Article

Environmental impacts of different methods of coffee preparation

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Abstract

The environmental impacts of coffee consumption inter alia depend on the preparation method used by consumers. Preparation methods such as filter drip, pod machines and fully automatic coffee machines are the most common ones in Germany: 62% of the consumers use a filter drip machine to brew their coffee, 23% use filter pad machines and 15% use espresso machines such as fully automatic coffee machines or capsule systems. The aim of the different studies presented in this paper was to identify the critical environmental issues along the life cycle of coffee and to compare the different preparation methods of coffee regarding their influence on the environmental impacts. Within the Product Carbon Footprint (PCF) Pilot Project Germany, the PCF of one cup of a special type of coffee was analysed on behalf of Tchibo GmbH (Überseering, Hamburg, Germany). As the results show, the preparation by the consumer is one crucial part of the entire life cycle of coffee, making up a share of 30% of the overall emissions. Another hot spot is the cultivation of coffee beans with 55%. Concerning the use phase, research shows that environmental impacts vary significantly depending on the preparation method used by the consumer. Main drivers are differences in power consumption of the respective technologies. Furthermore, different packagings of the coffee play a decisive role. Comparing the analysed appliances and defined usage scenarios in this study, the French press and filter drip machine performed best, followed by the filter pad machine. In contrast, the environmental impacts of the analysed fully automatic coffee machine and the capsule machine were highest. The reason for this was the high power consumption, especially in the machines' sleep and standby mode. Additionally, capsule machines contribute to the environmental impacts because of the aluminium and/or plastic packaging of the capsules, automatic coffee machines because of their cleaning and rinsing programmes.

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... Their market share varies from country to country. For instance, the electric drip-filter coffee machines still have a market share of 55% in the USA ( Kraeutler et al., 2015 ) or 62% in Germany ( Brommer et al., 2011 ). These brewers produce coffee by allowing heated water to slowly drip through a filter containing coffee grounds, while coffee is stored in a con-tinuously heated reservoir. ...
... In the United States, a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of different brewing systems (i.e., drip filter, French pressure machine and pod coffee machine) allowed coffee pods to be regarded as the most environmentally friendly ( Hick, 2017 ). Brommer et al. (2011) estimated the business-to-consumer GHG emissions associated with the preparation of 20 0 0 cups of coffee (125 mL each), these being averagely consumed in German houses on a year basis. The agriculture phase was responsible for 55.4% of the overall GHG emissions, followed by the consumer and post-consumer phases (36%), coffee roasting, packaging, and distribution (6.6%), and oversea transportation (1.9%). ...
... On the contrary, the average serving time (t c ) of the espresso ranged from 19 to 30 s, this being by far shorter than that needed with the Moka pot ( Table 5 ). According to Brommer et al. (2011) , the specific energy consumed to prepare a 125-mL cup of coffee using efficient pod or capsule machines with integrated auto power down function was equal to ~39 Wh, that is about 0.31 Wh per mL of coffee. By referring to the E cc data listed in Table 5 , such specific energy consumption was found to be lower than that consumed by the LPGheated Moka pot (0.46 Wh/mL) or espresso coffee machine (0.40 Wh/mL) used here, practically coincident with that consumed by the pod coffee machine (0.30 Wh/mL), but greater than that consumed by the capsule coffee maker (0.21 Wh/mL) and induction Moka pot (0.17 Wh/mL). ...
Article
Roasted and ground coffee in Italy is currently dominating in consumption and revenues. However, the portioned coffee market is recording continuous and constant growth notwithstanding a great concern about the unnecessary consumption of non-renewable resources and huge generation of often aluminum-polluted wastes. The aim of this work was to assess the cradle-to-grave carbon footprint of a 40-mL cup of coffee, prepared using different brewing methods (i.e., a 3-cup Moka pot, and three single-serving coffee machines) and distinct formats (i.e., 250-g vacuum flexible bags, 44-mm Easy Serving Espresso pods, and Nespresso®-type capsules), in compliance with the Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2050 standard method. The production of one cup of coffee gave rise to 45-57 or 47-59 g CO2e when using the Moka pot heated by an induction- or gas-fired stove, 74-96 g CO2e when using the espresso coffee machine, 72-92 g CO2e when using the pod coffee machine, and 57-73 g CO2e when using the capsule coffee machine, whether the post-consumer wastes were incinerated or disposed of in landfills. Moreover, by using coffee pods or capsules, the contribution of the packaging material production and post-consumer waste disposal increased up to represent the secondary share of the overall GHG emissions. Based on these estimates, the environmentally aware consumer should be conscious that the preparation of a cup of coffee with a coffee pod or capsule machine would result in extra emissions of 27.6 or 12.6 g CO2e with respect to those emitted with an induction Moka pot, respectively. By referring to the current Italian consumption of 80-million coffee cups per day, such extra GHG emissions would equal to those emitted by a Euro 5 city car (ca. 100 g CO2e/km) traveling around the Earth's equator as many as 551 or 252 times per day, respectively.
... The environmental impact of coffee has been largely studied (Coltro et al, 2006;Hassard et al., 2014;Hicks et al., 2017;Humbert et al., 2009;Phrommarat, 2019) by accounting for different coffee varieties, conventional or organic farming, cultivation places, volumes of coffee from 40 to 237 mL, and brewing modes using roasted and ground coffee, roasted coffee grains, coffee pods or capsules. According to Brommer et al. (2011), who accounted for the cradle-to-grave greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the preparation of 2000 cups of coffee (125 ml each) averagely consumed in German houses on a year basis, the agriculture phase was responsible for 55.4% of the overall GHG emissions, followed by the consumer and post-consumer phases (36%), coffee roasting, packaging, and distribution (6.6%), and oversea transportation (1.9%). In this context, the coffee brewing method used by the consumer, as well as the energy efficiency of the appliance used, exerts quite a significant effect on the environmental impact of the use phase. ...
... Their market share varies from country to country. For instance, the electric drip-filter coffee machines still have a market share of 55 or 62% in the USA (Kraeutler et al., 2015) or Germany (Brommer et al., 2011), even if the sales of single-serve coffee makers is generally increasing. In Italy, 87% of home-brewed coffee is currently prepared with the Moka pot using pre-ground coffee (AGI, 2016). ...
... Despite E cc for the induction Moka was not statistically different from that for the capsule coffee maker at the probability level of 0.05, their corresponding energy consumption scores per g of ground coffee (E gc ) were statistically different, owing to the slightly higher amount of ground coffee in each capsule used (Table 4). According to Brommer et al. (2011), the specific energy consumed to prepare a 125-mL cup of coffee using efficient pod or capsule machines with integrated auto power down function would be ~39 Wh, that is a little more than the triple of that consumed by the pod coffee machine used here (Table 4). On the contrary, use of very inefficient appliance with no integrated auto power down function would increase E cc to as much as 109 Wh (Brommer et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of this work was to assess which coffee brewing method was the most environmentally friendly one among a 3-cup induction Moka pot, and two single-serving coffee machines. To this end, a streamlined Life Cycle Assessment including the use of the above coffee machines, production, transportation, and disposal of all packaging materials used, and disposal of spent coffee grounds was carried out in compliance with the Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2050 standard method. The production of one 40-mL coffee cup with the induction Moka pot gave rise to as low as 8 g CO 2e , these emissions being about 18% or 56% lower than those resulting from the use of a coffee capsule (10 g CO 2e) or pod (18.5 g CO 2e) coffee machine. These estimates might help the eco-conscious consumer to assess the environmental impact of his/her consumption habits.
... As the emissions of goods are estimated based on their prices and intensity factors, these are only rough estimations. There are, however, some existing LCA studies on household appliances according to which the CF of a vacuum cleaner is approximately 40 kg CO 2 eq [52], the CF of an electric kettle is approximately 10 kg CO 2 eq [53] and the CF of a coffee machine is 8-30 kg CO 2 eq [54]. In comparison, when using the prices and intensity factors, the CF of a blender is 20 kg CO 2 eq, and the CF for an ice cream machine is 33 kg CO 2 eq. ...
... As the emissions of goods are estimated based on their prices and intensity factors, these are only rough estimations. There are, however, some existing LCA studies on household appliances according to which the CF of a vacuum cleaner is approximately 40 kg CO2eq [52], the CF of an electric kettle is approximately 10 kg CO2eq [53] and the CF of a coffee machine is 8-30 kg CO2eq [54]. In comparison, when using the prices and intensity factors, the CF of a blender is 20 kg CO2eq, and the CF for an ice cream machine is 33 kg CO2eq. ...
Article
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The transition from a linear economy to a circular economy requires a new way of thinking. In a circular economy, products are used more intensively, for example, by sharing them with others. To understand the possibilities of the sharing economy, environmental, social and economic impacts all need to be considered. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the importance of the sharing economy as well as to increase understanding of how public sharing-economy services can be launched. The research methods used include a case-study approach and assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, an implemented cooperation process of creating a tool and device library (the Library of Things) in a small Finnish municipality is described. Furthermore, the library’s impact on greenhouse gas emissions during the first 14 months of operation is assessed. The results indicate that approximately 5752 kg CO2eq was avoided during the 14-month period, assuming that with each loan, manufacturing of a new good was avoided. In addition, strong implications of local positive effects on social sustainability were found.
... Irrigation, necessary in some regions of Europe, is also associated with considerable water consumption (Humbert et al. 2009). Among the studies carried out with the coffee drink, it is known that the packaging and the energy consumption for the preparation of the beverage also has significant impacts (Humbert et al. 2009;Brommer et al. 2011;Hassard et al. 2014;Hicks and Halvorsen 2019). According to Furfori et al. (2012), half of the impacts of the beverage are located in the life cycle stages under the control of coffee producers and their suppliers (agricultural stage, processing, packaging, and distribution) and the other half, under the control of users (equipment manufacturers, consumers, and final disposal). ...
... According to Furfori et al. (2012), half of the impacts of the beverage are located in the life cycle stages under the control of coffee producers and their suppliers (agricultural stage, processing, packaging, and distribution) and the other half, under the control of users (equipment manufacturers, consumers, and final disposal). Several studies indicate that the methods of preparation of the beverage have a significant impact on this production chain (Busser and Jungbluth 2009;Humbert et al. 2009;Brommer et al. 2011;Pedrazzini et al. 2012;Hassard et al. 2014;Hicks and Halvorsen 2019). These studies have different boundaries and functional units, which makes direct comparison difficult. ...
Article
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Purpose Coffee is among the most appreciated beverages in the world, and there is a wide variety of methods of coffee consumption, inside and outside the home, with a significant growth in the coffee machine market for single serve. Due to this significant growth and in agreement with the current sustainability directives, the objective of the present article was to evaluate the environmental performance of the preparation step of the most representative methods of beverage preparation. Methods The principles of the life cycle assessment (LCA) were applied to evaluate the environmental efficiency of the beverage preparation stage for the following methods: the traditional espresso, the French Press, the AeroPress, filtered coffee systems in coffee shops, the homemade filtration, and single-serve automatic machines. The boundaries of the study included the agricultural stage, the industrial roasting/grinding, and the beverage preparation up to final disposal of waste. Data were collected from 40 establishments among coffee shops, bakeries, and homes, with 153 individual data. The environmental efficiency was measured regarding energy, water consumption, waste generation, and the environmental impacts scores related to global warming, eutrophication, acidification, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity calculated by CML 2001 method. Results and discussion Individualized data of coffee roasting/grinding from the industrial process was provided. The preparation of a single-serve soft pod (paper sachet) using an automatic machine resulted in the lowest emission of 14.3 g of CO2 eq/50 mL of beverage in the monodose category, and also a non-biodegradable packaging waste to landfills about 11 times less than the single-serve plastic capsules with aluminum top seal, which had the highest consumption of energy, water, and waste generation in the single-serve category. In the category of consumption outside the home, espresso coffee, produced under pressure and higher temperatures, had the greatest impact, mainly due to its concentration, and the energy demanded by the automatic machines. Conclusions The study identified that the concentration of coffee, as well as the ratio of packaging mass per volume of beverage prepared, has a significant effect on the calculated environmental impacts. The single-serve pods method using paper sachets can associate convenience with low environmental impact. The results obtained allow the consumer to include the environmental aspects in the choice of method for beverage preparation and also provide relevant information for public policy concerning residue generation.
... In a recent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of multiple coffee preparation methods in Brazil, [23] found that single-serve capsules have the highest levels of energy consumption, mostly due to the specific type of packaging used. Particularly, the choice of materials used in the capsule manufacturing process is a key issue for the relatively poor LCA results [15,35]. The majority of capsules are composed of polymeric resins, aluminum, or a mixture of them, which increases the difficulty of appropriate end-of-life disposal and management [34]. ...
... Single-serve capsules are known for having one of the highest levels of energy consumption among coffee preparation methods [23], primarily due to the materials selection [15,35]. For instance, in the coffee capsule market, two main types of base materials can be highlighted: aluminum-or polymer-based containers, or even a mixture of them, and that increases the complexity of managing its end of life once as a residue [34]. ...
Chapter
Recent trends in the coffee market consumption in Brazil show the growth of polymeric capsules as one new preferred way of consuming the beverage, which contributes to the country's increasing problem of urban solid waste treatment, particularly related to plastic waste. One of the main causes of the low recycling and recovery rates of secondary plastic in Brazil is related to the low economic interest on work with this type of waste due to its intrinsically lower value when compared to the raw material. This study presents an experimental approach to increase the value of polymeric coffee capsule waste via a simplified recycling procedure and its application in contemporary jewelry. Several capsule samples were collected from urban solid waste and investigated via Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for resin identification and degradation analyses. Most polypropylene samples contained some level of degradation, mainly related to photodegradation and the presence of contaminants. Samples were then coarsely ground and melted in a silicone mold for the production of secondary plastic pieces as a replacement for gemstones. Following, the produced pieces were employed in the manufacturing of a jewelry collection, utilizing sterling silver in which the alloy was composed of scrap silver jewelry and copper recovered from electronic waste. Artisanal jewelry methods were followed for the manufacturing of a pendant and a ring. The findings support that secondary plastic can be valorized when applied on different and valued products, and even degraded polymers processed via a simplified recycling procedure can benefit from the material's aesthetic attributes for its application in contemporary jewelry design. Finally, a discussion is set for the need for a sustainable approach on the single-use plastic coffee capsules, regarding its recovery and social impacts, in developing countries such as Brazil.
... Previous research on coffee addressed a variety of aspects: coffee markets (Lewin et al., 2004;Donnet et al., 2007), environmental impacts of coffee preparation methods (Brommer et al. (2011), consumer preferences (Heidema and de Jong, 1998;Cristovam et al., 2000;Hsu and Hung, 2005) and consumption patterns (Roseberry, 1996;Ponte, 2002). In addition, several studies have focused on specific market contexts, including France (Cailleba and Casteran, 2010), New Zealand (Murphy and Jenner-Leuthart, 2011), Belgium (De Pelsmacker et al., 2005), Central and Southern United States of America (Johnson-Kozlow et al., 2002;Donnet et al., 2007), the United Kingdom (Golding and Peattie, 2005) and Taiwan (Hsu and Hung, 2005). ...
Article
More than 1.6 billion cups of coffee are consumed worldwide on a daily basis. South Africa is rapidly adapting to worldwide trends with speciality coffee consumption on the rise, with South Africa recently having been recognised as a key player in the speciality coffee industry. Emerging market trends in speciality coffee consumption have resulted in a number of changes in consumption patterns, preferences and consumer behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the behavioural intention of speciality coffee consumers in South Africa, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The data were gathered from a non-probability sample of 327 respondents, who were selected through a self-completion online questionnaire. The results indicate that males consume more speciality coffee than females. The majority of respondents consume speciality coffee more than once a day, and foam cappuccinos are consumed most regularly. The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a conceptual framework for predicting the behavioural intention of speciality coffee consumers. The findings indicate that attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control are important predictors of behavioural intention. Furthermore, perceived behavioural control is the most important factor influencing speciality coffee consumption, and the most influential of the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. With the current rise in speciality coffee consumption among South Africans, the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework contributes to understanding those factors which influence regular speciality coffee consumption. It is recommended that marketers and practitioners adapt their offerings to appeal to the specific needs of the growing speciality coffee market in South Africa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... LCA studies regarding the food sector were addressed on agricultural stages [36], production steps [28] or packaging systems [37]. Some LCA studies regarding coffee were performed, considering agricultural stages [13], processing steps [38,39] and packaging [40]. ...
Article
The environmental impacts of caffeine extraction from coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were evaluated, through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Using this process, two products of interest were obtained: caffeine and decaffeinated coffee. All the emissions to air, water and soil were reported to 1 kg of decaf coffee constituted by a 60/40 Arabica/Robusta blend. The performed analysis showed that agricultural stages, transportation and caffeine extraction are the steps mostly affecting the environmental categories under study. Therefore, the process was optimised, considering the fertilisers’ amount reduction and the substitution of a portion of electricity at grid with electricity produced by photovoltaic panels. Using this improved scenario, a reduction of the environmental impact equal to 176% in terms of human health, 10.3% in terms of ecosystem diversity and 16.1% in terms of resource availability can be obtained.
... In contrast to the attitudes of our grandparents' generation, where coffee was often made by grinding fresh beans by hand and then pouring boiling water on them in a jug or coffeepot, we now search for 'the perfect cup', and expect a higher standard in what we buy. Large sums are now spent on fully automated or instant capsule machines, many of them short-lived, and creating new sources of hard-to-recycle waste (Brommer et al. 2011). My own experience is fairly typical: after months of fitful use, the least useful of my coffee machines is slowly pushed down a mental ladder of less useful objects into the deeper recesses of our kitchen cupboards. ...
Chapter
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Modern consumerism is based upon the individual’s ongoing quest for an idealised good life, a better life promised through the enjoyment of the ‘best’ and ‘latest’ in consumer goods. This mental perfectionism requires the frequent upgrading of objects and environments and the abandonment of what seems ‘old’, imperfect or well used, often before it broken. Waste is thus continuously produced, and in ever larger volumes, to make way for the new. Waste making making on a global scale is supported by standard economics, government and business practice, which routinely ‘externalises’ the environmental costs of this wasting of resources. Since the production of consumer goods now involves such limited responsibility for the waste that is generated, and the waste of over half the world’s population is not formally managed or disposed of, much waste becomes pollution. This chapter argues that while governments and businesses need to play their part in creating a ‘circular economy’ where waste is more highly valued and thus minimized, to ‘unmake waste’ on this scale requires designers to both understand how and why unnecessary waste is created in the first place. The purpose of this is to better create products that are more durable, can be used for longer periods, and can be remade into other products at the end of their lives. The goal of this reconfiguration of design and manufacturing is to give material form to the ‘circular economy’, one where there is limited waste, and where every product can be safely reused or remade into another, and where all waste is understood as a ‘misallocated’ resource.
... As CG is a waste material, a zero emission was considered, whereas the emissions of coarse and fine aggregates are 0.041 and 0.014 kg CO 2 -e per kg respectively (Turner and Collins 2013). Although, if the life cycle of coffee is considered wholly from farming, cultivating, roasting, packaging, brewing and disposing, the emission per m 3 of CG is postulated to be 4.5 to 13 kg CO 2 -e per kg (Brommer, Stratmann, and Quack 2011;Hassard et al. 2014). However, for the purpose of proposed use no one will be growing and cultivating coffee; rather it is proposed to divert this waste from traditional landfilling, enormous amount of which (i.e. ...
Article
This paper presents a concept of reusing spent coffee ground (CG) as a construction material. Through creating a CG-filled Alkali Activated Material (AAM) with industrial wastes such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S), a strong recycled material was synthesised and found suitable to be used as a road subgrade fill material. Potential groundwater contamination tests were done in accordance to the Australian Standard Leaching Procedure (ASLP). The environmental analysis done on this green material shows that albeit being composed of various industrial wastes and chemicals, CG-filled AAMs in the ground will not cause adverse environmental impacts to surrounding soils and groundwater. Heavy metals and cyanide leached from the AAMs were well below hazardous thresholds. Comparing the carbon footprint of CG, it is found that recycling CG into a construction material would reduce the nett global carbon emission by reducing dependency on quarried material. Cost analyses done on CG-filled AAMs show that these AAMs are expensive to produce relative to traditional construction materials. However, as recycling technology is progressively advancing, in the future the economic value of CG-filled AAM may increase to match those of contemporary construction materials.
... Due to the technical nature of professional espresso coffee machines and their consumption of electrical energy during use, the global warming potential (GWP) indicator calculated with the IPCC method (IPCC, 2007) was adopted as a single-issue indicator for the LCA analysis. GWP is a widespread and largely accepted indicator for energy-related products, as reported in several stateof-the-art research works (Brommer et al., 2011;Hicks and Halvorsen, 2019). It is considered mandatory for monitoring this type of product in international and European directives (EU, 2009). ...
Article
Eco-design is the integration of environmental considerations within product design and development. Eco-design represents an important innovation driver for companies; however, well-known barriers limit the diffusion of this design paradigm in the industrial world. Amongst these, lack of eco-knowledge is correlated to the adopted eco-design teaching methods. Previous experience has highlighted that traditional teaching methods such as university lectures or refresher courses are not an effective means for disseminating eco-design knowledge in the industrial world. In this context, the present paper proposes a novel eco-design teaching method based on a transformative strategy for promoting eco-design and facilitating the learning process. This approach, tested in collaboration with an Italian manufacturing firm, is considered the first attempt to implement a repeatable eco-design teaching approach that can be scaled up in different industrial contexts. Several company departments, including management, marketing and commercial affairs, design and engineering, and a testing laboratory were involved in the training program. Technical results show that company employees were able to autonomously implement re-design solutions and improve the environmental performance of a coffee machine upon completion of the course. The quantitative evaluation of formative outcomes through assessment before and after the course highlights a significant increase in the awareness of personnel and knowledge relating to eco-design.
... However, the environmental impact of these approaches is significantly higher than other preparation methods. This is mainly due to the production of disposable capsules that cause significant greenhouse gas emissions (Brommer et al., 2011). In fine EC quality is strongly affected by the operative conditions of the extraction, which differ depending on the device. ...
Article
Several brewing techniques are used to make espresso coffee. Among them, the most widespread are bar machines and single-dose capsules, designed in large numbers because of their commercial popularity. As none of the current literature compares the effects of these different brewing techniques on espresso quality, this paper looks at two capsule methods and the traditional bar method. The methods were eval- uated on the basis of the physico-chemical parameters and aromatic profile of nine espresso coffees pre- pared using the different techniques. Our results showed that with the same batch of roasted coffee, the same water and the same operative settings, the three different techniques can be distinguished by a principal component analysis. Furthermore, in terms of product reproducibility, the best results are pro- vided by the two capsule systems.
... For heating food, a 64 L gasalimented oven, with energy class of A has been compared with a 68 L electric-alimented oven, with energy class of Aþ, both described by Landi et al. (2019), and with a microwave oven having a rating of 1150 W and a capacity of 17 L (Gallego-Schmid et al., 2018a). The two automatic coffee machines described by Brommer et al. (2011) and the two kettles of Gallego-Schmid et al. (2018b) have been respectively compared for making coffee and tea. Four models of familiar dishwasher from Laicane et al. (2015) and Santori et al. (2013) have been compared with hand washing method described by Stamminger (2011) for washing dishes. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview about the distribution of the environmental impacts arising from different domestic functions (i.e. storing and preparing food, washing dishes, watching television, reading, personal cleaning, washing, drying and ironing clothes, home cleaning, heating, cooling, lighting and mobility) typically performed within a common family home. The method has general validity but for reasons related to the availability of data in the literature it has been applied by way of example only in three EU countries: Italy, Germany and France. The study was performed by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in accordance with international standard ISO 14067 for determining the carbon footprint of different alternative domestic components, mainly appliances, for each function, by exclusively exploiting data from scientific literature. The functional unit is defined comprising all most common referred domestic activities of a family of three members within a house of 100 m2. The study identified an optimal configuration and a worse one of the domestic components in terms of carbon footprint, showing how a wise choice of these can greatly affect the overall impact by reducing it compared to the worst by more than 22% in Italy, 45% in Germany and 56% in France. The average impacts between the optimal and the worst configurations of Germany are higher than Italy (+27%) and France (+44%). Considering the impacts among the domestic functions in the average configuration, mobility was the most impactful in all the three countries (35–48%), followed by heating (17–26%), personal cleaning (10–13%) and washing dishes (8–13%), while cooling is consistent only in Italy (13%), against 5% in Germany and 2% in France. The study also allowed to identify some generic criteria for defining the optimal configuration: the increasing in energy efficiency, the choice of the least impacting energy source depending on the geographical location, ensuring water savings and the early replacement of older domestic components. Finally, by comparing some common measures for improving the domestic sustainability, these criteria proved to be more effective than solar systems and improved electricity mix. The provided outcomes may be used by manufacturers for improving their product in a more sustainable way as well as by legislator and end user, respectively for boosting and choosing the greener domestic components.
... [8]), coffee machine (e.g. [9]) microwave oven (e.g. [10]), etc. ...
Chapter
The domestic consumptions are commonly claimed to be more than 60% of global GHG emissions and between 50 and 80% of total land, material and water use. In the last few years, a lot of methods and tools to estimate those impacts have been proposed in the literature and diffused on public administration portals (e.g. European Commissioner for the Environment) and on private Websites. However, an overall analysis of all the factors that contribute to the consumption of an entire home and the development of a support tool is still lacking. This paper discusses the main parameters to be considered for the analysis and the methods for calculating the environmental impacts, and it proposed a supported tool, in the form of an interactive configurator. It allows the user to enter the main data about her/his own home, the constituting components (e.g. appliances) and her/his habits and behaviours (i.e. ways of use), and then, after the processing, it provides the results, in terms of environmental impacts (kg of equivalent CO2) of the entire home and the constituting components, by also showing possible more sustainable alternatives.
... In this paper, we focus our attention on the latter system, which is one of the most popular methods of domestic coffee preparation and among the least environmentally impactful. 8 The most common French press brew method is one in which the plunger is used to force the suspended coffee down out of the brewed coffee. This process is a percolation problem involving pressing a filter plate submerged in hot water onto a growing pack of coffee grounds and forcing this assembly through the fluid. ...
Article
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The French press is a popular device for brewing coffee, comprising a cylindrical beaker – or ‘jug’ – fitted with a lid and plunger with a fine wire mesh filter. The plunger is used to drive the solid coffee particles to the bottom of the jug, separating these grounds from hot liquid above. When using the French press in this way, a growing permeable pack of ground coffee is pushed through hot water by applying force to the plunger. We use a combination of kitchen-based and laboratory experiments to determine the force required to push on the plunger as a function of the speed of the plunger and the mass of coffee used. We calculate that for the recommended preparation method, the maximum force is 32 N to complete the pressing action in 50 seconds. We propose that home coffee preparation provides a fun, low-cost, and relatable learning opportunity for students and for those who are interested in coffee science.
Article
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The recently developing coffee market has been characterized by profound changes caused by new solutions and technologies for coffee preparation. The polylaminate materials that compose most popular capsules make them a type of waste that is difficult to manage and recycle. This paper analyses the scientific references that deal with studying and improving the management processes of waste coffee capsules, as well as the studies that have analysed their environmental impact. Through a bibliographic review, some encouraging aspects emerged in the recovery of materials that can be adequately recycled (plastics and metals), as well as their possible use for the production of biogas and energy recovery. The need to manually separate the components that make up the capsule still represents one of the main challenges. Many efforts are still needed to favour the environmental sustainability of this waste from a strategic, technological and consumer empowerment point of view.
Article
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Purpose Coffee cut-stems (CCS) are typically left in the field after coffee harvesting as fertilizer or used partially for cooking and drying of coffee grains. However, the energy contained in this residue is not completely exploited. For this reason, different applications for CCS have been considered to obtain innovative products. This work aims to evaluate the environmental impact of energy generation through two biorefinery systems using CCS as feedstock. Methods The life cycle assessment (LCA) considers a cradle-to-gate approach, beginning at the seed germination and ending at the production of ethanol, electricity, and low-pressure steam. Inventory data of the coffee production are collected from national reports. Mass and energy balances are calculated using an integrated methodological approach comprising the conceptual design and optimization of the CCS biorefineries. Results and discussion CCS production is one of the hotspots in both evaluated biorefineries due to the use of high amounts of fertilizers, contributing to most of the environmental impact categories. From the two assessed biorefinery configurations, the system with the lowest environmental benefits was the one that considered the generation of electricity and steam. Factors such as the high emissions of exhaust gases (mainly composed of CO2) and the use of water for steam generation were the main contributors. The alternative solution I (AS-I) has the lowest environmental impact in comparison with the base case. From the sensitivity analyses, the use of energy allocation approach provided better performance than the system expansion approach. However, the selection of one approach over the other highly depends on the evaluated impact category based on the uncertainty analysis. Conclusions The production of CCS has the highest contribution to the overall environmental impact of the evaluated biorefineries, and thus, we need available information of the coffee crop production including the production of co-products, such as CCS. We present a detailed inventory of the production of CCS in Colombia as an important contribution for further research in the area of coffee-based biorefineries. Based on our inventory, the production of bioenergy (electricity and steam) for a coffee-based biorefinery seems to provide the best environmental performance in comparison to the production of biofuels (ethanol).
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Coffee is one of the most popular drinks consumed in the world, also in Poland. In the literature, much attention is paid to the influence of coffee on human health, especially daily intake of caffeine, and also purchasing consumer behavior. There is a lack of research devoted to consumer choices and habits in relation to coffee consumption and brewing method. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of coffee consumers and present their segmentation based on consumer choices and habits towards coffee consumption. The study was performed using the computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI) method on a group of 1500 adults respondents in Poland reporting the consumption of coffee. We collected information about consumer choices and habits related to coffee consumption, including brewing method, place of consuming coffee, and factors determining coffee choices. Using cluster analysis, we identified three main groups of coffee consumers. There are “Neutral coffee drinkers”, “Ad hoc coffee drinkers”, and “Non-specific coffee drinkers”. The respondents in the study are not coffee gourmets; they like and consume coffee, but these are often changing choices. To conclude, it can be stated that the Polish coffee consumer prefers conventional methods of brewing coffee (like a “traditionalist”) but is open to novelties and new sensory experiences. Based on study results it is possible to know the coffee drinking habits in Poland.
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Heat sealing is one of the most common techniques for sealing food packages. In this study, the effects of sealer parameters such as dwell time (0.5–2 s), jaw temperature (225–250°C) and pressure (69–345 KPa) and the seal contaminants (coffee particles [0.70–0.85 mm]) were studied on polymer materials used in coffee capsules: (1) lidding, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/Al/linear low-density poly(ethylene) (LLDPE); (2) wall, polystyrene (PS)/ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)/PS; and non-woven filter, NW1 (mono-component fibre) or NW2 (bicomponent fibre [core/sheath]). The presence of NW1 and NW2 non-woven in the seal structures decreased the interfacial temperature by 5°C and 11°C, respectively in comparison to seal structures without non-woven. The degradation of the seal bonding caused a decline in the seal strength at elevated temperature (NW: >240°C without NW: >235°C) and longer dwell time (NW: >1 s, without NW: >1.5 s). The core and sheath structure of NW2 (969 N/mm) was responsible for higher seal strength in comparison to NW1 and without NW, as the core remained intact during the sealing, increasing the material strength. The minimum pressure of 207 KPa was required for creating enough contact between films to achieve proper sealing. The coffee particles buried under the opaque layer of lidding films created visible thermal artefacts when observed under thermal camera. The contaminated region differed by 30–38°C from the surrounding sound region after cooling for 3.5 s. The seal strength was stronger when a single coffee particle was in the middle compared to a sample with multiple particles.
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Chapter
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Imagine stepping into a retail store with a shopping list in your hand: apples, tomatoes, shampoo, washing powder. The very moment you step into the store, the busy scene lures all your senses with its chatter of other customers, softly playing background music, aromas of fresh vegetables, and scents of detergents. Most of all, the rich scene vivifies your sight with different visual cues consisting of various colours, textures, sizes, and shapes. This multifarious environment presents several challenges for the customer, but offers great potential for both the retail and brand owners. This chapter takes the approach that the visual appearance of brand packaging acts as an important cue to guide the customers’ brand choices in the store. However, the brand packaging not only serves as the “voice” of the brand at the point of brand choice but also as an experiential component of the service environment. The empirical study investigates how consumers react to different types of food packages.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of a hybrid coating made of pullulan and a silicon-dioxide precursor to act as an oxygen barrier on polypropylene (PP) capsules used for single-dose ground coffee. PP capsules were first treated by an oxidizing flame to allow better adhesion of the water-based coating solution. The barrier performance of the capsules (uncoated and coated) was assessed by a non-invasive approach based on fluorescence quenching. The deposition of the coating (approximately 7.0 μm thick) led to a dramatic decrease in the oxygen permeation across empty capsules at 40 °C and 25% RH (uncoated capsules: 496.91 mL [package 24 h atm]−1; coated capsules: 14.01 mL [package 24 h atm]−1). In the presence of coffee inside the capsules, the barrier performance was even improved (pack permeability 1.87 mL [package 24 h atm]−1), which was ascribed to the residual oxygen inside the capsules at the beginning of the analysis. At 66% RH, the hybrid coating, while still acting as a good barrier, partially lost its performance due to the simultaneous swelling of the polymer matrix and the presence of fractures on the coating surface. The approach presented in this work can present opportunities for an alternative design of the packaging intended for coffee capsules, with a potential advantage also from an environmental perspective represented by the upstream reduction in the use of plastics.
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Microwave rapid and selective heating is successfully applied to produce freestanding capsule-less doses of powdered beans or leaves for hot beverages preparation. 1 or 3-person doses, suitable for use in conventional hot beverage preparation machines are obtained in less than 5 seconds, without any additives except for water. Microwaves at 2.45 GHz are applied to allow shape retention and surface hardening of the pressed powders, thanks to the rapid steam generation. Load is contained inside a PTFE-lined applicator presenting micro-holes on two sides, to control vapor outlet. The use of rapidly generated steam, preferentially on the outer layers of the load, leads to weak bonding of the powders, without affecting the final taste of the brewed beverage. Modeling of the temperature- and moisture-dependent dielectric properties is used to optimize the applicator geometry, so that the outer layers of the pressed powders are preferentially heated, thus creating a rigid “shell” hosting the remaining pressed powders.
Purpose – Although the increase in point-of-purchase decisions heightens the communication potential of food product packaging, empirical research on understanding how visual packaging affects consumers' subsequent product and brand evaluations and perceptions is scant. This study seeks to develop a theoretical model to show the effects of consumer attitudes toward visual food packaging on perceived product quality, product value, and brand preference. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire developed from the literature was conducted, and 315 undergraduate students participated in the study. Findings – The empirical results show that attitudes toward visual packaging directly influence consumer-perceived food product quality and brand preference. Perceived food product quality also directly and indirectly (through product value) affects brand preference. Originality/value – This paper offers directions for understanding the effects of visual packaging on positive consumer product and brand evaluations. Based on the study findings, food firms should emphasize the visual packaging design factors such as color, typeface, logo, graphics, and size to form consumers' positive perceptions and brand preference.
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Coffee machines use large amounts of electricity for permanent ready (keeping hot) and standby modes. With relatively simple measures as auto-power-down, better insulation of boilers and low standby the energy efficiency can be strongly enhanced. The energy saving potential of an efficient versus a typical espresso machine is about 120 kWh per year. High efficiency coffee machines only have a consumption of about 50 kWh per year, capsule machines even below 40 kWh. The entire EU stock of coffee machines (estimated 100 Mio) thus holds a saving potential of up to 12"000 Mio kWh per year. Conventional espresso machines usually have higher electricity consumption than A-class ovens or A++ refrigerators. Regarding the great differences between products and the high saving potentials, it is strongly recommended to take measures. In the framework of the IEE-project "Euro-Topten" a measuring method for coffee machines was developed. The Blue Angel (der Blaue Engel) now follows a new cluster approach. As part of this approach it has launched a climate protection label (Klimaschutzzeichen). Thereby Euro-Topten and the Blue Angel coordinated their procedure and harmonized the measurement method. The criteria are applied for the label the Blue Angel and for the selection of best products of Europe on www.topten.info. The Euro-Topten measuring method is suggested for a labeling directive and might be incorporated into the IEC 60661 standard (Methods for measuring the performance of electric household coffee makers), respectively.
Standby consumption of household appli-ances. Final report Hintergrundinformationen: stromsparpotential von kaffeemaschinen Strate-gies to enhance energy efficiency of coffee machines
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Bush, E. & Nipkow, J. (2003) Standby consumption of household appli-ances. Final report. Zurich 2003. Bush, E., Josephy, B. & Nipkow, J. (2007) Hintergrundinformationen: stromsparpotential von kaffeemaschinen. Zürich 2007. Bush, E., Josephy, B., Heutling, S. & Grießhammer, R. (2009) Strate-gies to enhance energy efficiency of coffee machines. Paris, Zurich, Dessau, Freiburg 2009. Dialego. (2008) Dialego AG: kaffeemaschinen. Eine Befragung der Dialego AG Januar 2008. [WWW document]. URL http://www2. dialego.de/uploads/media/080117_DD_Kaffeemaschinen_01.pdf (accessed on 28 August 2009).
EcoTopTen – mehr überblick für verbraucher. [WWW document
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EcoTopTen. (2010) EcoTopTen – mehr überblick für verbraucher. [WWW document]. URL http://ecotopten.de/start.php (accessed on 8 September 2010).
Press release of the German coffee association
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German Coffee Association. (2008) Press release of the German coffee association March 2008. [WWW document]. URL http://www. kaffeeverband.de/ (accessed on 14 May 2008).
Press release of the GfK Retail and Technology GmbH Sep-tember 2010: European market for small domestic appliances records positive figures. [WWW document
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GfK. (2010) Press release of the GfK Retail and Technology GmbH Sep-tember 2010: European market for small domestic appliances records positive figures. [WWW document]. URL http://www.gfk.com/ imperia/md/content/presse/pressemeldungen2010/100903_ gfk_sda_jan-jun_2010_efinal.pdf (accessed on 4 October 2010). Nuremberg 2010.
PROSA – Product Sustainabil-ity Assessment Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report: ClimateChange 2007, chapter 2: changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing
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Grießhammer, R., Buchert, M., Gensch, C.-O., Hochfeld, C., Manhart, A., Rüdenauer, I. & Reisch, L. (2007) PROSA – Product Sustainabil-ity Assessment. Freiburg, Darmstadt, Berlin 2007. IPCC. (2007) Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report: ClimateChange 2007, chapter 2: changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. 2007. [WWW document]. URL http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm (accessed on 28 August 2009).
Elektrizitätsverbrauch von kaffeemaschinen: messmethode standardnutzung und stromverbrauchsrechnung
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Nipkow, J. (2008) Elektrizitätsverbrauch von kaffeemaschinen: mess-methode standardnutzung und stromverbrauchsrechnung. Zurich 2008.
Expert interview with Mr Jürg Nipkow
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Nipkow, J. (2009a) Expert interview with Mr Jürg Nipkow. 15 October 2009.
Auswahlkriterien kaf-feemaschinen. [WWW document
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Nipkow, J., Josephy, B. & Berger-Wey, A. (2010) Auswahlkriterien kaf-feemaschinen. [WWW document]. URL http://www.topten.ch/deutsch/ auswahlkriterien/auswahlkriterien_kaffeemaschinen.html&fromid (accessed on 15 October 2010).
Ergebnisber-icht Product Carbon Footprinting – ein geeigneter weg zu klimaver-träglichen produkten und deren konsum? Erfahrungen, erkenntnisse und empfehlungen aus dem Product Carbon Footprint Pilotprojekt Deutschland
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Prieß, R., Hochfeld, C., Kopp, M. & Reusswig, F. (2009) Ergebnisber-icht Product Carbon Footprinting – ein geeigneter weg zu klimaver-träglichen produkten und deren konsum? Erfahrungen, erkenntnisse und empfehlungen aus dem Product Carbon Footprint Pilotprojekt Deutschland. Berlin 2009.
Case study 'Tchibo Privat Kaffee Rarity Machare'. Documentation. Case study within the PCF Pilotproject. [WWW document
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Quack, D., Eberle, U., Liu, R. & Stratmann, B. (2009) Case study 'Tchibo Privat Kaffee Rarity Machare'. Documentation. Case study within the PCF Pilotproject. [WWW document]. URL http://www.pcf-projekt.de (accessed on 28 August 2009).
PROSA high-pressure coffee and espresso machines – developing the award crite-ria for a climate label Topten (2010a) Recommendations coffee machines. Current political instruments and initiatives. [WWW document
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Stratmann, B., Grießhammer, R. & Bush, E. (2009) PROSA high-pressure coffee and espresso machines – developing the award crite-ria for a climate label. Freiburg 2009. Topten (2010a) Recommendations coffee machines. Current political instruments and initiatives. [WWW document]. URL http://www.topten.info/english/recommendations/ recommendations_coffee_machines/market_situation_coffee.html (accessed on 21 October 2010).
Topten Schweiz. Kaffeemaschinen, volltautomaten und portionenmaschinen. [WWW document
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Topten CH. (2010b) Topten Schweiz. Kaffeemaschinen, volltautomaten und portionenmaschinen. [WWW document]. URL http://www.topten. ch/deutsch/haushalt/kaffeemaschinen/vollautomaten.html; http://www.topten.ch/deutsch/haushalt/kaffeemaschinen/ portionensysteme.html (accessed on 8 September 2010).
Best products of Europe Coffee machines, capsule machines and super automatics. [WWW document
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Topten IG. (2010c) Best products of Europe. Coffee machines, capsule machines and super automatics. [WWW document]. URL http://topten.info/; http://www.topten.info/english/household/ coffee_machines/capsule_espresso_machiines.html; http://www.topten. info/english/household/coffee_machines/super_automatics.html (accessed on 20 September 2010).
Waste management methods Environmental impacts of different methods of coffee preparation E. Brommer et al
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Umweltbundesamt. (2008) Waste management methods. Dessau-Roßlau 2008. Environmental impacts of different methods of coffee preparation E. Brommer et al. International Journal of Consumer Studies 35 (2011) 212–220 © 2011 Öko-Institut e.V.
Coffee machines, capsule machines and super automatics http://topten
  • Ig Topten
  • Best
  • Of Europe
Standby consumption of household appliances
  • E Bush
  • J Nipkow
Hintergrundinformationen: stromsparpotential von kaffeemaschinen
  • E Bush
  • B Josephy
  • J Nipkow
PROSA - Product Sustainability Assessment
  • R Grießhammer
  • M Buchert
  • C.-O Gensch
  • C Hochfeld
  • A Manhart
  • I Rüdenauer
  • L Reisch
Measuring Method and Calculation Formula for the Electricity Consumption of Coffee Machines for Household Use
  • J Nipkow
PROSA high-pressure coffee and espresso machines - developing the award criteria for a climate label
  • B Stratmann
  • R Grießhammer
  • E Bush
Ergebnisbericht Product Carbon Footprinting - ein geeigneter weg zu klimaverträglichen produkten und deren konsum?
  • R Prieß
  • C Hochfeld
  • M Kopp
  • F Reusswig
Case study ‘Tchibo Privat Kaffee Rarity Machare
  • D Quack
  • U Eberle
  • R Liu
  • B Stratmann