Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine introduction into the South African public immunisation programme
South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde
03/2014; 104(3 Suppl 1):228-34. DOI: 10.7196/samj.7597
Immunisation has contributed greatly to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and therefore to improvements in health and survival, especially among young children, and remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions. This remains true for many of the newer, more expensive vaccines. Vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease and rotavirus infection were introduced into the South African Expanded Programme on Immunization in April 2009. This article describes the rationale for and process of the introduction of these two vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine. It also aims to evaluate the success of and challenges related to their introduction, in terms of both achieving universal coverage and improving survival and health in South African children.
Available from: Yogan Pillay
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Little is known about the molecular epidemiology of deafness in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Even in Nigeria, the most populous African nation, no genetic studies of deafness have been conducted. This pioneering work aims at investigating the frequencies of gene mutations relatively common in other parts of the world (i.e. those in GJB2, GJB6, and mitochondrial DNA) among subjects from Nigeria with hearing loss (HL) with no evidence of acquired pathology or syndromic findings. In addition, we review the literature on the genetics of deafness in SSA.
We evaluated 81 unrelated deaf probands from the Yoruba tribe residing in Ibadan, a suburban city in Nigeria, for the etiology of their deafness. Subjects underwent genetic testing if their history was negative for an environmental cause and physical examination did not find evidence of a syndrome. Both exons of GJB2 and mitochondrial DNA flanking the 1555A > G mutation were PCR-amplified followed by Sanger sequencing. GJB6 deletions were screened via quantitative PCR.
We identified 44 probands who had nonsyndromic deafness with no environmental cause. The age at study time ranged between 8 months and 45 years (mean = 24 years) and age at onset was congenital or prelingual (<age 2 years) in 37 (84%) probands and postlingual in 7 (16%) probands. Among these, 35 probands were the only affected members of their families (simplex cases), while there were at least two affected family members in 9 cases (multiplex). Molecular analyses did not show a pathogenic variant in any one of the 44 probands studied.
GJB2, GJB6 and mitochondrial DNA 1555A > G mutations were not found among this initial cohort of the deaf in Nigeria. This makes imperative the search for other genes in the etiology of HL in this population.
Available from: Shingirai Katsinde
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