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# ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing Prescription

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... Indeed, the structure of prescription followed the F.I.T.T principle (frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise) [35]. But we re-organized the construction form into two dimensions: type, which is equivalent to the type of FITT, and volume that contains frequency, intensity, and time (rename as duration) [35]. ...
... Indeed, the structure of prescription followed the F.I.T.T principle (frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise) [35]. But we re-organized the construction form into two dimensions: type, which is equivalent to the type of FITT, and volume that contains frequency, intensity, and time (rename as duration) [35]. ...
... For the content, we had consulted three current evidence-based guidelines related to pulmonary rehabilitation, including the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) [7], the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) [35], the Australia Lung Foundation [36], etc. [37,38]. Combined them with opinions from the practice-based experience of the HCPs from our team, exercises that were accessible in the home environment were selected. ...
Article
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Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience deficits in exercise capacity and physical activity as their disease progresses. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can enhance exercise capacity of patients and it is crucial for patients to maintain a lifestyle which is long-term physically active. This study aimed to develop a home-based rehabilitation mHealth system incorporating behavior change techniques (BCTs) for COPD patients, and evaluate its technology acceptance and feasibility. Methods Guided by the medical research council (MRC) framework the process of this study was divided into four steps. In the first step, the prescription was constructed. The second step was to formulate specific intervention functions based on the behavior change wheel theory. Subsequently, in the third step we conducted iterative system development. And in the last step two pilot studies were performed, the first was for the improvement of system functions and the second was to explore potential clinical benefits and validate the acceptance and usability of the system. Results A total of 17 participants were enrolled, among them 12 COPD participants completed the 12-week study. For the clinical outcomes, Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) showed significant difference (P = .023) over time with an improvement exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Change in respiratory symptom (CAT score) was statistically different (P = .031) with a greater decrease of − 3. The mMRC levels reduced overall and showed significant difference. The overall compliance of this study reached 82.20% (± 1.68%). The results of questionnaire and interviews indicated good technology acceptance and functional usability. The participants were satisfied with the mHealth-based intervention. Conclusions This study developed a home-based PR mHealth system for COPD patients. We showed that the home-based PR mHealth system incorporating BCTs is a feasible and acceptable intervention for COPD patients, and COPD patients can benefit from the intervention delivered by the system. The proposed system played an important auxiliary role in offering exercise prescription according to the characteristics of patients. It provided means and tools for further individuation of exercise prescription in the future.
... Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a health-related component of physical fitness driven by the ability of the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and respiratory systems to utilize oxygen during bouts of physical activity [1]. A large body of evidence has identified low CRF (unfit) as a predictor for heart disease, diabetes, stroke, cancer, hypertension, depression, poor sleep, and falls [2]. ...
... An automated sphygmomanometer measured the resting blood pressure and heart rate with the participant in a sitting position. American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines were used to conduct VO 2 max (mL/kg/min) testing and determine CRF for each participant by the Åstrand-Rhyming cycle ergometer test [1]. Heart rate was measured using the RR interval on an electrocardiogram. ...
... Heart rate was measured using the RR interval on an electrocardiogram. Target heart rate was set as 85% of maximum heart rate estimated from age (220-age), and load (kg) was gradually added per the Åstrand-Rhyming protocol [1]. VO2max was calculated using the Åstrand-Rhyming nomogram, based on the peak heart rate obtained from the last 1 min of each participant's peak load and the Åstrand age correction factors [1]. ...
Article
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Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. In Japan, annual physical exams are mandatory in workplace settings, and most healthcare settings have electronic medical records (EMRs). However, in both settings, CRF is not usually determined, thereby limiting the potential for epidemiological investigations using EMR data. Purpose: To estimate CRF (mL/kg/min) using variables commonly recorded in EMRs. Methods: Participants were 5293 Japanese adults (11.7% women) who completed an annual physical exam at a large gas company in Tokyo, Japan, in 2004. The mean age was 48.3 ± 8.0 years. Estimated CRF (eCRF) was based on age, measured body mass index, resting heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and smoking. Measured CRF was determined by a submaximal cycle ergometer graded exercise test. Results: Regression models were used for males and females to calculate Pearson's correlation and regression coefficients. Cross-classification of measured CRF and eCRF was conducted using the lowest quintile, quartile, and tertile as the unfit categories. R's for eCRF were 0.61 (MD 4.41) for men and 0.64 (MD 4.22) for women. The overall accuracy level was reasonable and consistent across models, yet the unfit lower tertile model provided the best overall model when considering the positive predictive value and sensitivity. Conclusion: eCRF may provide a useful method for conducting investigations using data derived from EMRs or datasets devoid of CRF or physical activity measures.
... Cardiorespiratory fitness refers to the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to muscles and other bodily tissues during exertion (158). Exercise tests are a standard method of measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, such as using a stationary bike with increasing resistance to exhaustion or a pre-specified time limit (159). These tests aim to measure maximum or peak oxygen consumption (VO2max or VO2peak) directly or indirectly in the blood, reflecting the efficiency of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exertion as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness (I return to these measures in Chapter 2.3.2). ...
... Chapter 7 is a systematic review that includes a variety of measures for cardiorespiratory fitness. The gold standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness is a maximal exercise test with gas analysis (159). These tests typically involve participants using a cycle ergometer or treadmill with an increasing (graded) intensity to exhaustion (maximal), while wearing a face mask to measure respiration directly. ...
... My exposure was cardiorespiratory fitness measured using any validated method. Gold standard measures of cardiorespiratory fitness use a maximal exercise test protocol with gas analysis (159). But these tests are expensive and difficult to administer in population-based cohorts. ...
Thesis
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Objectives: 1) Develop a framework of the biological and psychosocial pathways through which physical activity may influence depressive symptoms. 2) Examine the association of device-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour with common mental health disorder (CMD; depression and anxiety) symptoms across the lifespan. 3) Investigate the associations of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness with CMDs in the population. / Methods: Objective 1: A narrative review on potential biological and psychosocial mechanisms underpinning the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms. Objective 2: Three prospective cohort studies of associations between accelerometer-based sedentary behaviour and physical activity with CMD symptoms in adolescents and adults. Objective 3: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and CMD symptoms and a prospective cohort study on associations of cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness with CMD symptom scales. / Results: Objective 1: The conceptual framework included neuroplasticity, oxidative stress, inflammation, endocrine responses, self-esteem, and social support as possible mediators underlying the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms. Objective 2: Sedentary behaviour was positively associated with CMD symptoms. An hour of light activity was associated with 8-16% lower CMD scores in adolescents but 1% lower depressive scores and 4% higher anxiety in adults. An hour of moderate-vigorous activity was associated with 6-12% lower CMD scores in adults but there was no association in adolescents. Objective 3: The meta-analysis showed that low cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with 47% higher risk of CMD incidence than high cardiorespiratory fitness. The prospective cohort study showed that low cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were associated with 1.48 and 1.38 higher odds of CMD incidence, respectively compared to high fitness. / Conclusions: High sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory or muscular fitness are CMD risk factors, but the optimal intensity for replacing sedentary behaviour was unclear and could vary by age.
... The energy expenditure during the exercise was calculated from ACSM equation (17). ACSM guidelines provide formulas to calculate energy expenditure for running speeds when caloric expenditure is calculated based on oxygen consumption (17). ...
... The energy expenditure during the exercise was calculated from ACSM equation (17). ACSM guidelines provide formulas to calculate energy expenditure for running speeds when caloric expenditure is calculated based on oxygen consumption (17). ...
... The intervention commenced after one week of baseline assessments. Participants in the intervention group attended three sessions per week for eight weeks which is deemed as a reasonable duration for both neuromuscular and physiological adaptations [47], with at least a 48-hour recovery period between sessions [47,48]. After completing the study, the control group also received the intervention program due to ethical considerations. ...
... The intervention commenced after one week of baseline assessments. Participants in the intervention group attended three sessions per week for eight weeks which is deemed as a reasonable duration for both neuromuscular and physiological adaptations [47], with at least a 48-hour recovery period between sessions [47,48]. After completing the study, the control group also received the intervention program due to ethical considerations. ...
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Background Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is a prevalent movement impairment widely regarded as a risk factor for lower extremity disorders such as patellofemoral pain syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the comprehensive corrective exercise program (CCEP) on kinematics and strength of lower extremities in males with DKV. Methods Thirty asymptomatic young men with DKV between the ages of 18 and 28 years participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 15) and control groups (n = 15). The intervention group performed the CCEP for three sessions per week for eight weeks, while the control group only did activities of daily living. Hip external rotator and abductor muscle strength and three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics consisting of knee varus/valgus, femur adduction/abduction, femur medial/lateral rotation, and tibial medial/lateral rotation were measured at the baseline and post-test. The data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results There were significant improvements in all kinematics variables in the intervention group after the 8-week CCEP. Moreover, the strength of abductor and external rotator muscle improved in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The CCEP led to substantial improvements in the selected variables of lower extremity kinematics and muscle strength in participants with DKV during a single-leg squat. These results imply that practitioners should adopt a comprehensive approach to pay simultaneous attention to both proximal and distal segments for improving DKV. Trial registration The protocol has been approved in the Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration N: IRCT20180821040843N1) on 2018-12-30.
... During the exercise, blood pressure and heart rate will be continuously monitored (Domyus Incline Rune, China). To implement the treadmill protocol, patients must be at rest, informed about the termination criteria (excluding safety criteria), about permission to use the handrail support, and informed about the claudication pain scale used [37]. The termination criterion is the limit of 500 m of pain-free walking distance (PFWD), but there are additional endpoints: voluntary exhaustion, fatigue and shortness of breath, and severe pain in another part of the body (e.g., spine). ...
... The termination criterion is the limit of 500 m of pain-free walking distance (PFWD), but there are additional endpoints: voluntary exhaustion, fatigue and shortness of breath, and severe pain in another part of the body (e.g., spine). The claudication pain scale is a continuous scale from 0-indicating no pain, to 4-indicating severe pain, and patients are instructed to walk to nearmaximal pain levels [37]. No encouragements will be given during the test. ...
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... Collectively, large epidemiological studies and several randomized controlled trials, including both the general population and those with CKD, provide evidence that increased physical activity can reduce the risk of mortality [117][118][119][120]. The recommendations for frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise are still being developed for those with CKD [121]. General recommendations listed for the CKD population include gradually increasing physical activity to the following: aerobic exercise 3-5 days/week for 20-60 min, resistance training 2-3 days/week, and flexibility 2-3 days/week [121]. ...
... The recommendations for frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise are still being developed for those with CKD [121]. General recommendations listed for the CKD population include gradually increasing physical activity to the following: aerobic exercise 3-5 days/week for 20-60 min, resistance training 2-3 days/week, and flexibility 2-3 days/week [121]. Another recommendation specific to the PKD population has been to avoid hard contact sports, such as rugby or American football, due to the potential of kidney cysts rupturing from impact [122]. ...
Article
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Obesity remains a growing public health concern in industrialized countries around the world. The prevalence of obesity has also continued to rise in those with chronic kidney disease. Epidemiological data suggests those with overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index, have an increased risk for rapid kidney disease progression. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease causes growth and proliferation of kidney cysts resulting in a reduction in kidney function in the majority of adults. An accumulation of adipose tissue may further exacerbate the metabolic defects that have been associated with ADPKD by affecting various cell signaling pathways. Lifestyle interventions inducing weight loss might help delay disease progression by reducing adipose tissue and systematic inflammation. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic influence of adipose tissue on disease progression.
... Aerobic fitness is defined as the individual´s capacity to perform incremental exercise intensities while still predominantly metabolizing oxygen to meet energy demands, which results in only low blood lactate levels. Aerobic fitness is a proxy for endurance capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness [97][98][99] . To assess aerobic fitness, participants performed a lactate threshold test while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. ...
Article
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Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are common in individuals with schizophrenia, greatly affect their outcome, and have been associated with alterations in cerebral gray and white matter volume (GMV, WMV). In the last decade, aerobic endurance training has emerged as a promising intervention to alleviate these symptoms and improved aerobic fitness has been suggested as a key moderator variable. In the present study, we investigated, whether aerobic fitness is associated with fewer cognitive deficits and negative symptoms and with GMVs and WMVs in individuals with schizophrenia in a cross-sectional design. In the largest study to date on the implications of fitness in individuals with schizophrenia, 111 participants at two centers underwent assessments of negative symptoms, cognitive functioning, and aerobic fitness and 69 underwent additional structural magnetic resonance imaging. Multilevel Bayesian partial correlations were computed to quantify relationships between the variables of interest. The main finding was a positive association of aerobic fitness with right hippocampal GMV and WMVs in parahippocampal and several cerebellar regions. We found limited evidence for an association of aerobic fitness with cognitive functioning and negative symptoms. In summary, our results strengthen the notion that aerobic fitness and hippocampal plasticity are interrelated which holds implications for the design of exercise interventions in individuals with schizophrenia.
... For example, body fat is expected to decrease or increase with masculinizing and feminizing HT, respectively, which is further complicated by the sex-specific reference values for body fat percentage. 5,19 This presents a unique question for nutrition and dietetics practitioners regarding how to best interpret a client's data. Currently no clinical practice standards exist to guide the nutrition care of TGGD clients, although we can apply clinical reasoning and draw from advancements in the broader medical community. ...
... Exercise protocol or modalities were classified as either high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), aerobic continuous exercise (ACE), resistance exercise (RE) or flexibility exercise (FE). Using the American College of Sports Medicine's exercise intensity recommendations [18], protocols performed at 45-63% of VO 2 max (64-75% of HRmax) were classified as moderate intensity, protocols performed at 64-90% of VO 2 max (76-95% of HRmax) were classified as vigorous, while protocols performed at ≥91% of VO 2 max (≥96% of HRmax) were considered near maximal to maximal. The corresponding author (NMFF) checked the extractions. ...
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Abstract: Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to and delayed recovery from stress increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the future. While exercise training has been shown to attenuate stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and enhance recovery from stress, the effects with acute exercise are less characterized. The aim of this scoping review was to explore the range and characteristics of published evidence regarding acute exercise on cardiovascular reactivity and stress recovery. The secondary objective was to highlight research gaps and implications for future research. A total of 36 articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria, involving 1200 participants from various age groups, fitness and health status. Blood pressure (BP) reactivity was the most measured outcome, followed by heart rate (HR) reactivity, and to some extent, heart rate variability. Overall, acute exercise particularly of the moderate-intensity aerobic type effectively reduced stress-induced BP reactivity in the general population. The effects on HR reactivity and cardiovascular recovery were inconclusive. Further research would be recommended to establish if other forms of exercise intensity or type are equally beneficial to lower exaggerated cardiovascular responses to stress. Despite methodological differences and limitations, the available evidence supports the therapeutic potential of acute exercise in addressing the ill effects of stress on cardiovascular health.
... Each session included approximately 10 minutes of warm-up and cool-down, during which participants focused on range of motion and active stretching. The main portion of the walking exercise program, which consisted of 3 walking sessions per week, was designed following the ACSM physical activity guidelines for adults between the ages of 18-64 years [16]. In order to reap greater health benefits from the exercise program, a minimum of 300 minutes per week. ...
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Purpose: Overweight and/or obesity is a growing problem over the world. Alongside a range of health problems associated with increased body mass (BM)-adiposity and reducing of fitness level it is an important limiting factor for realization of regular physical exercise and quality of life. Therefore, the aim of our study was to verify the effect of physical intervention based on walking in men of middle age with different weight status with minimal changes in their eating habits. Material and Methods: Study was carried out in 25 middle age men with normal BM (mean age=43.7±3.6 years; BM=78.3±3.9 kg; height=177.5±4.6 cm; %BF=22.1±2.1 %, VO2peak=33.2±3.1 ml/kg.min), 26 overweight men (42.0 ±2.9; 89.9±3.1; 178.1±4.0; 27.9±2.2; 30.2±3.9) and 18 obese men (43.8±3.0; 97.4±4.6; 178.3±3.2; 33.1±3.4; 24.1±4.2). All these subjects were without regularly movement training before the starting of intervention. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance method using prediction equations that are valid for the Czech men population, functional variables were assessed on a treadmill. Results: The energy content per kg BM of weekly exercise for subjects with normal BM was 20.40±4.51 kcal/kg (13.4-20.4 kcal/kg), in overweight 20.36±3.00 kcal/kg (15.4-24.5), and in obese 20.33±3.39 kcal/kg (17.6-24.0). Reduction in %BF ranged from 9.4±2.7 % in obese to 8.6±2.1 % in normal BM of starting value, ECM/BCM relationship was decreased from 11.0±1.4 % in subjects with normal BM to 12.2±1.9 % in obese, and in VO2peak increased from 10.3±2.2 % in normal BM to 12.7±2.6 % in obese. In men differing in BM are absolute changes in adiposity and aerobic fitness like a result of imposed movement intervention substantively and statistically significant (p<0.05, d≥0.05). On the contrary, differences in percentages of pre-intervention values are non-significant. Conclusion: Exercise program with a similar energy content, form and intensity causes the similar changes in adiposity and in functional performance in middle age men, differing in BM. Movement intervention based on walking reduces body weight and at the same time improves the morphological preconditions for physical activity.
... There were no statistically significant differences in the chair stand test [28], flexibility [29], balance, and handgrip strength [30] when comparing the control and intervention group. Our exercise prescription followed the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines [31] and included resistance training in order to improve muscle strength and endurance. Typical resistance training programs include 8 to 12 repetitions for 8 to 10 separate exercises [32]. ...
Article
Background Evidence supports the association between exercise and outcomes following bariatric surgery. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the short-term benefits of preoperative exercise. Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and functional benefits of a 12-week preoperative exercise program in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. The primary aim was the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The secondary aim of this study included anthropometric measures, strength, and quality of life. Methods A total of 54 patients were enrolled in this pilot randomized controlled study. Of them, 29 patients received standard multidisciplinary preoperative care, while 25 patients participated in a 12-week supervised exercise program in addition to standard preoperative care consisting of strength and aerobic exercises three times per week in a fitness facility. The primary outcome was improvement in 6MWT. Secondary outcomes included other functional outcomes, quality of life, and anthropometric measures. Results Average attendance for the intervention group was 27.2 (75.6%) of 36 sessions. There was a mean improvement of 27 ± 10 meters in the intervention group compared with a reduction of 5 ± 10 meters in the control group (p = 0.003). Patients in the intervention group had significant improvement in all self-reported quality-of-life domains, particularly in the variables related to symptoms, hygiene, and emotions. Conclusions A 12-week preoperative exercise intervention was feasible and showed association with a statistically significant improvement in 6MWT and quality-of-life measures in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. The results of this study will inform sample size calculations and recruitment planning for a future study that will assess the longer-term benefits of a pre-surgical fitness intervention.
... Mild to moderate aerobic exercise has been associated with post-exercise hypoglycemia in T1DM, as the circulating insulin level does not drop at the start of exercise [9]. Late-onset hypoglycemia more commonly occurs after morning exercise as compared to afternoon exercise in patients with T1DM [10]. ...
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by affected individuals' autoimmune response to their own pancreatic beta-cell. It affects millions of people worldwide. Exercise has numerous health and social benefits for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, careful management of blood glucose is crucial to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Anaerobic and aerobic exercises cause different glycemic responses during and after exercise, each of which will affect athletes' ability to reach their target blood glucose ranges. The optimization of the patient's macronutrient consumption, especially carbohydrates, the dosage of basal and short-acting insulin, and the frequent monitoring of blood glucose, will enable athletes to perform at peak levels while reducing their risk of dysglycemia. Despite best efforts, hypoglycemia can occur. Recognition of symptoms and rapid treatment with either fast-acting carbohydrates or glucagon is important. Continuous glucose monitoring devices have become more widely used in preventing hypoglycemia.
... American College of Sports Medicine (2013). This same entity recommends that training for hypertrophy should be performed with intensities between 70 and 85% of 1RM. ...
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Background The Erythroxylaceae family is known worldwide for its species that contain compounds with a marked positive effect on physical performance, such as ephedrine and coca. E. mucronatum is a species of this family found in several parts of South America, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil, used by natives to improve strength and physical performance. Purpose We set out to investigate, for the first time, in a series of experiments whether the ethanolic extract of E. mucronatum (EEM) had any effect on performance and strength of rats undergoing resistance training. Methods We promoted a supplementation with EEM and searched it increased strength, muscular endurance and reduced body fat in the rodents. Results we registered a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and an increase in superoxide dismutase in the exercised muscles. EEM supplementation did not alter the effect of exercise on blood pressure and heart rate. Additionally, we noticed a significant reduction in two markers of muscle damage, CK and LDH, but no alterations were observed in the levels of ALT and AST. Conclusions The results showed that EEM was able to improve the physical performance of the rats without any remarkable adverse effects on hemodynamic variables, so it should be further investigated to examine whether it also has potential as an effective dietary supplement in humans to improve performance in resistance exercise cycles.
... However, tight hip flexors (9) and lack of lumbar or hip (9) or thoracic (10) mobility were not related to low back pain. Nonetheless, it has been frequently suggested that adequate flexibility can attenuate the incidence and severity of low back pain (4,(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). ...
Article
While muscle stretching has been commonly used to alleviate pain, reports of its effectiveness are conflicting. The objective of this review is to investigate the acute and chronic effects of stretching on pain, including delayed onset muscle soreness. The few studies implementing acute stretching protocols have reported small to large magnitude decreases in quadriceps and anterior knee pain as well as reductions in headache pain. Chronic stretching programs have demonstrated more consistent reductions in pain from a wide variety of joints and muscles, which has been ascribed to an increased sensory (pain) tolerance. Other mechanisms underlying acute and chronic pain reduction have been proposed to be related to gate control theory, diffuse noxious inhibitory control, myofascial meridians, and reflex-induced increases in parasympathetic nervous activity. By contrast, the acute effects of stretching on delayed onset muscle soreness are conflicting. Reports of stretch-induced reductions in delayed onset muscle soreness may be attributed to increased pain tolerance or alterations in the muscle's parallel elastic component or extracellular matrix properties providing protection against tissue damage. Further research evaluating the effect of various stretching protocols on different pain modalities is needed to clarify conflicts within the literature.
... Based on these findings, running may be considered an exercise mode that benefits mood, which is an important factor for exercise adherence 51 . Another psychological response observed here is an observed RPE that was lower than the reference range 45 . Theoretically, RPE is a recognized marker of intensity and homeostatic disturbance during exercise as well as an effective way to monitor physical effort 52,53 . ...
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Running, compared to pedaling is a whole-body locomotive movement that may confer more mental health via strongly stimulating brains, although running impacts on mental health but their underlying brain mechanisms have yet to be determined; since almost the mechanistic studies have been done with pedaling. We thus aimed at determining the acute effect of a single bout of running at moderate-intensity, the most popular condition, on mood and executive function as well as their neural substrates in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Twenty-six healthy participants completed both a 10-min running session on a treadmill at 50% $${\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{{{\text{2peak}}}}$$ V ˙ O 2peak and a resting control session in randomized order. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop interference time from the color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and mood was assessed using the Two-Dimensional Mood Scale, before and after both sessions. Prefrontal hemodynamic changes while performing the CWST were investigated using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Running resulted in significant enhanced arousal and pleasure level compared to control. Running also caused significant greater reduction of Stroop interference time and increase in Oxy-Hb signals in bilateral PFCs. Besides, we found a significant association among pleasure level, Stroop interference reaction time, and the left dorsolateral PFCs: important brain loci for inhibitory control and mood regulation. To our knowledge, an acute moderate-intensity running has the beneficial of inducing a positive mood and enhancing executive function coinciding with cortical activation in the prefrontal subregions involved in inhibitory control and mood regulation. These results together with previous findings with pedaling imply the specificity of moderate running benefits promoting both cognition and pleasant mood.
... The testing is performed in the outlined order, starting with the flamingo test and ending with the 20-m multistage shuttle run. This order is somewhat different from the American College of Sports Medicine recommendation, where resting measures such as heart rate are evaluated first, followed by cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility [2]. ...
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Purpose While several studies have examined the reliability of the EUROFIT test battery, the findings are conflicting. Therefore, this paper aimed to conduct a review of studies that explored the reliability of the EUROFIT test battery. Methods Seven databases were searched to find studies that investigated the reliability of the EUROFIT test battery. From all included studies, intra-class correlation coefficients for the nine tests used in EUROFIT were extracted. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the studies. Results Six excellent quality studies were included in the review. The following findings were observed in the included studies: (a) the flamingo balance test has moderate-to-good reliability; (b) plate tapping, handgrip strength, sit-ups, bent-arm hang, 10 × 5-m agility shuttle run, and the 20-m multistage shuttle run have moderate-to-excellent reliability; and (c) the sit-and-reach and standing board jump tests have good-to-excellent reliability. Conclusion Overall, the findings of this review suggest that the EUROFIT can be used as a reliable battery of tests to assess physical fitness in research and practice. Still, as there were only six included studies, more research in different populations is needed. Future studies are also required to explore the influence of variables (e.g., familiarization with the exercise tests) that may impact the reliability of the EUROFIT test battery.
... yo-yo intermittent recovery levels 1 (YYIR1), which were performed on the second, third, and fourth days, respectively. All of these tests were performed in the morning under the same weather conditions (21-23 °C temperature and 50% humidity) 26 . ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in functional capacities and hormonal indices according to biological maturity and seasonal playing time status in young soccer players. Twenty-three male under-15 players (14.6 ± 0.2 years) were divided into two groups, based on their maturity status and seasonal playing time. They were measured for anthropometrics, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (YYIR1), seven repeated sprint test (7RST), countermovement jump (CMJ), skeletal age, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level. Age at peak height velocity (APHV) was determined to estimate the maturity timing. The results revealed that players who advanced in maturation were significantly heavier (p = 0.029) and had higher values in skeletal age (p < 0.001), sitting height (p = 0.005), CMJ (p = 0.038), and IGF-1 (p = 0.013). Players given greater playing time exhibited significantly lower fatigue index (p = 0.012), but higher CMJ (p = 0.003) and IGF-1 (p = 0.001) values. The overall results highlighted that early-maturing players and players with greater playing time obtained higher values in both CMJ and IGF-1. The findings may provide an insight on the coaches' evaluation of players and on the possible factors that may affect the future playing status of young male soccer players. Abbreviations GH Growth hormone IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor-1 SA-CA Skeletal age and chronological age APHV Age at peak height velocity CMJ Countermovement jump YYIR1 Yo-yo intermittent recovery levels 1 7RST Seven repeated sprint test PT1 The first group played less than 50% of the tournament time PT2 The second group played more than 50% of the tournament time ML1 Normal maturity ML2 Early maturity MANCOVA Multivariate analyses of covariance OPEN
... In our study, participants in the exercise group recorded very high HR, possibly indicating aerobic incapacity among PLWHIV. Earlier studies suggest that vigorous exercise and aerobic capacity are often difficult to execute among PLWHIV because they lack physical capacity [54][55][56][57]. Regardless, the cardiorespiratory pathway is an important mechanism through which exercise confers neuroprotection to its recipient and hence improves QoL amongst PLWHIV diagnosed with HAND [10]. ...
Article
Background: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) negatively impacts quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Behavioural intervention adjunct to ART may improve QoL of people with HAND. We determine the efect of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme on QoL in people with HAND who were receiving ART. Trial design: This was a parallel-group, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Methods: We identifed 73 participants diagnosed with HAND. Participants were sampled from an earlier study that examined the prevalence of HAND according to the Frascati criteria. Participants were randomised and allocated to an intervention of 12-weeks of aerobic exercise, comprising three 20–60 min sessions per week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise using a cycle ergometer. The primary outcome was QoL, which was evaluated using the World Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQoL)-BREF. Results: Participants in the exercise (n=39) and control (n=35) groups had similar sociodemographic characteristics (p>0.05). Following the 12-week aerobic exercise programme, participants in the exercise group had improved physical (p<0.001), psychological (p=0.008) and environmental (p=0.001) domains of the QoL (p=0.001) and overall QoL (p=0.001) relative to the control group. Similarly, participants in the exercise group had lower depression scores than participants in the control group. Depression scores in the exercise group were still lower 3 months postintervention (p=0.007). Only the improvements in physical (p =0.02) and psychological (p=0.007) domains of QoL were sustained at 3 months post-intervention. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise improves the QoL of people with HAND. To ensure sustained benefts, people with HAND may need to engage in long-term physical exercise. Trial registration The trial is registered with the PAN African Trial Registry (PACTR). Date: 01/09/2020, ID: PACTR202009483415745
... Questionnaire was regarding general health and risk factors based on widely used American Heart Association (AHA) -American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Participation Screening Questionnaire. 9 It was used to ensure safety of the participants to perform the Queen's College Step Test and also to rule out cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and metabolic disorders or risk factors in the participants that might affect the test results. The questionnaire was pretested among 30 students to check if the statements, language and order of the questions were appropriate. ...
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... The intensity of exercises was divided into three levels (i.e., low, moderate, and high). The classification was based on the corresponding relationship of rating of perceived exertion (RPE) intensity provided by ACSM, and the conversion formula between RPE and Borg CR10 Scale was provided by "The-Borg-CR-Scales-Folder" (Gunnar Borg, 2010;Medicine, 2018). When the CR10 score of an exercise was ≤3, it was classified as "Low intensity, " 3-3.5 were classified as "Moderate intensity, " 4 and above were classified as "High intensity." ...
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Background: Physical activity (PA) has a significant health impact worldwide and has been linked to a lower risk of the common cold. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the form of PA among Chinese adults and the correlation between PA and number of the common cold in China's eastern, central, and western areas. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: China's eastern, central, and western regions from 30 November 2020 to 30 March 2021. Patients: A total of 1,920 healthy participants, who aged over 18 years old, with Internet access, were enrolled, and then self-reported PA behaviors and number of the common cold were collected. Measurements: The authors calculated preference, intensity, frequency, and duration of PA in Chinese based on gender, age, and broad occupational categories and explored the potential effect between these factors and the common cold. Results: Approximately 20.4% of participants reported not participating in sports regularly. Except for gender, there were significant differences in PA preference and intensity among the remaining individuals (P <0.05). Sixteen common exercises were divided into three intensity levels by the Borg CR10 Scale: low- (5), moderate- (8), and high-intensity exercises (3), and the corresponding intensity, frequency, and duration were computed with significant differences (P <0.05). The most popular workouts are "Brisk walking" and "Running." Age, sex, and occupation had no significant effect on colds (P > 0.05). However, intensity shows a U-shaped dose-response relationship with colds, whereas the frequency and duration have an inverse dose-response relationship (P <0.05). High intensity combined with high frequency increased colds the most. Nevertheless, non-exercise groups always have the most colds in each comparison. Limitations: The result may be vulnerable to recall bias. Conclusion: Intensity showed that U-shape, frequency, and duration showed inverse response to the number of colds last year, but age, sex, and occupation had no significant effects. High intensity and high frequency mixed increased colds the most, regardless of duration.
... The American College of Sports Medicine's diagnostic criteria for CVD risk factors were used in the questionnaire. 16 The criteria were used in totality and were not modified. ...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been associated with CVD mortality, and physicians use CVD risk factor profiles (smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, etc.) to address patient health. Furthermore, cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CVD and all-cause mortality. Cardio-respiratory fitness is also the risk factor that contributes the highest percentage to all-cause deaths when compared to other traditional risk factors. In addition, studies have reported that adding CRF to established CVD risk factors improves the precision of prediction for CVD morbidity and mortality. Medical students tend to adopt sedentary and unhealthy lifestyles during the course of their education that negatively affect CVD risk factors and CRF. The majority of research on CVD risk, health status and lifestyle factors of medical students has used self-reported data and questionnaires for CVD risk factors and not included CRF in the health status measurements. In addition, studies have found that future medical doctors’ own health and lifestyle practices influence their counselling activities. Allowing future medical doctors to assess their personal CVD risk factors and CRF may thus be important in their use of physical activity counselling with patients’ lifestyle management for health benefits and improvement. A descriptive, cross-sectional cohort study design was used with the aim to determine CVD risk factors using CRF measures and physical activity levels in a cohort of South African medical students. The most significant finding was that they were not meeting the PA levels recommended to maintain health and lower CVD risk.
... In our study, participants in the exercise group recorded very high HR, possibly indicating aerobic incapacity among PLWHIV. Earlier studies suggest that vigorous exercise and aerobic capacity are often difficult to execute among PLWHIV because they lack physical capacity [54][55][56][57]. Regardless, the cardiorespiratory pathway is an important mechanism through which exercise confers neuroprotection to its recipient and hence improves QoL amongst PLWHIV diagnosed with HAND [10]. ...
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Background: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) negatively impacts quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Behavioural intervention adjunct to ART may improve QoL of people with HAND. We determine the effect of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme on QoL in people with HAND who were receiving ART. Trial design: This was a parallel-group, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Methods: We identified 73 participants diagnosed with HAND. Participants were sampled from an earlier study that examined the prevalence of HAND according to the Frascati criteria. Participants were randomised and allocated to an intervention of 12-weeks of aerobic exercise, comprising three 20-60 min sessions per week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise using a cycle ergometer. The primary outcome was QoL, which was evaluated using the World Health Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQoL)-BREF. Results: Participants in the exercise (n = 39) and control (n = 35) groups had similar sociodemographic characteristics (p > 0.05). Following the 12-week aerobic exercise programme, participants in the exercise group had improved physical (p < 0.001), psychological (p = 0.008) and environmental (p = 0.001) domains of the QoL (p = 0.001) and overall QoL (p = 0.001) relative to the control group. Similarly, participants in the exercise group had lower depression scores than participants in the control group. Depression scores in the exercise group were still lower 3 months post-intervention (p = 0.007). Only the improvements in physical (p = 0.02) and psychological (p = 0.007) domains of QoL were sustained at 3 months post-intervention. Conclusions: Aerobic exercise improves the QoL of people with HAND. To ensure sustained benefits, people with HAND may need to engage in long-term physical exercise. Trial registration The trial is registered with the PAN African Trial Registry (PACTR). Date: 01/09/2020, ID: PACTR202009483415745.
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We previously found that a 10-min bout of moderate-intensity exercise (50% maximal oxygen uptake) under normobaric and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.135) reduced executive performance and neural activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). To examine whether this cognitive fatigue is due to a decrease in SpO2 during exercise, we compared executive performance and related prefrontal activation between two experimental conditions, in which the participants inhaled normobaric hypoxic gas (FIO2= 0.135) (hypoxic exercise [HE]) or hypoxic gas adjusted so that SpO2 during exercise remained at the resting level (milder hypoxic exercise [ME]). ME condition showed that reaction time in executive performance decreased (t[13] = 2.228, P < 0.05, d = 0.34, paired t-test) and left DLPFC activity increased (t[13] = -2.376, P < 0.05, d = 0.63, paired t-test) after exercise compared with HE condition. These results showed that the HE-induced reductions in the left DLPFC activity and executive performance were both suppressed in the ME condition, supporting the hypothesis that exercise-induced cognitive fatigue under hypoxic environment is due to hypoxemia during exercise. This may lead to the development of a method of coping with cognitive fatigue due to exercise that causes hypoxemia.
... Physical exercise is a well-known and established method for the prevention and treatment of many diseases (metabolic syndrome, hypertension, neuronal and psychiatric disorders, among others) recognized by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) [27][28][29]. Importantly, this includes powerful effects of endurance exercise on the brain and nervous system. As a striking example, a trial of endurance exercise training (moderate-intensity treadmill walking 3 days/week) was conducted in adults 55-80 years of age [30]. ...
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The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which acts as a transducer, is responsible for improving cerebral stroke, neuropathic pain, and depression. Exercise can alter extracellular nucleotide levels and purinergic receptors in central nervous system (CNS) structures. This inevitably activates or inhibits the expression of BDNF via purinergic receptors, particularly the P2X receptor (P2XR), to alleviate pathological progression. In addition, the significant involvement of sensitive P2X4R in mediating increased BDNF and p38-MAPK for intracerebral hemorrhage and pain hypersensitivity has been reported. Moreover, archetypal P2X7R blockade induces mouse antidepressant-like behavior and analgesia by BDNF release. This review summarizes BDNF-mediated neural effects via purinergic receptors, speculates that P2X4R and P2X7R could be priming molecules in exercise-mediated changes in BDNF, and provides strategies for the protective mechanism of exercise in neurogenic disease.
... Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the "health related" components of overall physical fitness which denotes the capacity to perform large muscle, dynamic, moderate to vigorous physical activity for a prolonged period of time. It depends upon the integrated functional status of the cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic and musculoskeletal systems [2]. CRF is dependent upon a multitude of factors such as gender, age, education, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, body mass index, body weight, waist circumference, body fat, resting heart rate, C-reactive protein level, smoking, alcohol consumption and multiple measures of leisure-time physical activity [3]. ...
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Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness is a health-related component of overall physical fitness assessed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during any physical activity. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) and Chester step test (CST) are two submaximal exercise tests routinely administered to estimate the VO2max of an individual. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether an agreement exists between the VO2max estimated by 6MWT and CST in normal adults. Method: This crossover study was conducted with 80 healthy adults aged 18-40 years. All participants performed the 6MWT and CST on consecutive days. VO2max from the 6MWTwas estimated using a prediction equation whereas from the CST using the graphical plot method. Results: The mean VO2max-6MWT and VO2max-CST were 43.53 ± 4.65 ml/kg/min and 38.34 ± 4.94 ml/kg/min respectively. The Bland and Altman analysis revealed that the mean difference between VO2max-6MWT and VO2max-CST was 5.19 ± 5.50 ml/kg/min which exceeded the maximum acceptable difference of 3 ml/kg/min decided a priori. The line of equality (X axis) did not fall within the confidence interval of the mean difference indicating that VO2max estimated using the two submaximal exercise tests significantly differ from each other. The standard error of mean was 0.61 ml/kg/min and the standard error of limits of agreement was 1.06 ml/kg/min. Conclusion: VO2max estimated from the six-minute walk test and Chester step test show no agreement with each other.
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Background It is known that exercise is beneficial to people with substance use disorder, however little evidence exists regarding their exercise capacity. This pilot study investigates the exercise capacity of patients with substance use disorder and effects of an acute bout of exercise on affect. Methods Twenty-nine participants admitted to a withdrawal management facility were recruited to complete a health and exercise assessment (18 females, 11 males; 41 ± 11 years old). Mood was measured before and after exercise assessments using the subjective experience to exercise scale. Data was grouped by sex, and descriptive analyses were performed against age-matched normative data. Within group, before and after subjective experience to exercise scale measures were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA with sex as a between subject factor. Results Participants ranged from having 2 to 6 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Participants performed below average compared to age-matched and sex-matched normative data for the 6-minute walk test (females: 539 ± 54 m, males: 606 ± 89 m); and push-up test (females: 22% good, males: 36% good). Of the 29 participants, 29% failed to achieve the average range for sex-matched norms in the sit-to-stand test. However, all participants achieved above average for curl-ups, and 72% achieved an average or above score in the step-up test. Exercise significantly increased wellbeing (P < 0.001, effect size = 1.12) and decreased psychological distress (P = 0.045, effect size = 1.03) and fatigue (P < 0.001, effect size = 1.32). Conclusion Exercise is both feasible and beneficial in a withdrawal management setting. Capacity to perform exercise was generally poor with high individual variance. Design of future interventions will need tailored prescription for patients in this population.
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Background: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and previous studies have shown that these low levels of fitness have a physiological cause. During exercise, the cardiovascular, ventilatory and muscular systems are simultaneously active. While individual parameters of these systems have been investigated in DS before, the interaction between these parameters and systems have not been discussed in detail. Doing so may provide important insight regarding the aetiology of low cardiorespiratory fitness and which parameters of the cardiovascular, pulmonary and muscular systems are altered in individuals with DS compared with their peers without DS. Methods: Cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in healthy adults with and without DS. Parameters related to the cardiovascular, ventilatory and muscular systems were collected until VO2peak . In total, 51 participants were included in analysis, of which 21 had DS. Results: Individuals with DS showed lower peak values for all collected outcomes (P ≤ 0.001) compared with those without DS, except for ventilatory threshold as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake and VE /VCO2 slope, which were similar. Conclusions: Our results show that individuals with DS present impairments across the cardiovascular, ventilatory and muscular aspects of the cardiopulmonary system.
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Background/Aims Low functional capacity has been recognised to be the most important predictor of overall mortality compared to all other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease. Walk tests, such as the incremental shuttle walking test and the 6-Minute Walk Test, are used to assess functional capacity in patients, the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation programme and the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this review was to provide a narrative review of the literature and identify the key features of the incremental shuttle walking test as a measure of functional capacity testing in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Methods The PubMed, MEDLINE, Elsevier and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant scientific articles published up to March 2021 with no restriction on start day. The key words defined by researchers were ‘incremental shuttle walking test’, ‘exercise test’, ‘functional capacity’, ‘cardiovascular disease’, ‘cardiac rehabilitation’, ‘reliability’ ‘prediction; ‘walk tests’. A final set of 31 articles was included in this narrative review. Results Evidence-based findings suggest that the incremental shuttle walking test is a valid, reliable, sensitive, useful tool for detecting and predict cardiorespiratory capacity. Conclusions Clinicians can be confident that they can use the incremental shuttle walking test to monitor changes in functional capacity in patients with cardiovascular disease.
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Objective: To verify the effect of recreational soccer on bone mineral density and sarcopenia in the elderly. Methods: Fourteen elderly people aged 65.9 ± 3.4 years were selected. They were separated into two groups: the intervention group and the control group; the intervention group played recreational soccer for 12 weeks on two days of the week. Assessments were performed for bone mineral density and body muscle mass before and after the intervention. For statistical analysis, the repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post hoc test was used. Results: After 12 weeks, there was a significant change in bone mineral density in the region of the total femur (p = 0.020). Analyzing the participants’ sarcopenia, no significant results were found after the intervention period. Conclusion: Playing recreational soccer causes a significant improvement in the total femur and maintains bone regions in the spine, whole body, and femoral neck. Also, it promotes a removal from the threshold for sarcopenia screening in the elderly.
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During aging, an increase in sedentary behaviour and a decrease in physical activity levels are observed. These factors may increase abdominal adiposity and triglyceride levels, which characterizes the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype, providing a high risk for cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to analyze the association between hypertriglyceridemic waist, physical activity level and sedentary behaviour in community-dwelling elderly. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, involving 316 elderlies (≥ 60 years) of both genders. The hypertriglyceridemic waist was diagnosed using high triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dl) and increased waist circumference ≥ 88 and ≥ 102 cm values for women and men, respectively. The physical activity level and sedentary behaviour were evaluated using the IPAQ. The study included 173 women (54.7%) and 143 men (45.3%), with a mean age of 74.2 ± 9.8 years. The prevalence of HW was 27.1%, 47.7% insufficiently active and 24.1% high sedentary behaviour. The insufficiently active elderly (OR= 2.48; 95% CI: 1.31 - 4.71; p= 0.005) and with high sedentary behaviour (OR= 2.21; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.32; p= 0.038) were associated positively with HW, indicating that elderly with insufficient physical activity levels and high sedentary behaviour showed themselves to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 times more likely to develop HW, respectively. Low physical activity level and high sedentary behaviour are associated with hypertriglyceridemic waist in community-dwelling elderly.
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Introduction: walking and cycling are the main types of physical activity as recreation and displacement performed by Brazilian adults. Objective: to associate the practice of the recreational physical activity and to the active displacement with the walking and the cycling. Materials and Methods: a descriptive study with a sample of adults interviewed by the Risk Factors and Protection for Chronic Diseases Surveillance by Telephone Survey-Vigitel (2016). Results: 12,333 adults (25.4% men and 21.8% women) reported walking or cycling recreationally, 9,607 adults (20.1% men and 16.8% women) and 4,487 adults (7.3% men and 9.2% women) respectively went on foot or by bicycle to work and to school; walking and cycling were positively associated with men in the recreational areas and on the displacement to work, while the displacement to school was stronger associated with women, especially those living in the North and Northeast.
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Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.
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Background A novel form of functional training utilizes flexible fiberglass poles for resistance. Similar to elastic bands, as the poles flex, resistance increases. To date, no studies have examined activation patterns associated with such implements. Objective This study examined muscle activation and torso rotation using different pole resistance intensities during a “push-pull” rotational core exercise. Methods Twenty-one subjects (16 women, 5 men; age=20.4±1.3y) completed 6 trials of 10 repetitions each of a standing push and pull movement with 3 different pole tensions (very light, light, moderate). Muscle activation (electromyography) for the anterior and posterior deltoid, abdominal oblique, and paraspinal muscles were recorded. Concentric contractions during the push phase (PUSH) and the pull load (PULL) phases were recoded, and percent maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) was computed. Markers on the acromion process and a vertically mounted camera were used to record torso rotation during each push and pull. ANOVA for each muscle and PUSH and PULL was used for comparisons across pole intensity. Results Significant main effects for torso rotation were seen, with rotation with the very light pole (Push= 61.9 ± 9.2 ⁰ , Pull= 64.8 ± 14.0 ⁰ ) significantly greater than moderate (Push= 52.0 ± 12.8 ⁰ , Pull= 54.9 ± 10.1 ⁰ ). EMG data were highly variable, with no differences in muscle activation detected across pole resistance loads. Conclusion Variability of the EMG data prevent clear resolution of activation patterns. However, torso rotation is limited with heavier pole resistance since increased pole flex also increases resistance.
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Purpose Evaluate the efficacy of a regression method for identifying a VO2 plateau to confirm the attainment of VO2max compared to a verification trial in middle-aged and older adults. Methods Eleven men and ten women (age 61.0 ± 8.1, VO2max 21.8–50.3 ml/kg/min, n = 21) completed an individualized ramp graded exercise test (GXT) on the cycle ergometer, and one hour later, a verification trial at 105% of their maximal work rate (WR) achieved during the GXT. A plateau in VO2 was used to confirm VO2max was attained. VO2 plateau was identified using the difference between the highest VO2 between the two trials and a linear regression analysis of the VO2–WR relationship during the GXT. McNemar’s test of marginal homogeneity was used to detect differences in the proportion of paired data of individuals’ attainment of VO2max criteria. Results Of the 21 participants, 15 (71.4%) met the verification criterion while 6 (28.6%) did not, compared to the regression method where 16 (76.2%) achieved the regression criterion while 5 (23.8%) did not. McNemar’s test revealed no significant difference between participants’ ability to achieve the regression and verification criteria (p = 0.999). Conclusion The regression method is an effective strategy for confirming VO2max was attained with middle-aged and older adults on a cycle ergometer. This time-efficient regression method is comparable with the verification criterion but does not require a second maximal test, which may be advantageous for those where the verification trial may not be practical.
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Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the possible benefits of physical activity program in improving the antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid profile among smokers. Patients and methods: Fifteen cigarette smokers (CS), 14 hookah smokers (HS), and 14 non-smokers (NS) participated in the low-intensity continuous training (LCT). Eleven CS, 12 HS, and 12 NS participated in the moderate-intensity intermittent training (MIT). The LCT groups performed a 20 to 30-minute continuous exercise at 40% of the VO2max. The MIT groups performed 6 to 10 sets of 2-minute sprint at 70% of the VO2max interspersed by a 1-min recovery period. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, the antioxidant defense activity and lipid profile were assessed. Results: The improvement in antioxidant capacity under the effect of MIT program is statistically more significant than after LCT. The increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), malondialdehyde (MDA) and α-tocopherol was higher in smoker subjects participating in the MIT program compared to those participating in the LCT. In contrast, the LCT program has favorably altered lipid and lipoprotein profile of smokers and thus reduced their cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: The combination of the two training methods may have major implications in both defense and prevention programs.
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Abstract Introduction: Exercise is important for cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure (HF) particularly among people with ejection fraction less than 40% due to its effects on reducing fatigue from HF pathology and increasing functional capacity. Consequently, hospital re-admissions and mortality rates decline. However, it is evident that many people with HF do not exercise regularly resulting from physical limitations and illness severity causing shortness of breathing. Low perceived exercise self-efficacy was found to be associated with nonadherence to exercise recommendation among HF patients. This article aims to demonstrate roles of exercise, Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, nurse’s roles, and an application of exercise self-efficacy promotion program in a case study of patient with reduced ejection fraction HF (HFrEF) including four components which are 1) mastery experience 2) vicarious experience 3) verbal persuasion and 4) emotional arousal. Conclusions: promoting exercise adherence is pivotal among people with HFrEF. Nurses are suggested to promote exercise self-efficacy and exercise adherence using self-efficacy theory among these patients.
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Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program is a comprehensive intervention for the rehabilitation of coronary artery disease patients. Exercise therapy is a valuable, effective, and integral intervention of cardiac rehabilitation. Aerobic training is the gold standard exercise therapy in cardiac rehabilitation programs. In addition, combined training with added resistant training is also used. This systematic review aimed to provide the physical therapy clinicians with a consensus regarding the effect of resistant training by answering the question of what is the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular effect (s) of resistant training in the cardiac rehabilitation program for patients with coronary artery disease? The Physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) was used as a search engine to select articles through study eligibility criteria. Adult or adult and old stable coronary artery disease patients engaged in a site-based (Phase II) exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program that includes aerobic and resistant training. Selected articles applied cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular outcome measures to measure the effectiveness of resistant training. The author reviewed the selected articles and applied quantitative non-statistical analysis and appraisal for these articles. The systematic selection process resulted in 10 studies with a total participants number of 3877. Analyzing the articles revealed that adding resistant training to aerobic training resulted in a favorable improvement in outcome measures for coronary artery disease patients. Resistant training produced improvement in the exercise capacity (VO2 peak), blood pressure, skeletal muscle strength, endurance, body composition, sleep quality, depression, and health-related quality of life. The addition of resistant training to aerobic training in cardiac rehabilitation induces more positive cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular effects for stable coronary artery disease patients.
Chapter
Walking and running are the basic means of influencing an individual’s condition, his or her health and fitness. Due to the fact that various forms of physical load are used in movement training, the cause must be described by a single number, which reflects the volume, intensity, and form of physical load. One of the possibilities is to determine the energy cost (EC) of the applied physical activities. Possibilities of evaluation of EC in laboratory and field conditions using the speed of movement allow to streamline movement training. To achieve the desired lasting effect, it is necessary that the total EC exceeds the so-called stimulus threshold, that is, the subject of physical training must reach a certain minimum level of total EC of applied physical training. The total energy content of exercise allows you to design individual exercise programs. In the paper, we present the relationships between energy and speed of movement for the most commonly used physical activities to increase fitness in people without regular physical training–walking and running in different age groups and for men and women and the principles of design of movement interventions using this parameter, as well as the implemented programs and their effect.
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Les professionnels de la santé utilisent couramment des tests à la marche sur tapis roulant pour évaluer la condition physique d’individus. Ce mode d’évaluation est à privilégier chez des populations en moins bonne santé cardiovasculaire ou qui présentement des troubles musculosquelettiques, mais également chez les professionnels des métiers d’urgence dont la majorité des interventions se font à la marche en portant une lourde charge. L’évaluation à la marche permet de quantifier la consommation d’oxygène (VO2) qui est un excellent indicateur de la santé cardiovasculaire. En l’absence de matériel de laboratoire onéreux, il est important de connaitre la relation entre le VO2 et les paramètres (vitesse, charge additionnelle, inclinaison) afin d’interpréter correctement les résultats d’un test à l’effort. Cela est également utile pour déterminer les paramètres de test afin qu’il soit adapté à l’individu. Pour se faire, les formules de l’American college of sport medicine (ACSM) et de Pandolf permettent d’estimer le VO2 à partir des paramètres de marche. Dans la présente étude, ces deux formules sont comparées entre elles, et ensuite la formule de Pandolf est comparée à des mesures effectuées en laboratoire par calorimétrie indirecte. Il s’avère que les deux formules donnent des estimations similaires pour la majorité des paramètres. Toutefois, lorsque la vitesse et la charge additionnelle sont élevées (6 km/h et 60% du poids corporel), la formule de Pandolf surestime grandement le VO2 par rapport à la formule de l’ACSM (26.7 vs 21.6 ml·kg-1·min-1). Des mesures de VO2 ont été réalisées par calorimétrie indirecte chez 11 participants à la marche à une vitesse de 5 km/h en portant une charge correspondant à 25% de leur poids corporel. L’inclinaison du tapis roulant était accentuée de 1% par minute jusqu’à l’arrêt volontaire du participant. La corrélation est très forte et significative entre le VO2 estimé et la valeur mesurée en laboratoire (R=0.958, p<0.001). Les valeurs théoriques et les mesures en laboratoire sont similaires entre 15 et 30 ml·kg-1·min-1. Toutefois, la différence est notable pour des valeurs élevées, atteignant 24% d’écart à 70 ml·kg 1·min-1. De plus, la mesure était effectuée à la fin du palier d’une durée de 1 minute. Par conséquent, il est possible que le VO2 n’avait pas atteint une valeur stable lors de la mesure, ce qui augmenterait davantage l’écart entre les valeurs théoriques et mesurées. En conclusion, les formules de l’ACSM et de Pandolf sont pratiquement interchangeables pour la majorité des paramètres de marche. Toutefois, les professionnels de la santé doivent être prudents lorsqu’ils utilisent ces formules mathématiques pour estimer le VO2 dans des conditions d’efforts très intenses chez des individus en excellente condition physique. Philippe Lacroix, M. Sc (c)
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Pneumonia resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by the development of certain radiological patterns such as “ground glass” and others, which can only be detected using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest. The use of CT to combat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic varies worldwide. In scientific publications, there is no consensus on the information content of CT for COVID-19 pneumonia, the timing of its implementation at the onset of the disease and control examinations. The long-term consequences of the disease, the possibilities of software processing of CT images of the chest cavity in order to study the dynamics of the process, predict outcomes and evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy, have not been sufficiently studied. The analysis of CT for COVID-19 pneumonia with the “ground glass” pattern showed that standard densitometry does not allow to determine the morphofunctional difference between the studied areas of “ground glass” and to determine the stage of its development. The segmentation histogram based on digital software processing of the same “ground glass” areas of the patient with COVID-19 pneumonia has changed significantly with a clear definition of a significant difference in the density of the pattern in dynamics, on the basis of which it can be concluded that the patient is undergoing a process of recovery and COVID-19 pneumonia is at the resolution stage. Carrying out digital software image processing with a CT segmentation histogram allows you to determine the dynamics and stage of development of COVID-19 pneumonia, evaluate the effectiveness and need for therapeutic measures. In order to conduct an objective control of the inflammatory process in COVID-19 pneumonia, it is necessary to conduct a HRCT of the chest at discharge from the hospital, especially in patients who were treated in the intensive care unit. If there are significant changes, follow-up studies should be carried out after 3 and 6 months, or depending on clinical indications.
Article
Background Chronotropic response to exercise is a clinically important health indicator. Direct assessment of chronotropic response to exercise is problematic in many clinical settings because of lack of access to required exercise equipment. Also, abnormal chronotropic response to exercise is often asymptomatic, which hinders the ability to identify individuals who require exercise-based chronotropic response evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate a set of nonexercise, contemporary assessments as predictors of chronotropic response to exercise. Methods This prospective, cross-sectional study investigated nonexercise predictors of chronotropic response to exercise. Forty participants (19 women, 21 men; mean age = 34.3 years, SD = 14.5) performed a graded exercise work rate protocol while heart rate was continuously monitored. Chronotropic response to exercise was recorded as the heart rate-work rate slope. Data on a variety of nonexercise measures were also collected. Results Multivariable regression analysis indicated that sex, self-reported physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference, and isometric grip strength were independent predictors of chronotropic response to exercise and, as a subset, resulted in the strongest prediction model (R = 0.80, R2 = 0.64, P < 0.001). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a group of nonexercise measurements are predictive of chronotropic response to exercise. These findings provide a basis for future research to determine if these nonexercise predictors can be used to screen for chronotropic response to exercise abnormalities. Also, exercise interventions that target physical activity, body composition, and muscle strength may improve chronotropic response to exercise.
Article
Background: Achieving healthy vascular aging (HVA) is important for decelerating age-related cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated the interplay between HVA, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: We analyzed data on 3722 men who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing in a health examination program. HVA was defined as blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg without hypertension and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity <1266 cm/s. CRF was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as coronary artery calcification scores of >0 and ≥100 and a mean carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) >75th percentile for each age group as well as >0.8 mm of CIMT. Separate and joint associations of HVA and CRF with subclinical atherosclerosis were evaluated. Results: Each 1 metabolic equivalent increment in CRF was associated with 23% higher odds for having HVA. HVA was associated with lower odds of coronary artery calcification but not CIMT. CRF modified the association between HVA and CIMT>0.8 mm (interaction: P=0.01); HVA was associated with lower odds of CIMT>0.8 in fit men with no significant association between HVA and CIMT>0.8 mm in unfit men. Compared with no HVA and being unfit, HVA and being fit was associated with lower odds of subclinical atherosclerosis, but there was no significant association between HVA and being unfit with subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusions: HVA and higher CRF are each associated with a lower risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in men. Higher CRF is associated with a higher prevalence of HVA and may modify the association between HVA and subclinical atherosclerosis.
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