remind function has been observed in a study by Algoe et al. (2010) in which a romantic partner's feelings of gratitude predicted increased relationship quality within the partner toward whom they felt grateful on the previous day. Further, Algoe and Haidt (2009) found that participants who recalled a situation in which they felt grateful to someone they knew tended to focus on positive aspects of the relationship by acknowledging the benefactor's positive action. ...
Article
The core idea of the find‐remind‐and‐bind theory articulated by (Algoe, 2012, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 455) is that receiving expressed gratitude facilitates positive attitudes toward the expressor such as increased prosocial behaviour. The current study tries to observe the phenomena in Japan where apologies are sometimes used when people express gratitude. In this experimental study, 671 Japanese participants received expressions of gratitude, apologies, both, or neither (control condition) in exchange for their help. The results showed that expressed gratitude had the most positive effect compared to the control, apology and both conditions; that is, expressed gratitude most strongly facilitated the message receiver's prosocial behaviour, self‐disclosure, predicted outcome values, and social worth. Expressed apologies showed a limited positive effect. A structural equation model further indicated that predicted outcome values and social worth functioned in unique ways to mediate the link between expressed gratitude and prosocial behaviour as well as self‐disclosure.
... A study of married couples (mean relationship length over 20 years) shows that feeling of gratitude predicted both one's own and the spouse's relationship satisfaction (Gordon, Arnette, & Smith, 2011). Not only in long term relationships gratitude was found to predict relationship satisfaction, but also in short term relationships such as cohabiting couples, increased gratitude was predictive of subsequent enhanced relationship quality (Algoe, Gable, & Maisel, 2010). The motivating and rewarding nature of gratitude emotion makes it have a prominent effect on relationship building than any other positive emotions. ...
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Backgrounds: Gratitude and pride are both benefit-related emotions, whereby the pride attributes success to oneself and gratitude to another. Gratitude and pride are vital to the function of a society, allowing one to create interpersonal relationships and build self-confidence. Despite growing interest in the neural underpinnings of positive emotions and subjective feelings, we know very little about how these emotions are represented in the brain and computationally updated over time by new experience. Aims of the study: We aimed to fill the gap by finding the specific neural representations of the dynamic emotional experience of gratitude and pride, and the functional neural substrates for updating positive emotions in general. Furthermore, we also aimed to find the best computational models to give the best explanations how these two emotions are updated as the environmental factors change. Methods: We developed a novel behavioral task based on the gameshow “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”, which we used together with functional MRI, and computational modeling. We investigated which brain regions are involved in representing gratitude and pride, how the human brain keeps track of these emotions over time and how it updates them when new information is available. 13 Results: We found that gratitude was more associated with neural activities in the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), which has previously been implicated in Theory of Mind. In contrast, pride was more associated with neural activities in the caudate nucleus, which is part of the reward system, and hippocampus. Importantly, when we look for neural activity parametrically modulated with the reported magnitude of gratitude feelings we found correlations mainly in the motor cortex (precentral gyrus), reward system (ventral striatum, putamen) and Theory of Mind network (temporal pole). In contrast, neural activity pertaining to the strength of the feeling of pride was found in the bilateral putamen. Moreover, activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was related to an emotional prediction error signal, suggesting that this region might be involved in the process of updating our level of gratitude and pride feelings. Computational modeling revealed different models for gratitude and pride. Gratitude model uniquely involved the prediction of others’ behavior, while pride model involved mainly the reward. Implications: Our findings delineate the computational mechanisms and neural circuitry for positive emotions that accompany the attribution of getting reward whether it is due to one's own effort or help of others. Besides, our studies contribute to theories of emotions in several different aspects, especially to the newest theory of constructed emotion. Our findings have clinical implications for developing new psychotherapies for patients with emotional disorders.
... Receiving gratitude generates positive emotions and motivates the recipient to act prosocially towards their benefactor (Tsang, 2006). Thus, receiving gratitude strengthens relationships by promoting and enhancing relational bonds (Algoe et al., 2010;Algoe et al., 2008). Gratitude increases one's sense of being valued socially and thus encourages continued efforts to help others (Grant & Gino, 2010). ...
Article
Providing palliative care can be both challenging and rewarding. It involves emotionally demanding work and yet research shows that burnout is lower than in other fields of health care. Spontaneous expressions of gratitude from patients and family members are not uncommon and are highly valued. This study explored the experience of Spanish palliative professionals who received expressions of gratitude from their patients and families. A phenomenological approach was used to better understand the role of receiving gratitude in participants' lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a phenomenological approach to analysis was undertaken using macro-thematic and micro-thematic reflection. Two team members independently engaged in this reflection with an inductive approach. The analysis was shared and discussed at periodic meetings to identify the key themes and sub-themes of the gratitude experience. Ten palliative professionals were interviewed. Participants engaged in a process of recognizing, internalizing, and treasuring the expressions of gratitude which they then used for reflection and growth. These expressions were a powerful and deeply meaningful resource that the palliative professionals revisited over time. Receiving expressions of gratitude invited a stronger sense of the value of one's self and one's work that was motivational and protective, particularly during challenging times.
... Additionally, as some have found to be true of appreciation (e.g., Algoe et al., 2010;McCullough et al., 2001), child virtuous gratitude was positively related to prosocial behavior. As McCullough and his colleagues suggested, receiving benefits from others may broaden the beneficiaries' attention toward others, and thus promote their willingness to repay the benefactors as well as pay the benefits forward to a third party (Obeng et al., 2019). ...
Article
Gratitude has been previously defined as a tendency to appreciate positives in life, thus conflating gratitude and components of well-being. Accordingly, current measures assessing “gratitude” are primarily based on this conflated conceptualization, and do not adequately assess gratitude as a moral virtue. The Gratitude Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ-C) was developed to assess child virtuous gratitude (VG). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the GAQ-C in 641 Chinese children (Mage = 10.70, SD = 4.48), showing it to be a reliable and valid measure to assess Chinese child VG. Specifically, results of confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that virtuous gratitude consists of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. Furthermore, child VG measured by the GAQ-C was associated positively with parental appreciation socialization, unlike child appreciation assessed by the 6-item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). Additionally, child VG was related to child depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, daily gratitude behaviors, and prosocial behaviors. Such results provide evidence of conceptual differences between gratitude and appreciation.
Article
Are perceivers’ impressions of target’s commitment associated with the target’s relationship experience? Could target’s metaperceptions (i.e., target’s beliefs about the perceiver’s impressions of the target) help explain why? In the present dyadic study (N = 206; Ncouples = 103), we found that perceiver’s impressions of target’s commitment was positively related to target’s relationship well-being, and target’s metaperceptions helped account for this link. Additional analyses disentangled the roles of accuracy and bias of metaperceptions. On average, people underestimated their partners’ impressions of commitment, and this negative mean-level bias was related to lower relationship well-being. Overall, the present results shed light on the potential implications of metaperceptions for relational well-being.
Chapter
In this chapter we review the good of gratitude and recommend various methods for cultivating this human strength. First, we show how gratitude is indeed good. We show how gratitude is important to flourishing and happiness. Gratitude is strongly correlated with various measures of well-being, and experimental studies suggest that gratitude actually causes increases in happiness. If gratitude is good, then it behooves us to investigate how the disposition of gratitude can be enhanced. We suggest that grateful responding can be enhanced by training in noticing the good in one's life, and by encouraging interpretations and appraisals that have been found to promote gratitude. We then present a discussion of unresolved issues in the science of gratitude. This is followed by a discussion of who might benefit most from gratitude. We conclude with a summary of the cultivation of gratitude. Research strongly supports the idea that the cultivation of gratitude should result in a harvest of happiness, but cultivating gratitude is not likely to be an easy process.
Article
Objectives We investigated whether spousal caregivers’ greater perception of being appreciated by their partner for their help was associated with caregivers’ better mental health, and whether caregivers’ higher role overload was related to their poorer mental health. We further evaluated whether spousal caregivers’ greater perceived gratitude buffered the association between their role overload and mental health. Method We examined 306 spousal caregivers of older adults with chronic illness or disability, drawn from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. We defined mental health as better psychological well-being and less psychological distress (i.e., fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms). Hierarchical regression models were estimated to test hypotheses. Results Greater perceived gratitude was associated with better psychological well-being, and higher role overload was related to poorer psychological well-being and greater psychological distress. In addition, greater perceived gratitude buffered the associations between role overload and anxiety symptoms as well as psychological well-being. Discussion Findings suggest that spousal caregivers’ role overload may be a strong risk factor for their poorer mental health, especially when caregivers feel less appreciated by their partner. Couple-oriented interventions to improve spousal caregivers’ mental health could be aimed at reducing their role overload and enhancing perceived gratitude.
Article
Prior studies have shown that gratitude is a catalyst of well-being and desirable psychological outcomes. The academic benefits of gratitude, however, remains underexplored in school contexts. This research builds on previous research integrating gratitude interventions with educational technology via evaluating the impacts of a Facebook-based gratitude intervention on academic motivation and engagement among selected Filipino high school students using a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design. In the quantitative phase of this research, results showed that students who were assigned to the intervention condition had higher scores than those in the control condition, on autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and cognitive engagement. In the follow-up qualitative phase, findings indicated that Facebook-based gratitude intervention increased such learning outcomes as this online educational intervention facilitates perceived increases in social support, motivation, positive thinking, and desire to pay back parents and other significant people. Taken together, this research suggests that designing online gratitude intervention via social media platform can promote positive learning processes and outcomes.
Article
Power and gratitude are universal features of social life and impact a wide range of intra- and interpersonal outcomes. Drawing on the social distance theory of power, we report four studies that examine how relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude. An archival analysis of author acknowledgements in published academic articles ( N = 1,272) revealed that low-power authors expressed more gratitude than high-power authors. A pre-registered experiment ( N = 283) involving live conversations online found that having relatively low power caused increased feelings and expressions of gratitude after benefiting from a favor. Another pre-registered experiment ( N = 356) demonstrated that increased interpersonal orientation among lower power individuals and increased psychological entitlement among higher power individuals drove these effects. Finally, an archival analysis of conversational exchanges ( N = 136,215) among Wikipedia editors revealed that relational history moderated the effect of relative power on gratitude expression. Overall, our findings highlight when and why relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude.
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ÖZET: Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, beliren ve orta yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan bireylerin minnettarlık ile ilgili görüşlerinin belirlenmesi ve bu iki grubun görüşleri arasındaki benzerliklerin ve farklılıkların ortaya konulmasıdır. Araştırmada, nitel araştırma desenlerinden olgubilim yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışma 2019-2020 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin değişik bölgelerinde yaşayan, farklı yaşlarda, mesleklerde ve öğrenim düzeylerinde yer alan; 20 beliren (18-25 yaş arası) ve 20 orta yetişkinlik (26-45 yaş arası) döneminde bulunan 40 katılımcı ile yürütülmüştür. Bu araştırmanın katılımcıları amaçlı örnekleme yöntemleri içerisinde yer alan tabakalı amaçsal örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilmiştir. Veriler araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan kişisel bilgi formu ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu aracılığıyla online olarak yapılan görüşmeler ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre beliren ve orta yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan bireylerin; minnettarlığın tanımı, minnettarlık hissedilen durumlar, minnettarlığın ifade edilmesi, minnettarlığın davranışsal ve duygusal karşılığı, sosyal yaşama katkısı ve önündeki engellere dair yaklaşımlarının büyük oranda benzer olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Ancak az da olsa bu iki grubun minnettarlığa bakış açılarının birbirlerinden ayrıldığı noktalar göze çarpmaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bu bulgular, alanyazın ışığında tartışılmış ve sonuçlarla ilgili öneriler geliştirilmiştir. & ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the current study is to determine the opinions of individuals who are in their emerging and middle adulthood periods about thankfulness and to elicit the similarities and differences between the opinions of these two groups. The current study employed the phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research designs. The current study was conducted with the participation of 20 individuals who were in their emerging adulthood period (18-25 years old) and 20 individuals who were in their middle adulthood period (26-45 years old); thus, a total of 40 participants, in the years 2019 and 2020. The participants were of the different ages, professions and education levels and lived in different regions of Turkey. The participants of the current study were selected by using the stratified purposeful sampling method, one of the purposive sampling methods. The data were collected by using the personal information form prepared by the researchers and a semi-structured interview form administered online. In the analysis of the collected data, content analysis method was used. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the individuals who were in their emerging adulthood and middle adulthood periods have largely similar opinions about the definition of thankfulness, the situations where thankfulness is felt, expression of thankfulness, behavioural and emotional exhibition of thankfulness, its contribution to social life and obstacles to it. Yet, there are some points where the two groups of participants’ perceptions of thankfulness differ. These findings obtained in the current study were discussed in reference to the literature and suggestions were made in light of the findings.
Article
The article analyzes discussions about whether gratitude is an experience or a personal trait and part of the worldview. It is shown that the researchers focused on two components of gratitude: cognitive one (rational assessment of the actions usefulness of other or certain events) and affective one (experiencing a set of positive emotions: joy, admiration). Recently, the idea that gratitude is a personality trait has become widespread. In our opinion, gratitude is a basic life guideline, which is manifested in the cognitive aspect – assessing what a person has, awareness of the time perspective of life, understanding the manifestations of positivity (implicit theory of the positive world), in the affective aspect – experiencing specific emotions, reverence, admiration, affection) during the meeting with certain objects, which, in fact, chooses the person himself, in the behavioral aspect – control of their own attention to focus on the positive in the current moment, as well as choosing more optimal response strategies. Researches of the gratitude impact on the experience of well-being and its individual aspects have shown that there are complex interrelationships between gratitude and the parameters of personal well-being. On the one hand, gratitude contributes to the formation of positive relationships, because the person encourages others to justify his hopes. On the other hand, gratitude reduces hedonistic adaptation and encourages the individual not to take the positive aspects of his life for granted, and thus becomes a personal resource when experiencing stress. There are formalized social practices of gratitude – certain rituals of expression of gratitude on clearly defined “holidays”. The actual implementation of the act of gratitude has a relatively low effect. The most effective personal practices of gratitude are considered to be cognitive – the actualization of the experience of gratitude by increasing attention to small details and awareness of their importance while reducing the focus on fair exchange with the world. In particular, making various forms of lists of things and phenomena for which a person is grateful, solving hypothetical situations, writing letters of gratefulness, and so on. When applying such practices, their diversity is important to maintain the motivation of an individual to use them. Key words: gratitude, well-being personality, positive emotion, gratitude practice, optimal functioning.
Article
Gratitude has been linked with normal human functioning and well-being yet, its association with happiness and life satisfaction remains understudied among non clinical samples in collectivist cultures. Most studies on gratitude are focused on clinical settings and in individualist cultures. This study investigates the predictive strength of gratitude and purpose in life on life satisfaction among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional research design, 390 university students were selected from 2 (public and private) universities. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, gratitude scale(r=0.84), purpose in life scale(r=0.96) and life satisfaction scale (r=0.90) was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gratitude and purpose in life jointly and independently predicted life satisfaction (R 2 = .24; F = 62.56; p<.05). Being grateful and having purpose are crucial for a comprehensive examination of life satisfaction.
Article
Gratitude science often conflates the processes of actors recalling and sharing gratitude, as well as neglecting to study targets (benefactors receiving gratitude) and witnesses (those witnessing gratitude). We explored the roles (actors, targets, and witnesses) and processes (recalling, sharing, receiving, and witnessing) involved in gratitude exchanges. In Study 1, undergraduate students (actors; N = 369) wrote letters about either gratitude or daily activities to their parents (targets; N = 247), with half instructed to share their letters with their parents, and half not to share. In Study 2, adolescents (witnesses; N = 267) read either gratitude, positive, or neutral letters written by hypothetical peers addressed to benefactors. Actors recalling gratitude showed improvements in state gratitude, mood, and satisfaction (partial rs = .11 to .15; Study 1); actors sharing gratitude experienced boosts in state gratitude and relationship closeness (rs = .13 to .19; Study 1); targets receiving gratitude demonstrated increases in state gratitude, indebtedness, and elevation (rs = .14 to .16; Study 1); and witnesses observing gratitude reported increased positive affect and elevation (rs = .24), but decreased state gratitude (r = −.12; Study 2). These studies provide initial evidence that different gratitude roles and processes have divergent effects.
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The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between indebtedness and attachment styles among university students. The study was designed as a correlational study. The participants of the study consisted of 332 (246 women and 86 men) university students who were enrolled in education faculty at a state founded university in Turkey. As data collection tools, the Indebtedness Scale (ISR-S), the Attachment Styles in Interpersonal Relations Scale (ATIRS), and the Personel Information Form developed by the researchers were administered. According to the structural equation model created to examine the relationship between indebtedness and attachment styles of university students, the results revealed that secure attachment had a negative effect on indebtedness, and avoidant and anxious attachment had a positive effect on indebtedness. The model was found to fit acceptable (x2 / df. = 1.80, GFI = .88 AGFI = .86, IFI = .90, RMSEA = .05).
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
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Gratitude and pride are both positive emotions. Yet gratitude motivates people to help others and build up relationships, whereas pride motivates people to pursue achievements and build on self-esteem. Although these social outcomes are crucial for humans to be evolutionarily adaptive, no study so far has systematically compared gratitude and pride to understand why and how they can motivate humans differently. In this review, we compared gratitude and pride from their etymologies, cognitive prerequisites, motivational functions, and brain regions involved. By integrating the evidence from brain and behavior, we suggest that gratitude and pride share a common reward basis, yet gratitude is more related to theory of mind, while pride is more related to self-referential processing. Moreover, we proposed a cognitive neuroscientific model to explain the dynamics in gratitude and pride under a reinforcement learning framework.
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This study aimed to determine if a brief gratitude-focused meditation would significantly impact body dissatisfaction, and whether it would serve as a protective factor from exposure to thin idealized images in a sample of undergraduate women. 176 participants (Mage= 19.75) engaged in either a gratitude meditation, mindfulness meditation, or listened to a recording of a history textbook. Women were subsequently exposed to a set of neutral images or thin ideal images. Women reported significant decreases in state body dissatisfaction following all auditory conditions, regardless of auditory content. Decreased levels of body dissatisfaction persisted through exposure to neutral images, but not through exposure to thin ideal images. Results indicated that both the gratitude and mindfulness interventions were effective in eliciting a significant increase in self-reported levels of gratitude and mindfulness compared to controls. The results of the study suggest that auditory micro-interventions can decrease body dissatisfaction in young adult women. However, further investigation into the optimal modality, length, and frequency of micro-interventions aimed at buffering the negative effects of idealized thin image exposure on women is needed.
Conference Paper
Decades of research demonstrate that expressing gratitude has various psychological and physical benefits. At the same time, gratitude routines run the risk of being a hassle activity, which diminishes the positive outcome. Speech assistants might help to integrate gratitude routines more easily in an intuitive way using voice input. The results of our 8-day field study with two experimental groups (Alexa group vs. Paper group, N = 8) show that users see the benefits, that Alexa was effective in reducing participants’ stress and that both groups express their gratitude differently. The positive effect of Alexa was restricted by a security setting (limiting user input to eight seconds) imposed by Amazon, which has now been repealed. The findings give practical and theoretical implications of how verbal gratitude expression affects participants’ well-being.
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p>This study aims to determine whether transformational leadership, exchange norm, and communal norm have a positive relationship with employee voice. This study was shown to private employees of the banking industry with 133 respondents consisting of 98% male respondents and 2% female respondents. The instrument used for data collection is a questionnaire, which consists of 13 indicators. Testing of the questionnaire was carried out by means of a validity test which resulted in sig < α (0.000 < 0.05) and a reliability test which resulted in Cronbach's Alpha > 0.7. Furthermore, the tool used in analyzing the data is IBM SPSS 25. The results of this study reveal that transformational leadership has a positive relationship with exchange norm, transformational leadership has a positive relationship with communal norm, transformational leadership has a positive relationship with employee voice, norm exchange has a positive relationship with employee voice, and communal norm have a positive relationship with employee voice.</p
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We investigated the relationship between the emotional states of gratitude and indebtedness in two studies. Although many have suggested that these affects are essentially equivalent, we submit that they are distinct emotional states. Following Heider (1958), we propose that with increasing expectations of return communicated with a gift by a benefactor, indebtedness should increase but gratitude should decrease. The results of two vignette studies supported this hypothesis, and patterns of thought/action tendencies showed these states to be distinct. In addition, we found that with increasing expectations communicated by a benefactor, beneficiaries reported that they would be less likely to help the benefactor in the future. Taken together, we argue that the debt of gratitude is internally generated, and is not analogous to an economic form of indebtedness.
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in our discussion of emotion and dysfunction, we have intimated that emotions are instructive about persons because both emotions and the personality are organized around the problem of surviving, getting along, and flourishing over the life course begin by addressing the question of what an emotion is / describe our own [the authors'] recent work directed at illuminating what we see as one of the important issues in emotion theory—the role of cognitive appraisal embed this work in a general model of emotion, which identifies the key variables and processes within a systems framework emphasizing person-environment relationships and cognitive mediation illustrate how emotion theory makes firm contact with a variety of topics currently being pursued across diverse psychological disciplines, especially personality and social psychology the adaptational problem and the evolution of emotion / appraisal theory / personality, society, and biology in emotion (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Fear causes fleeing and thereby saves lives: this exemplifies a popular and common sense but increasingly untenable view that the direct causation of behavior is the primary function of emotion. Instead, the authors develop a theory of emotion as a feedback system whose influence on behavior is typically indirect. By providing feedback and stimulating retrospective appraisal of actions, conscious emotional states can promote learning and alter guidelines for future behavior. Behavior may also be chosen to pursue (or avoid) anticipated emotional outcomes. Rapid, automatic affective responses, in contrast to the full-blown conscious emotions, may inform cognition and behavioral choice and thereby help guide current behavior. The automatic affective responses may also remind the person of past emotional outcomes and provide useful guides as to what emotional outcomes may be anticipated in the present. To justify replacing the direct causation model with the feedback model, the authors review a large body of empirical findings.
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The emotion of gratitude is thought to have social effects, but empirical studies of such effects have focused largely on the repaying of kind gestures. The current research focused on the relational antecedents of gratitude and its implications for relationship formation. The authors examined the role of naturally occurring gratitude in college sororities during a week of gift-giving from older members to new members. New members recorded reactions to benefits received during the week. At the end of the week and 1 month later, the new and old members rated their interactions and their relationships. Perceptions of benefactor responsiveness predicted gratitude for benefits, and gratitude during the week predicted future relationship outcomes. Gratitude may function to promote relationship formation and maintenance.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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This paper considers how people react to those who have helped them. We propose that a recipient's evaluation of a helper's intentions and the recipient's own attitudes about future interactions with the helper depend partly on the way in which the helper appears to have decided to assist: on the basis of positive affect, of organizational role, or of cost-benefit calculation. When a recipient perceives that a helping decision was based on affect (i.e., positive feelings about the recipient), she will be more inclined toward future interaction and reciprocation with the helper than if she perceives the decision as having been based on role or cost-benefit considerations. We propose that these "decision modes" signal the helper's underlying attitudes about the recipient, which, in turn, clarify the relationship with the helper. We also examine a boundary condition: modes have their greatest impact when the amount of help provided is small. We confirmed our predictions in four studies of actual and experimentally-manipulated helping episodes. Our results challenge models of reciprocation that focus predominantly on benefit magnitude or felt gratitude.
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1. Introduction The study of emotion Types of evidence for theories of emotion Some goals for a cognitive theory of emotion 2. Structure of the theory The organisation of emotion types Basic emotions Some implications of the emotions-as-valenced-reactions claim 3. The cognitive psychology of appraisal The appraisal structure Central intensity variables 4. The intensity of emotions Global variables Local variables Variable-values, variable-weights, and emotion thresholds 5. Reactions to events: I. The well-being emotions Loss emotions and fine-grained analyses The fortunes-of-others emotions Self-pity and related states 6. Reactions to events: II. The prospect-based emotions Shock and pleasant surprise Some interrelationships between prospect-based emotions Suspense, resignation, hopelessness, and other related states 7. Reactions to agents The attribution emotions Gratitude, anger, and some other compound emotions 8. Reactions to objects The attraction emotions Fine-grained analyses and emotion sequences 9. The boundaries of the theory Emotion words and cross-cultural issues Emotion experiences and unconscious emotions Coping and the function of emotions Computational tractability.
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This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
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The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.
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On the assumption that indebtedness is an aversive state, this study tested the hypothesis that Ss who do not anticipate being able to return a favor are less willing to ask for and receive needed help than Ss who anticipate bieng able to reciprocate. 48 Ss were assigned to one of four cells in a 2 x 2 factorial design, the independent variables being sex and anticipation of reciprocity. All three measures of unwillingness to ask for and receive help yielded data consistent with the hypothesis. There were no sex differences, nor was there any interaction between sex and anticipation of reciprocity.
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In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) de® ne emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus on the bene® cial consequences of emotions. This conceptual approach to emotion is complemented by several empirical strategies, including the study of emotion dysfunction, the effects of emotions on others, and the relations between emotions and personal and social outcomes. We conclude by considering how functional accounts of emotion vary, including in terms of their level of analysis, speci® city, manner of organisation, and range of focus, and the implications functional accounts have for the study of emotion.
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Using the distinction between communal and exchange relationships, it was hypothesized that failure to offer repayment for a favour would create perceptions of exploitativeness and decreases in attraction in exchange relationships but not in communal relationships. To test these hypotheses, subjects were led to expect a communal or an exchange relationship with a confederate. Shortly afterwards, the confederate asked the subject for a favour and subsequently either promised repayment or not. Finally, subjects indicated how exploitative and attractive they perceived the other to be. As predicted, failure to offer repayment increased perceived exploitativeness and decreased attraction when an exchange relationship was expected but not when a communal relationship was expected.
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People feel grateful when they have benefited from someone's costly, intentional, voluntary effort on their behalf. Experiencing gratitude motivates beneficiaries to repay their benefactors and to extend generosity to third parties. Expressions of gratitude also reinforce benefactors for their generosity. These social features distinguish gratitude from related emotions such as happiness and feelings of indebtedness. Evolutionary theories propose that gratitude is an adaptation for reciprocal altruism (the sequential exchange of costly benefits between nonrelatives) and, perhaps, upstream reciprocity (a pay-it-forward style distribution of an unearned benefit to a third party after one has received a benefit from another benefactor). Gratitude therefore may have played a unique role in human social evolution.
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Communal relationships, in which the giving of a benefit in response to a need for the benefit is appropriate, are distinguished from exchange relationships, in which the giving of a benefit in response to the receipt of a benefit is appropriate. Based on this distinction, it was hypothesized that the receipt of a benefit after the person has been benefited leads to greater attraction when an exchange relationship is preferred and decreases attraction when a communal relationship is desired. These hypotheses were supported in Exp I, which used 96 male undergraduates. Exp II, which used a different manipulation of exchange vs communal relationships with 80 female undergraduates, supported the hypotheses that (a) a request for a benefit after the S is aided by the other leads to greater attraction when an exchange relationship is expected and decreases attraction when a communal relationship is expected, and (b) a request for a benefit in the absence of prior aid from the other decreases attraction when an exchange relationship is expected. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter, the authors present a social functional account of emotions that attempts to integrate the relevant insights of evolutionary and social constructivist theorists. The authors' account is summarized in 3 statements: (1) social living presents social animals with problems whose solutions are critical for individual survival; (2) emotions have been designed in the course of evolution to solve these problems; and (3) in humans, culture loosens the linkages between emotions and problems so that cultures find new ways of using emotions. In the first half of the chapter the authors synthesize the positions of diverse theorists in a taxonomy of problems of social living and then consider how evolution-based primordial emotions solve those problems by coordinating social interactions. In the second half of the chapter the authors discuss the specific processes according to which culture transforms primordial emotions and how culturally shaped elaborated emotions help solve the problems of social living. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This paper reviews the impact of anger on judgment and decision making. Section I proposes that anger merits special attention in the study of judgment and decision making because the effects of anger often diverge from those of other negative emotions. Section II presents an Appraisal-Tendency Framework for predicting and organizing such effects. Section III reviews empirical evidence for the uniqueness of anger's relations to judgment and decision making. Section IV connects the Appraisal-Tendency Framework to associated mechanisms and theories. Drawing on the evidence, Section V presents the question of whether anger should be considered a positive emotion. It also proposes the hypothesis that anger will be experienced as relatively unpleasant and unrewarding when reflecting back on the source of one's anger but experienced as relatively pleasant and rewarding when looking forward. Section VI synthesizes the evidence into a new portrait of the angry decision maker. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14–15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving less sleep at night, in turn, was modestly but consistently related to higher levels of anxiety, depressive feelings, and fatigue during the following day. In addition, the daily variability in adolescents' sleep time was notable and just as important for the youths' average levels of daily psychological well-being as was the average amount of time spent sleeping each night. A small number of ethnic and gender differences emerged in the dynamics of adolescent sleep, activities, and well-being. Discussion focuses on the importance of examining variability in adolescents' sleep behaviors in order to better understand the implications of sleep for adolescent well-being and development.
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Although the perception of available support is associated with positive outcomes, the receipt of actual support from close others is often associated with negative outcomes. In fact, support that is "invisible" (not perceived by the support recipient) is associated with better outcomes than "visible" support. To investigate this paradox, we proposed that received support (both visible and invisible) would be beneficial when it was responsive to the recipient's needs. Sixty-seven cohabiting couples participated in a daily-experience study in which they reported on the support they provided and received each day. Results indicated that both visible and invisible support were beneficial (i.e., associated with less sadness and anxiety and with greater relationship quality) only when the support was responsive. These findings suggest that the nature of support is an important determinant of when received support will be beneficial.
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People are often profoundly moved by the virtue or skill of others, yet psychology has little to say about the 'other-praising' family of emotions. Here we demonstrate that emotions such as elevation, gratitude, and admiration differ from more commonly studied forms of positive affect (joy and amusement) in many ways, and from each other in a few ways. The results of studies using recall, video induction, event-contingent diary, and letter-writing methods to induce other-praising emotions suggest that: elevation (a response to moral excellence) motivates prosocial and affiliative behavior, gratitude motivates improved relationships with benefactors, and admiration motivates self-improvement. Mediation analyses highlight the role of conscious emotion between appraisals and motivations. Discussion focuses on implications for emotion research, interpersonal relationships, and morality.
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PREDICTED THAT FEELINGS OF GRATITUDE ARE A FUNCTION OF THE RECIPIENT'S PERCEPTIONS OF THE INTENTION OF THE BENEFACTOR, THE COST TO THE BENEFACTOR IN PROVIDING THE BENEFIT, AND THE VALUE OF THE BENEFIT. 126 MALE STUDENTS READ VARIANTS OF EACH OF 3 STORY THEMES AND INDICATED THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF THE ABOVE 3 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES AND ALSO HOW GRATEFUL THEY FELT TOWARD THE BENEFACTOR. EACH OF THE 3 PREDICTED FACTORS WAS SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO FELT GRATITUDE. NO INTERACTIONS WERE FOUND. MULTIPLE REGRESSION WAS PERFORMED FOR EACH THEME. VALIDATION ON A HOLD-OUT GROUP WAS .73, .82, AND .71 FOR THE 3 THEMES.
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The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.