Expectations, mood, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder. Beware of the bright side

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Appetite (Impact Factor: 2.69). 07/2009; 53(2):166-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.06.002
Source: PubMed


Sad people may indulge in fattening snacks because they believe that eating will repair their mood. To test whether (1) changes in expectations and mood had an effect on caloric intake and (2) depressive symptoms moderated caloric intake, 73 women with binge eating disorder were randomly assigned to a condition in which expectations about food and emotion were either confirmed or disconfirmed. Subsequently they were shown either an upsetting or an amusing movie clip followed by a taste task. Contrary to our expectations, there were no differences in the four conditions: participants in all four conditions ate comparable amounts of calories. Manipulation of expectations or mood had no effect on caloric intake. However, higher baseline expectations that food is pleasurable and useful as a reward resulted in a higher caloric intake after positive mood induction. Non-depressed individuals ate less after a negative mood induction than did depressed individuals. Interestingly, they also ate less than the group of individuals, depressed and not, whose mood was positively induced. Non-depressed individuals seem to use healthier coping strategies: negative affect signals that the environment poses a problem. Positive affect on the other hand signals that the environment is benign, and thus makes people less vigilant about food intake.

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Available from: Alexandra E Dingemans
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    • "The notion of expectancies broadly refers to learned associations between behaviors and their consequences that are stored in memory and that affect future behavior (Tolman 1932). With respect to eating, expectancies represent the culmination of one's learning history as related to eating (Combs et al. 2011) and act as primary cognitive mechanisms that guide one's future eating behaviors (Dingemans et al. 2009). Expectancies about eating have been found to play an important role in both the etiology and maintenance of eating pathology (e.g., Bohon et al. 2009; Hohlstein et al. 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relation between eating expectancies, assessed via the Eating Expectancy Inventory, and eating disorder recovery. Individuals formerly seen for an eating disorder were categorized as having an active eating disorder (n = 53), as partially recovered (n = 15), or as fully recovered (n = 20). The expectancies of these groups were compared to each other and to 67 non-eating disorder controls. Results revealed that three of the five eating expectancies differed across groups. Non-eating disorder controls and fully recovered individuals endorsed similar levels of the expectancies that eating helps manage negative affect, eating is pleasurable and useful as a reward, and eating leads to feeling out of control. Partially recovered individuals looked more similar to active eating disorder cases on these expectancies. The other two expectancies did not differ across groups. Results provide some indication that certain eating expectancies may be associated with eating disorder recovery.
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    • "Again other findings were reported by Turner et al. (2010), who found that positive emotions resulted in decreased eating among individuals with a more controlled eating style, which is in line with a naturalistic eating study revealing that restrained eaters ate less in the presence of positive moods (Tomiyama, Mann, & Corner, 2009). Finally, in relation to other characteristics than dietary restraint, some studies showed that positive moods resulted in larger meals compared to neutral moods in obese women (Patel & Schlundt, 2001) or in increased eating in binge eaters with high expectations that food is pleasurable and useful as a reward (Dingemans et al., 2009). To summarize , compared to negative emotions, positive emotions have been relatively under-investigated as a trigger of food indulgence and the empirical evidence on how positive emotions affect eating behavior seems inconsistent. "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Conclusions: Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Appetite
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares 20 binge eaters (BED), 23 obese patients (OB) and 20 normal weight controls (CO) with regard to everyday emotions and the relationship between emotions, the desire to eat and binge eating. Modified versions of the Differential Affect Scale and Emotional Eating Scale were used and the TAS-20 and Symptom-Check-List-27 administered to assess overall psychopathology and alexithymia. BED-subjects show a more negative pattern of everyday emotions, higher alexithymia scores and the strongest desire to eat, especially if emotions are linked to interpersonal aspects. The emotion most often reported preceding a binge was anger. Feelings of loneliness, disgust, exhaustion or shame lead to binge eating behaviour with the highest probability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
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