Influence of exercise mode and osteogenic index on bone biomarker responses during short-term physical training

Military Performance Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Building 42, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760, USA.
Bone (Impact Factor: 3.97). 06/2009; 45(4):768-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.06.001
Source: PubMed


Prescribing exercise based on intensity, frequency, and duration of loading may maximize osteogenic responses in bone, but a model of the osteogenic potential of exercise has not been established in humans. In rodents, an osteogenic index (OI) has been used to predict the osteogenic potential of exercise. The current study sought to determine whether aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance exercise programs conducted over eight weeks and compared to a control group could produce changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover indicative of bone formation. We further sought to determine whether an OI could be calculated for each of these programs that would reflect observed biochemical changes. We collected serum biomarkers [bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen (CTx), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and parathyroid hormone (PTH)] in 56 women (20.3+/-1.8 years) before, during and after eight weeks of training. We also measured bone mineral density (BMD) at regional areas of interest using DXA and pQCT. Biomarkers of bone formation (BAP and osteocalcin) increased in the Resistance and Combined groups (p<0.05), while biomarkers of bone resorption (TRAP and DPD) decreased and increased, respectively, after training (p<0.05) in all groups. Small changes in volumetric and areal BMD (p<0.05) were observed in the distal tibia in the Aerobic and Combined groups, respectively. Mean weekly OIs were 16.0+/-1.9, 20.6+/-2.2, and 36.9+/-5.2 for the Resistance, Aerobic, and Combined groups, respectively. The calculated osteogenic potential of our programs did not correlate with the observed changes in biomarkers of bone turnover. The results of the present study demonstrate that participation in an eight week physical training program that incorporates a resistance component by previously inactive young women results in alterations in biomarkers of bone remodeling indicative of increased formation without substantial alterations in markers of resorption.

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    • "Scott et al. recently demonstrated that PTH was significantly higher among men engaging in vigorous activity, as part of a counterbalanced trial testing the effect of exercise intensity on bone metabolism biomarkers [54]. Furthermore, Lester et al. reported a statistically significant increase in PTH following a randomized trial of aerobic and resistance training, or combination, in 69 healthy, college-aged women [55]. While these trials were comparatively small and provided limited direct evidence that physical activity changes circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D levels, the hypothesis that physical activity influences 1,25(OH) 2 D through PTH-directed bone homeostasis pathway hypothesis warrants testing in future longitudinal and interventions trials. "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity is associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). However, the influence of activity and/or sedentary behavior on the biologically active, seco-steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) randomized trial participants (n=876) to evaluate associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations. Continuous vitamin D metabolite measurements and clinical thresholds were evaluated using multiple linear and logistic regression models, mutually adjusted for either 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D and additional confounding factors. A statistically significant linear association between 1,25(OH)2D and moderate-vigorous physical activity per week was strongest among women (β (95% CI): 3.10 (1.51-6.35)) versus men (β (95% CI): 1.35 (0.79-2.29)) in the highest tertile of activity compared to the lowest (p-interaction=0.003). Furthermore, 25(OH)D was 1.54ng/ml (95% CI 1.09-1.98) higher per hour increase in moderate-vigorous activity (p=0.001) and odds of sufficient 25(OH)D status was higher among physically active participants (p=0.001). Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with either metabolite in linear regression models, nor was a statistically significant interaction by sex identified. The current study identified novel associations between physical activity and serum 1,25(OH)2D levels, adjusted for 25(OH)D concentrations. These results identify the biologically active form of vitamin D as a potential physiologic mechanism related to observed population-level associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity with bone health and chronic disease risk. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the role of physical activity and vitamin D metabolites in chronic disease prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Bone
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    • "The results were also consistent with the other studies observing significant increases in the biochemical markers of bone remodeling.28 It has been found combined resistance and aerobic training stimulated significant increases in bone formation markers, and decrease in bone resorption marker respectively.18,23 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study assessed the osteogenic effect (T-Score) and changes in bone markers in healthy subjects by 12-weeks of aerobic training. Methods: Total 65 healthy subjects (36 males, 29 females), their age ranged between 30 and 60 years with normal body mass index, were recruited to participate in this study and they were selected among healthy subjects who do not have any metabolic disorders and were not receiving any medication that could affect the bone turnover. Standardized physical examination and collection of serum samples were performed at base line and after 12 weeks of moderate aerobic training to measure bone formation markers (osteocalcin (OC) and bone specific alkaline Phosphatase (BAP) and bone resorption marker Deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and serum calcium. Each subject participated in exercise training program for 12 weeks, three times per week. Results: The results showed that the 12 weeks of moderate aerobic training produced a significant improvement in all bone metabolism indices including Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, serum free Calcium and bone mineral density among all subjects. Conclusion : Moderate intensity of aerobic training exerts significant positive effects on bone formation marker and bone density associated with a significant decrease in the rate of bone resorption that could assist in preventing or decelerating osteoporosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Online
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    • "It has also been reported that an uncoupled increased concentration of bone formation markers, such as, bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) indicates an increased bone formation rate and an increase in BMD. Lester et al.26), found that 8 weeks of combined resistance and aerobic training and resistance training alone stimulated increases in bone formation markers, such as, bone ALP and osteocalcin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Weight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE) to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health. Methods Twenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI). Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated. Results Weight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes. Conclusion These findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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