Article

Development and Standardization of an Assistive Technology Questionnaire Using Factor Analyses: Eight Factors Consisting of 67 Items Related to Assistive Technology Practices

Article

Development and Standardization of an Assistive Technology Questionnaire Using Factor Analyses: Eight Factors Consisting of 67 Items Related to Assistive Technology Practices

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to identify the factors that underlie assistive technology (AT) and to validate items to be used in an instrument to evaluate AT use. The study consisted of four phases. First, 99 items were developed though a comprehensive literature review. Second, the items were refined through three layers of review. Third, 1,467 respondents rated the results of the reviews. Fourth, exploratory factor analysis, and three confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were employed to analyze the data. The results of the CFA were statistically significant (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.036, p = 0.00) with a total of 67 items across 8 factors (effectiveness, affordability and dependability, utility, external support, operations, longevity, discomfort, and compatibility).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This factor has the highest mean value of 2.87, indicating a positive contribution to the EES' usability. This is consistent with the literature, as the system, which fits to the users' strengths, is usually retained for longer periods of time (Seok and Dacosta, 2014). ...
... This factor has a positive influence on system usability, with an overall mean value of 2.84. Again, this finding is consistent with existing literature, which indicates that if a system meets users' expectations and benefits them it will improve their satisfaction with the system (Seok and Dacosta, 2014). ...
... In summary, the identified factors are consistent with the ISO definition of usability. Additionally, these factors are compatible with several studies in the existing academic literature (Teran, 2018;Lewis and Sauro, 2009;Gaines et al., 1996;Takayama and Kandogan, 2006;Seok and Dacosta, 2014;Van Der Heijden, 2003;Nehari and Bender, 1978). Research has shown that the use of technologies within schools can enhance students' academic motivation and improve their achievements ( Seok and Dacosta, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to evaluate the usability of the augmented reality-based Evoke Education System (EES) to improve service operations in educational settings. The EES uses an animated character (Moe) to interact with children in a classroom by reproducing their teacher's movements and speech. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a quantitative approach for the system usability evaluation. The ESS was evaluated by 71 children aged 6–8 years old, from two primary schools. After interacting with the EES, they completed a system usability questionnaire and participated in a knowledge acquisition test. Findings The knowledge acquisition test undertaken on the initial day showed statistically significant improvements for children taught with the EES, compared to children taught through traditional teaching approaches. However, the retest nine days later was not statistically significant (as only one school participated) due to low power. This study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), resulting in the identification of five essential factors (likeability, interactiveness, retention, effectiveness/attractiveness and satisfaction) that contribute to the EES's usability. The comparison with existing literature shows that these factors are consistent with the definition of system usability provided by the International Organization for Standardization and current academic literature in this field. Research limitations/implications The findings presented in this study are based on the data from only two schools. The research can be extended by involving children from a greater number of schools. Mixed methods and qualitative research approaches can be used for future research in this area to generalise the results. Originality/value This study proposes an innovative augmented reality-based education system to help teachers deliver their key messages to the children in a fun way that can potentially increase their knowledge retention.
... Further literature investigation showed that although some empirical studies were conducted recently, but their focused population was different (school children, people with disabilities, caregivers etc.). Recently, Seok et al. performed an empirical study based on 8 factors and 67 variables to measure AT practices from school students and their teachers (Seok & DaCosta, 2014). ...
... The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of ATs in supporting the PWD by exploring the relative importance of the contributing assistive technology factors (ATF). This study contributes to the body of knowledge by filling a number of research gaps in existing literature i.e. identification of new factors important for AT usability (Seok & DaCosta, 2014), the relevant impact of these factors for AT effectiveness and long term retention (Span et al., 2013). Additionally this study also contributes for the identification of the requirements for future AT from the PWD (Wolters et al., 2016). ...
... AT Operational support factor basically focus on operational services by the manufacturers and relevant manuals (Bryant, Seok, & Bryant, 2010). This factor is based on four the items which are adopted from (Bryant et al., 2010;Seok & DaCosta, 2014). These items include: operations and maintenance manuals, instruction book based on maintenance routines, effectiveness of operations instructions and functioning of AT as claimed by the manufacturer. ...
Article
This study explores important factors of Assistive Technology (AT) and evaluates their relative impact on AT effectiveness and retention. Questionnaire based survey is used for data collection from 327 people with dementia (PWD). This empirical study uses statistical techniques including exploratory factor analysis for factor identification, linear regression for impact study, Kruskal Wallis H and Mann Whitney U tests for the statistical significant study in terms of demographic and characteristics. The exploratory factor analysis results into 11 factors: operational support, physical support, psychological support, social support, cultural match, reduced external help, affordability, travel help, compatibility, effectiveness and retention. The results reveal that social support, psychological support and travel help and reduced external help strongly impact on AT effectiveness and retention. The users are motivated by socialization support through using AT without any external help. The use of AT during travelling improves confidence of the PWD and helps them psychologically.
... devices are sophisticated, complex, expensive and more functionalized in comparison to former, used to assist students with impairments. Their performance is more efficient, reliable, convenient and relatively inexpensive (Seok & DaCosta, 2013). ...
... Considerations in the implementation of AT include: Cost, availability, funding, training and other related issues. It is argued that AT selection must be economically effective i.e., according to Learning through Assistive Devices: A Case of Students with Hearing Impairment 82 the needs of student and his/her environment to improve learning outcomes (Seok & DaCosta, 2013). AT must be in access of all persons with disabilities so that all persons must be treated with the same rights. ...
Article
Full-text available
Present era has introduced persons with disabilities with a range of assistive devices that have rapidly increased their educational, vocational, and frivolous activities. Current descriptive study attempted to explore the effects of assistive devices on the learning of hearing impaired students. A sample of 200 hearing impaired students and 60 parents was selected to identify the assistive devices that are more in use by hearing impaired students. All of the assistive devices commonly used for hearing impairment were included in the study to explore the effects of each on the learning of students with hearing impairment. The mean difference in the learning of students suggested that assistive technologies are overall assistance for the students with hearing impairment and there is no substitute to these devices that could assist them in such a quite differentiated manner. The role of high tech assistive devices as well as low tech devices has been highlighted prominently. The parents of hearing impaired students were also the part of study and found satisfied with the use of assistive devices for their children. It is divulged that there is a need to reduce the cost of assistive devices to be used by the students with hearing impairment.
... However, professional needs assessment is actually the least likely method for people with dementia to obtain AT(Gibson et al. 2015), indicating problems with this process. The need for careful assessment to determine the possible benefit of AT to an individual is clear(Fleming and Sum 2014), and proper evaluation of needs and functionalities prior to installation of AT will reduce device abandonment(Seok and Dacosta 2014).Assessment should be tailored towards the identified needs of the individuals. For example; in selecting a GPS device for the prevention of wandering incidents conducting comprehensive assessment should include consideration of the individual's walking patterns and routines(Dunk et al.2010). ...
Thesis
Introduction: There is an acknowledged gap between the potential and achieved benefit of assistive technology in the care of people with dementia. In order to make better use of this resource, this research aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of population characteristics of people with dementia living at home who have safety and wandering risks and how this is related to assistive technology recommended and installed to meet their needs. Methods: This research consisted of two studies; a systematic review and secondary data analysis. Initially, published quantitative data describing the needs of people with dementia living at home was subjected to meta-analysis in order to explore the prevalence of needs reported by people with dementia and their caregivers and associated heterogeneity. Following univariate analyses, ordinal models were developed using secondary data which described the needs of people with dementia, and their level of wandering and safety risk, to explore the relationship between needs and risks in this population. The possibility of grouping participants according to data describing multiple needs, predisposing characteristics and enabling resources was investigated using cluster analysis. Associations between these groups and recommended and installed Assistive Technology were investigated. Results: Prevalence estimates for twenty-four needs reported by people with dementia and their caregivers were provided for the first time. Heterogeneity was associated with the person reporting the needs and age of onset. Level of need was often not recorded in the dataset indicating limited assessment. Wandering risks were shown to be associated with posture and mobility, routine and cognition needs, whilst safety risks were associated with posture and mobility, and problem-solving needs. Partitioning Around Medoids cluster analysis demonstrated that robust clustering solutions could be created from data describing participants. Clustering solutions were then validated through exploring their association with recommended and installed Assistive Technology data and the published literature. Caregiver support and living situation impact Assistive Technology installed for people with dementia. Discussion: This research advances understanding of the impact that needs, safety and wandering risks, caregiver support and the living situation of the person with dementia have on variation in the assistive technology interventions recommended and installed for people with dementia. Results have implications for needs assessment and for the tailoring of Assistive Technology for this population. Keywords: dementia, assistive technology, community dwelling, meta-analysis, cluster analysis, ordinal regression, wandering, safety, risk, needs.
... . 1 Tayland da yapılan bir araştırmada katılımcıların çevrimiçi oyunları, gerçek hayatta memnun ve tatmin olmadıkları ihtiyaçları telafi eden bir kanal olarak gördükleri bilgisine ulaşılmıştır 2 . Dijital oyunlar oyuncuya çok büyük sonuçlara neden olabilir [3][4][5][6] . Ayrıca, Caplan sağlıksız The Relationship Between Online Gaming Addiction and Hopelessness ...
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışma, üniversite öğrencilerinde çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı ve umutsuzluk düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma için 136 üniversite öğrencisine sosyodemografik bilgi formu, Çevrimiçi Oyun Bağımlılığı Ölçeği (ÇOBÖ) ve Beck Umutsuzluk Ölçeği (BUÖ) uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada, yaş, cinsiyet, not ortalaması, gelir düzeyi, çevrimiçi oyun türleri, çevrimiçi oyunlara hangi cihazlardan erişim sağlandığı değişkenleri bakımından çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı ve umutsuzluk puanlarındaki farklılıklar incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, umutsuzluğun yordayıcıları olarak yaş ve çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı alt boyutları incelenmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgulara göre, cinsiyet, not ortalaması, gelir düzeyi, tercih edilen çevrimiçi oyunlar ve erişim sağlanan cihazlar bakımından umutsuzluk ve çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı düzeyleri anlamlı farklılık göstermektedir. Erkek öğrencilerin, not ortalaması düşük olanların ve orta gelir seviyesinde olanların umutsuzluk ve çevrimiç i oyun bağımlılığı düzeyleri daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Yaş azaldıkça, umutsuzluk ve çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı düzeyleri artış göstermektedir. Üniversite öğrencilerinin umutsuzluk düzeyleri çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığı başarı ve ekonomik kazanç alt boyutları tarafından anlamlı düzeyde yordandığı ve katılımcıların %50'sinde bu yordayıcı ilişkinin anlamlı olduğu sonucu elde edilmiştir.Elde edilen bulguların, üniversite öğrencilerinin dijital oyunlar ve problemli kullanımla ilgili geliştirilebilecek müdahale çalışmalarına katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmektedir. Sonuçlardan yola çıkarak, çalışmanın farklı bölgeler ve daha büyük örneklemle tekrarlanabilceği düşünülmektedir. This study aims to investigate the relationship between online game addiction and hopelessness levels in university students. Sociodemographic information form, Online Game Addiction Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale were applied to 136 university students. In this study, differences in online game addiction and hopelessness scores were examined in terms of variables such as age, gender, grade point average(GPA), income level, types of online games, and the devices from which online games were accessed. In addition, age and online game addiction subscales as predictors of hopelessness were examined. According to the findings of the study, hopelessness and online game addiction levels differ significantly in terms of gender, GPA, income level, preferred online games and access devices. Hopelessness and online gaming addiction levels were higher among male students, those with lower GPAs and those with mid-level income. As age decreases, levels of hopelessness and online gaming addiction increase. It was found that hopelessness levels of university students were significantly predicted by online game addiction success and economic gain sub-dimensions, and this predictive relationship was significant in 50% of the participants. It can be considered that the findings obtained may contribute to the intervention studies of university students on digital games and problematic use. Based on the results, it is thought that the study can be repeated with different regions and larger samples. GİRİŞ Son zamanlarda gelişen teknoloji ile birlikte internet kullanımı hızla yaygınlaşarak vazgeçilmez bir hal almaya başlamıştır. Mekân ve zaman ayrımı yapılmaksızın sağlanabilen kolay internet erişimi, sanal bağımlılık türlerinden biri olarak bilinen çevrimiçi oyun bağımlılığını yoğun bir şekilde gündeme getirmiştir. Dijital oyunlar, gelişen bir pazar olarak her geçen yıl artan sayıda kullanıcıyla özellikle gençler arasında önemli bir etkinlik haline gelmiştir. Oyun bağımlılığının olası nedenleri gözden geçirildiğinde özellikle sorun yaşayan insan-ların, gerçek hayattaki kimliklerinden uzaklaşarak zamanlarının tamamını bilgisayar başında geçirip, sanal alemde sanal bir karakter olmayı gerçek hayata tercih etmesinden kaynaklandığı görülmüştür. 1 Tayland da yapılan bir araştırmada katılımcıların çevrimiçi oyunları, gerçek hayatta memnun ve tatmin olmadıkları ihtiyaçları telafi eden bir kanal olarak gör-dükleri bilgisine ulaşılmıştır 2. Dijital oyunlar oyuncuya çok büyük sonuçlara neden olabilir 3-6. Ayrıca, Caplan sağlıksız
... The questionnaire was designed based on the four step procedure described by Buckingham & Saunders [33]: (1) listing the hypotheses or key themes; (2) identifying the key concepts; (3) identifying the variables; (4) distinguishing independent, dependent and mediating variables. Surveys used in previous research on AT [6,29,[34][35][36][37] were screened and additional questions were added. The developed questionnaire was reviewed and tested by four professionals working with persons with PID. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Persons with profound intellectual disability (PID) are mostly not able to use assistive technology (AT) independently. Caregivers play an important mediating role in implementing AT in the daily life of persons with PID. Both first-order barriers, extrinsic to caregivers, and second-order barriers, intrinsic to caregivers, influence the attitudes and behaviors of caregivers with regard to AT-use. It could be asked if increased knowledge on and experience with AT may impact the effect of first- and second-order barriers. This study investigated how knowledge and experience influence the professional caregivers’ beliefs about which factors may impact the AT use in persons with PID and their intentions to use AT for persons with PID. Methods: A questionnaire on the experienced limitations and successes in using AT was developed. The questionnaire was send to professionals working with or responsible for persons with PID in various countries in Europe. In total the answers of 195 respondents were included in this study. Results and conclusions: This study’s results demonstrate that AT is used for various reasons in persons with PID, mostly to support communication and interaction or for fun or relaxation. Based on the answers of the respondents can be concluded that both experience and knowledge of caregivers seem to influence first- and second-order barriers. Besides, a possibility to overcome the second-order barriers is to provide professionals with possibilities to increase their knowledge and experience. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • AT for persons with PID is mostly used for communication and interaction or for fun and relaxation. • Professional caregivers belief that AT-use may positively influence various aspects in the life of persons with PID, especially communication and interaction, active engagement and participation in activities, and self-esteem of the person. • Caregivers need to have sufficient experience in order to rate the barriers of AT-use as less limited in the group of persons with PID. • In order to overcome the barriers experienced in implementing AT in persons with PID, knowledge of caregivers is essential.
... This finding is aligned with other investigations, such as that of Black et al. [33], in which SDs reported inappropriate accommodations and mismatches between their needs and accommodations or modifications provided. While this may be viewed as a finding emerging from this investigation at the postsecondary level, such a discovery has been addressed in secondary education [49], revealing an important implication for the provision of accommodations and modifications. ...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review explored methods of UDL implementation for postsecondary students with and without disabilities and the degree to which these methods are effective. The authors examined 17 empirically based studies published across 12 journals focused on the application of UDL principles. The studies were analyzed with regard to 1) participant information, 2) courses and delivery mode, 3) independent and dependent variables, 4) implementation strategies, and 5) effectiveness of implementation. The analysis revealed that 15 of the studies reported effective outcomes, one study resulted in blended effects, and one did not discuss implementation. Two studies used a blended delivery mode for special education courses, and four studies used online delivery modes for a teacher education course and three professional development programs. Other studies used face-to-face instruction for teacher education, general courses, and workshops. The most common independent variables were UDL principle-based course design and implementation, followed by hands-on activities, training of instructors, peer-led team learning, and a collaborative professional development model. The dependent variables included course evaluation, learning outcomes, such as revision of lesson plans and technology use, and level of confidence or acquisition of knowledge about UDL and disabilities. Finally, multiple instructional strategies focusing on the UDL principles were utilized, to include web-based computer-mediated communication, web-based class management systems, interactions with technology and other participants, and learning community. Overall, the findings revealed promising learning outcomes as supported by the existing literature regarding the effectiveness and practicality of UDL for students with and without disabilities at the postsecondary level.
... The major motivation of this study came from [36] work on AT practices. A thorough investigation of literature was performed for eliciting information to design the questions. ...
... Although policy papers point to the importance of the skills and attitudes of both the health professionals and the users for successfully implementing assistive technology, an extensive part of existing research focuses on the features of the technologies (e.g. Seok & DaCosta, 2014). Only a few studies address the attitudes of older people or their experiences with technology in nursing homes (Harrefors et al.bs_bs_banner 2 K. Beedholm et al. ...
Article
In Western countries, assistive technology is implemented on a large scale in elder care settings. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the different attitudes to assistive technology among various groups of users. In this study, we investigated and explained the different attitudes among the involved leaders, nursing staff, and older people to a newly-implemented robot bathtub. Qualitative analyses of eight interviews with managers, nursing staff, and the older users revealed that the informants focused on different aspects (process, values, and functionality, respectively), used different implicit quality criteria, and ascribed different symbolic significance to the robot bathtub. Thus, the study demonstrated how attitudes toward the robot bathtub were connected to the informants' institutional role. The findings challenge the current paradigm, where technology is expected to operate as a passive tool, simply facilitating desired human acts and interactions. Further studies drawing on the epistemological and ontological perceptions of science technology studies are needed in order to understand human rationalities in the assistive technology context and to offer new insights into how technology "works" in organizations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Article
Technology has been shown to enhance daily activities, increase participation in individualized planning and supports, and accommodate the transition needs of students with disabilities. This study examined the benefits and challenges regarding technology use when providing transition services for youth and families receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits. Specifically, it explored the nuances of employing technology to encourage engagement in Wisconsin Promoting the Readiness of Minors in Supplemental Security Income (WI PROMISE) services and foster communication between counselors and participants. This qualitative study used a constant comparative method for analyzing data collected through two focus groups of WI PROMISE counselors. Counselors identified technology as essential to maintaining contact with WI PROMISE participants as well as extant barriers including inconsistent access to the internet, financial expense, and insufficient training and support. Recommendations for using technology to communicate with transition-age youth and their families will be discussed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Student diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) could have significant core impairments in social communication, imagination and constructive skills. In the era of technology, assistive technologies widely used by students with learning disability to improve their performance in education and assist in rehabilitation process especially autism. Students with ASD will most often require ICT-based tools such as software or application that could assist with reading, language, organizational skills and processing information. This study discussed about assistive technology and its relation to ASD. Method used in this literature study is through website search using Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct and book chapters. In conclusion, assistive technology plays an important role in assisting among students with autism in order to enhance their constructive skills. The future study is to propose a new assistive technology for student with autism which focused on the mobile learning.
Chapter
In an attempt to meet the need for validation research that contributes to assistive technology (AT) evidence-based practices, this chapter presents the findings of a study aimed to identify latent dimensions of information and communication technology (ICT) that can serve as the basis for the eventual development of a standardized instrument for ICT assessment and selection in the context of AT. The ICT preferences and practices of 1,258 postsecondary students across seven major universities were examined. A confirmatory factor analysis within the framework of structure equation modeling revealed the five latent dimensions: communicating, socializing, downloading and sharing, gaming, and learning. These dimensions examined in the context of age, gender, and income, further revealed that these demographics, as sole determinants of ICT usage, are not supported. Noteworthy findings were also found with regard to participant’s preferences for ICT, to include a tendency to text over all other technologies surveyed.
Article
This study investigated relationships between digital propensity and support needs as well as predictors of digital propensity in the context of support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity. A total of 118 special education teachers rated the support intensity, digital propensity, and social maturity of 352 students with intellectual disability. Leveraging the Digital Propensity Index, Supports Intensity Scale, and the Social Maturity Scale, descriptive statistics, correlations, multiple regressions, and regression analyses were employed. The findings revealed significant relationships between digital propensity and support needs. In addition, significant predictors of digital propensity were found with regard to support intensity, age, gender, and social maturity.
Chapter
In an attempt to meet the need for validation research that contributes to assistive technology (AT) evidence-based practices, this chapter presents the findings of a study aimed to identify latent dimensions of information and communication technology (ICT) that can serve as the basis for the eventual development of a standardized instrument for ICT assessment and selection in the context of AT. The ICT preferences and practices of 1,258 postsecondary students across seven major universities were examined. A confirmatory factor analysis within the framework of structure equation modeling revealed the five latent dimensions: communicating, socializing, downloading and sharing, gaming, and learning. These dimensions examined in the context of age, gender, and income, further revealed that these demographics, as sole determinants of ICT usage, are not supported. Noteworthy findings were also found with regard to participant’s preferences for ICT, to include a tendency to text over all other technologies surveyed.
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers the main aspects and questions that are required to be asked by any designer of residences that include technology designed to support the lives of disabled people. It seeks to reframe the design process to extend the concepts of 'inclusive' and 'universal' design within the social context of designing for people with a wide range of disabilities. Designing 'smart homes' or homes that contain elements of 'smart home' technology for disabled or older people is not different from designing the home for people without any form of impairment on the one hand. On the other hand, there is a perceptual shift that is required in order to ensure needs are met from all stakeholders. There is a need to determine the needs of the occupant(s) and reflect these needs within the overall design. This paper addresses the main questions that arise from the design process as well as discuss the role of cultural probes in enhancing the design.
Article
Full-text available
The Matching Person & Technology (MPT) assessment process is a set of person-centered measures, all of which examine the self-reported perspectives of adult consumers regarding strengths/capabilities, needs/goals, preferences and psychosocial characteristics, and expected technology benefit. There are separate measures for general, assistive, educational, workplace, and healthcare technology use; in Ireland, the measures were used to assess outcomes of assistive technology (AT) provision for (a) people throughout the country participating in a new localized AT service delivery process and (b) students transitioning from secondary education. There are companion provider forms so that consumer-provider shared perspectives can be assessed and to ensure that the matching process is a collaborative one; the Irish version assumes collaboration from the start. Each measure can be used when evaluating a person for technology use and as person-centered, ideographic, outcomes measure. The measures have been determined to have good reliability and validity.
Article
Full-text available
We developed an instrument that allows instructors to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of Web-based courses. Development and validation of the instrument involved four phases. In Phase I, an instrument was developed based on survey results from students and instructors of Web-based courses and an extensive literature review. In Phase II, the instrument was placed on the World Wide Web to collect data. Phase III was a validity study using the data collected in Phase II. In Phase IV, the instrument was revised using feedback from the first three phases.
Article
Full-text available
Design-based research (DBR) evolved near the beginning of the 21st century and was heralded as a practical research methodology that could effectively bridge the chasm between research and practice in formal education. In this article, the authors review the characteristics of DBR and analyze the five most cited DBR articles from each year of this past decade. They illustrate the context, publications, and most popular interventions utilized. They conclude that interest in DBR is increasing and that results provide limited evidence for guarded optimism that the methodology is meeting its promised benefits.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how using Likert-type scales with either 5-point, 7-point or 10-point format affects the resultant data in terms of mean scores, and measures of dispersion and shape. Three groups of respondents were administered a series of eight questions (group n's = 300, 250, 185). Respondents were randomly selected members of the general public. A different scale format was administered to each group. The 5-and 7-point scales were rescaled to a comparable mean score out of ten. The study found that the 5-and 7-point scales produced the same mean score as each other, once they were rescaled. However, the 10-point format tended to produce slightly lower relative means than either the 5-or 7-point scales (after the latter were rescaled). The overall mean score of the eight questions was 0.3 scale points lower for the 10-point format compared to the rescaled 5-and 7-point formats. This difference was statistically significant at p = 0.04. In terms of the other data characteristics, there was very little difference among the scale formats in terms of variation about the mean, skewness or kurtosis. This study is 'good news' for research departments or agencies who ponder whether changing scale format will destroy the comparability of historical data. 5-and 7-point scales can easily be rescaled with the resultant data being quite comparable. In the case of comparing 5-or 7-point data to 10-point data, a straightforward rescaling and arithmetic adjustment easily facilitates the comparison. The study suggests that indicators of customer sentiment – such as satisfaction surveys – may be partially dependent on the choice of scale format. A 5-or 7-point scale is likely to produce slightly higher mean scores relative to the highest possible attainable score, compared to that produced from a 10-point scale.
Article
Full-text available
In an aging society, it is increasingly important to understand how assistive devices can be used by older people to maintain quality of life despite chronic disabilities. Assistive technology is a mainstay of physical therapist practice, but the potential for device use to affect psychosocial well-being is not yet understood at the population level. The objective of this study was to develop a parsimonious indicator that can be used in population-based surveys to represent the effect of assistive technologies on quality of life for older people, separate from personal assistance. This study was a cross-sectional survey. /b> The methods used in this study were psychometric scale development and structural equation modeling. The results indicated that a parsimonious, valid, and reliable scale reflecting quality of life related to assistive device use can be created from 3 questions designed to measure improvements in safety, control, and participation due to technology. The findings also suggested that assistive technology may more effectively improve quality of life for people with greater levels of functional limitations. The data were derived from a cross-sectional survey conducted by telephone. The use of personal assistance, on average, was low; thus, the applicability to a population with more profound care needs has yet to be confirmed. Determining the broader impact of assistive technology on quality of life with population-level measures may provide insight into how best to leverage technologies to prevent dependence in aging adults.
Article
Full-text available
Often, specialists in the field of Assistive Technology (AT) are presented with the challenge of teaching learners to utilize AT in order to increase, maintain, or improve their capabilities. Despite best efforts, rates of AT abandonment are alarmingly high. Understanding the factors that may influence an individual's choice to utilize AT may assist interventionists in designing and implementing effective interventions that prevent technology abandonment. This paper discusses some variables that may influence an individual's choice to utilize AT. Furthermore, the potential applicability of manipulating these variables to decrease the probability of AT abandonment are discussed. Journal Article
Article
Full-text available
Technology abandonment may have serious repercussions for individuals with disabilities and for society. The purpose of this study was to determine how technology users decide to accept or reject assistive devices. Two hundred twenty-seven adults with various disabilities responded to a survey on device selection, acquisition, performance, and use. Results showed that 29.3% of all devices were completely abandoned. Mobility aids were more frequently abandoned than other categories of devices, and abandonment rates were highest during the first year and after 5 years of use. Four factors were significantly related to abandonment--lack of consideration of user opinion in selection, easy device procurement, poor device performance, and change in user needs or priorities. These findings suggest that technology-related policies and services need to emphasize consumer involvement and long-term needs of consumers to reduce device abandonment and enhance consumer satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether use of equipment (technological assistance) to cope with disability was associated with use of fewer hours of help from another person (personal assistance). In a cross-sectional study of 2368 community dwellers older than 65 years with 1 or more limitations in basic activities of daily living (ADLs) from the 1994 National Long Term Care Survey, the relation between technological assistance and personal assistance was examined. Among people with ADL limitations, multivariate models showed a strong and consistent relation between technological assistance and personal assistance, whereby use of equipment was associated with fewer hours of help. Among people with disability, use of assistive technology was associated with use of fewer hours of personal assistance.
Article
The Analysis of Technology Assistance for Children (ATAC) project was undertaken in recognition of the severe limit in information on current practices in field applications of assistive technology. Specifically, the ATAC project focused on investigating three problem areas: (1) the status of assistive technology in educational and related settings with school-age children with disabilities; (2) the benefits and barriers associated with using assistive technology for these youngsters; and (3) the effects of assistive technology use. A major aspect of the project involved a general survey of assistive technology use in special education classrooms across three states: Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. This article presents the results of this effort, and discusses the implications in regard to improving practices in the field.
Article
Assessing an individual for assistive technology (AT) use is an important part of the reauthorization of IDEA (1997) and an essential support in the path to greater independence and integration into society. Unfortunately, AT devices are frequently abandoned for many reasons. Sometimes AT selection is based on a mismatch between the individual's desires and/or needs. Sometimes the individual outgrows the capabilities of the device. To foster optimal AT use, this article presents guidelines that educators can follow to put the individual user of AT at the center of the assessment process.
Article
The article summarizes a set of findings related to themes that Macomb Project staff have repeatedly observed in more than 15 years of research and model demonstration computer application services to young children with disabilities, their families, and service delivery staff. The themes are related to conditions necessary to ensure successful technology outcomes for children, including staff training, administrative support, technology assessments, appropriate early childhood curricula, family invovlement, and transition. Positive outcomes for children are discussed, including social interaction, communication, retention of skills related to technology use, technology tools, and inclusion.
Article
This publication is designed to assist schools in complying with 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act provisions that require assistive technology (AT) be considered when developing the Individualized Education Program of a student with a disability. The first part of the guide presents a series of issues that should be addressed when considering AT for individual students, centered around five critical points: (1) students should be evaluated in their customary environments, including both an assessment of their AT needs and a functional assessment; (2) training and technical assistance should be provided to the child, the family, and to teachers and providers significantly involved in the care and education of children with disabilities; (3) issues surrounding the acquisition and use of assistive technology devices for students; (4) how AT devices should be selected, designed, fitted, customized, adapted, maintained, repaired, and replaced; and (5) how AT devices should be integrated with the use of other therapies, interventions or services. The second part of the guide provides action steps for parents and advocates for getting AT on the radar screen at the local level. A list of AT resources is provided. (CR)
Article
Assistive technology has the potential to bring about significant changes in the life of a young child with disabilities. However, for assistive technology to be utilized effectively, families must be involved in the assessment and intervention process. This article describes a family-centered assessment and intervention approach that empowers and enables families in the selection and use of assistive technology. Included in the discussion are key characteristics of parent/professional partnerships and effective help-giving practices that facilitate the child and family's level of involvement and interaction in the application of assistive technology in their natural environment.
Article
The objectives of this study were: to identify the factors that are associated with prescription of wheeled mobility devices for older adults, and to determine the effect that living setting has on the types of devices that older adults receive. Retrospective medical chart review at the Center for Assistive Technology on 337 older individuals. These individuals were aged >60 years, and each of them received a new wheeled mobility device from the center during 2007 or 2008. Data were analyzed in three tiers: tier 1 (manual versus powered mobility devices); tier 2 (motorized scooters versus power wheelchairs); and tier 3 (customized versus standard power wheelchairs). For tier 1, the factor associated with higher odds for receipt of manual wheelchairs versus powered were: cognitive limitations (OR = .03). For tier 2, diagnosis of cardio-vascular and pulmonary conditions were associated with prescription of motorized scooters (OR = 3.9). For tier 3, neurological conditions (OR = 3.1), male gender (OR = .37), institutional living (OR = .23), and lower age (OR = .96) were associated with receipt of customized power wheelchairs. This study objectively describes factors associated with prescription of wheeled mobility for older adults. This information can aid in development of guidelines and improving standards of practice for prescription of wheelchairs for older adults.
Book
Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify and validate items applicable to evaluating online courses at the postsecondary level. Items were derived from a review of the literature. Four judges rated the similarity of the items by making pair-wise comparisons utilizing multidimensional scaling (MDS). The study consisted of five stages. Stage I involved identifying items. Stage II involved validating items. Stage III involved sampling. Stage IV involved developing an online MDS instrument accommodating the 4,851 ([99 * 98]/2) pair-wise comparisons and rating them. Stage V involved data collection and analysis. The results of the MDS study indicated a three-dimensional solution (Accessibility, Adaptability, and Clarity of Communication) as the appropriate model for analysis. The three-dimensional solution indicated .24222 for the fit values of STRESS and .74 for R-squared. Four clusters were identified as Contextual Accommodation, Instructional Access, Guided Learning, and Organizational Clarity.
Article
The present study was designed to identify the quality dimensions as perceived by adult learners who had taken one or more e-learning courses offered by higher education institutions in South Korea and to identify and confirm the structural features of these quality dimensions. The results of the exploratory factor analysis arising from a survey of 299 learners revealed that from their perspective, there were seven dimensions in evaluating the e-learning quality: Interaction, Staff Support, Institutional Quality Assurance Mechanism, Institutional Credibility, Learner Support, Information and Publicity and Learning Tasks. And the confirmatory factor analysis with responses obtained from another set of 496 adult learners confirmed a good fit of the seven-factor model to the observed data. While most of these seven dimensions are supported by previous studies, some dimensions, such as technology support, content and evaluation/assessment that e-learning providers had highlighted did not appear to be important for Korean adult learners. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed in relation to learner characteristics, e-learning design, and culture, and further research topics are suggested. KeywordsCFA–EFA–e-learning–e-learning quality–Learner’s perspective–Quality
Article
Documenting outcomes is becoming an essential function in assistive technology. Successfully documenting outcomes, however, depends on having appropriate measurement instruments and methodologies available. This is a challenge, as few measures are available which target the measurement of assistive technology outcomes. New instrumentation and approaches may need to be created or older measures radically adapted for assistive technology applications. This paper reviews measurement issues specifically relevant to assistive technology outcomes assessment. Many of the issues relate to measurement theory, as it is important to understand how instruments based on traditional psychometric concepts may not be the most appropriate for applications of assistive technology outcomes assessment. Fortunately, the assistive technology field also has innovative ideas being developed and tested. These may hold some promise as we all pursue better ways to document the outcomes of our assistive technology devices and services.
Ethical principles of psychol-ogists and code of conduct Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/ethics/ code/code-1992 Design-based research: A decade of progress in education research
  • T Anderson
  • J Shattuck
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychol-ogists and code of conduct. Retrieved fromhttp://www.apa.org/ethics/ code/code-1992.aspx Anderson, T., & Shattuck, J. (2012). Design-based research: A decade of progress in education research? Educational Research, 41, 16–25.
Texas assistive technology partnership: Providing assistive technology services to persons with disabili-ties Assistive technology for people with disabilities Using assistive technology to enhance the skills of students with learning disabilities
  • B R Bryant
  • Co Denver
  • D P Bryant
  • B R Bryant
Bryant, B. R. (1994, April). Texas assistive technology partnership: Providing assistive technology services to persons with disabili-ties. Presented at the International Conference of the Council for Exceptional Children, Denver, CO. Bryant, D. P., & Bryant, B. R. (2003). Assistive technology for people with disabilities. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., & Raskind, M. S. (1998). Using assistive technology to enhance the skills of students with learning disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic 34, 53–58.
The use of assistive tech-nology in postsecondary education settings
  • B R Bryant
  • D P Bryant
  • H J Rieth
Bryant, B. R., Bryant, D. P., & Rieth, H. J. (2002). The use of assistive tech-nology in postsecondary education settings. In L. C. Brinckerhoff, J. M. McGuire, & S. F. Shaw (Eds.), Postsecondary education and transition for students with learning disabilities (2 nd ed., pp. 389–429). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Assistive technology solutions for individuals with learning problems: Conducting assessments using the Functional Evaluation for Assistive Technology (FEAT)
  • B R Bryant
  • S Seok
  • D P Bryant
  • M Shih
Bryant, B. R., Seok, S., Bryant, D. P., & Shih, M. (2010). Assistive technology solutions for individuals with learning problems: Conducting assessments using the Functional Evaluation for Assistive Technology (FEAT). In S. Seok, E. L. Meyen, & B. DaCosta (Eds.), Human cognition and assistive technology: Design, accessibility and transdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 264-284). Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.
Abandonment of assistive technology Retrieved from http://www.florida-ese The assessment of assistive technology outcomes, effects and costs
  • I Ebner
Ebner, I. (2004). Abandonment of assistive technology. Retrieved from http://www.florida-ese.org/atcomp/_PDF/MATR%20Abandon% 20of%20Assistive%20Technology.pdf Gelderblom, G. J., & de Witte, L. P. (2002). The assessment of assistive technology outcomes, effects and costs. Technology and Disability, 14, 91–94.
Levelling the playing field: Assistive technology, special education, and a Canadian perspective
  • R Graham
  • R Warnie
Graham, R., & Warnie, R. (2012). Levelling the playing field: Assistive technology, special education, and a Canadian perspective. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(1), 6-15.
Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh
  • S B Green
  • N J Salkind
Green, S. B., & Salkind, N. J. (2003). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh (3 rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Seok and DaCosta
Evidence-based practice and the consideration of assistive technology effectiveness and outcomes
  • G R Peterson-Karlan
  • H P Parette
Peterson-Karlan, G. R., & Parette, H. P. (2007). Evidence-based practice and the consideration of assistive technology effectiveness and outcomes. Assistive Technology Outcomes and Benefits, 4, 130-139.
Standards, accreditations, benchmarks in distance education
  • S Seok
Seok, S. (2007b). Standards, accreditations, benchmarks in distance education. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8, 387-398.
Assistive technology for people with disabilities
  • D P Bryant
  • B R Bryant
Bryant, D. P., & Bryant, B. R. (2003). Assistive technology for people with disabilities. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Texas assistive technology partnership: Providing assistive technology services to persons with disabilities
  • B R Bryant
Bryant, B. R. (1994, April). Texas assistive technology partnership: Providing assistive technology services to persons with disabilities. Presented at the International Conference of the Council for Exceptional Children, Denver, CO.
Classifying the state of evidence for special education professional practices: CEC practice study manual Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org Dawes Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5 point, 7 point and 10 point scales
  • Exceptional Council
  • Children
Council for Exceptional Children. (2008). Classifying the state of evidence for special education professional practices: CEC practice study manual. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org Dawes, J. (2008). Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5 point, 7 point and 10 point scales. International Journal of Market Research, 50, 1–19. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2013613
Postsecondary education and transition for students with learning disabilities
  • B R Bryant
  • D P Bryant
  • H J Rieth
Bryant, B. R., Bryant, D. P., & Rieth, H. J. (2002). The use of assistive technology in postsecondary education settings. In L. C. Brinckerhoff, J. M. McGuire, & S. F. Shaw (Eds.), Postsecondary education and transition for students with learning disabilities (2 nd ed., pp. 389-429). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Abandonment of assistive technology
  • I Ebner
Ebner, I. (2004). Abandonment of assistive technology. Retrieved from http://www.florida-ese.org/atcomp/_PDF/MATR%20Abandon% 20of%20Assistive%20Technology.pdf
The dimensions of e-Learning quality: From the learner's perspective. Educational Technology Research & Development
  • I Jung
Jung, I. (2010). The dimensions of e-Learning quality: From the learner's perspective. Educational Technology Research & Development, 59, 445-464.