Article

Pharmacosomes: The lipid-based new drug delivery system

HNB Garhwal University Srinagar, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Garhwal-246174, India.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery (Impact Factor: 4.84). 07/2009; 6(6):599-612. DOI: 10.1517/17425240902967607
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Lipid-based drug delivery systems have been investigated in various studies and shown their potential in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Pharmacosomes are amphiphilic phospholipid complexes of drugs bearing active hydrogen that bind to phospholipids. Pharmacosomes impart better biopharmaceutical properties to the drug, resulting in improved bioavailability. Pharmacosomes have been prepared for various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs. Developing the pharmacosomes of the drugs has been found to improve the absorption and minimize the gastrointestinal toxicity. This article reviews the potential of pharmacosomes as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system and highlights the methods of preparation and characterization.

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    • "For many applications, delivery systems are needed that can be incorporated into high-moisture food matrices, such as those in beverages , yogurts, dressings, sauces, creams, soups, dips, and desserts. A variety of different emulsion-based delivery systems have been developed to encapsulate lipophilic bioactive agents, including emulsions, nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, filled hydrogel particles, and solid lipid nanoparticles (Gershkovich et al., 2008; Han et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2008; McClements, 2010; McClements et al., 2008; Nordly et al., 2009; Semalty et al., 2009). Each of these delivery systems has their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, ease of preparation, in-product stability, product compatibility, ingredient utilization , and functional performance (McClements, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Delivery systems are often needed to encapsulate lipophilic active agents, protect them during storage, and then release them within the mouth. In this study, gelatin and caseinate were used to fabricate temperature-sensitive filled hydrogel particles. Filled hydrogel microspheres were formed by electrostatic complexation of caseinate and gelatin in the presence of caseinate-coated lipid droplets. This was achieved by mixing aqueous 1% sodium caseinate and 1% gelatin solutions (volume ratio 1:2) at pH 5.8 with an oil-in-water emulsion. The majority of lipid droplets were trapped within the hydrogel microspheres. Turbidity and viscosity measurements of the hydrogels indicated that hydrogel particles dissociated upon heating because of gelatin melting (around 35 °C). Light scattering and confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that lipid droplets were released from the gelatin-based hydrogel particles after oral processing, which was attributed to hydrogel melting under simulated mouth conditions. Our results suggest that hydrogel particles based on electrostatic complexation of sodium caseinate and gelatin could be useful as oral delivery systems for lipophilic active agents.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Food Research International
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    • "For many applications, delivery systems are needed that can be incorporated into high-moisture food matrices, such as those in beverages , yogurts, dressings, sauces, creams, soups, dips, and desserts. A variety of different emulsion-based delivery systems have been developed to encapsulate lipophilic bioactive agents, including emulsions, nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, filled hydrogel particles, and solid lipid nanoparticles (Gershkovich et al., 2008; Han et al., 2009; Lee et al., 2008; McClements, 2010; McClements et al., 2008; Nordly et al., 2009; Semalty et al., 2009). Each of these delivery systems has their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost, ease of preparation, in-product stability, product compatibility, ingredient utilization , and functional performance (McClements, 2014). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Food Research International
    • "Broadly, vesicular carriers are divided into two main classes: liposomes, which represent the groundbreaking discovery of Alec Bangham in the 1960s and are composed mainly of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) bilayers, and niosomes that were revealed later in 1970, by L'Oreal, and denote non-ionic surfactant vesicles (Torchilin, 2005). Following that, newer forms of lipid vesicles were presented by various researchers and includes tranferosomes (Bragagni et al., 2012), emulsomes (Vyas et al., 2006), enzymosomes (Gaspar et al., 2003), ethosomes (Pandey et al., 2014) and pharmacosomes (Semalty et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Most of the new drugs, biological therapeutics (proteins/peptides) and vaccines have poor performance after oral administration due to poor solubility or degradation in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Though, vesicular carriers exemplified by liposomes or niosomes can protect the entrapped agent to a certain extent from degradation. Nevertheless, the harsh GIT environment exemplified by low pH, presence of bile salts and enzymes limits their capabilities by destabilizing them. In response to that, more resistant bile salts-containing vesicles (BS-vesicles) were developed by inclusion of bile salts into lipid bilayers constructs. The effectiveness of orally administrated BS-vesicles in improving the performance of vesicles has been demonstrated in researches. Yet, these attempts did not gain considerable attention. This is the first review that provides a comprehensive overview of utilizing BS-vesicles as a promising pharmaceutical carrier with a special focus on their successful applications in oral delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and vaccines. Insights on the possible mechanisms by which BS-vesicles improve the oral bioavailability of the encapsulated drug or immunological response of entrapped vaccine are explained. In addition, methods adopted to prepare and characterize BS-vesicles are described. Finally, the gap in the scientific researches tackling BS-vesicles that needs to be addressed is highlighted.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Drug Delivery
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