It is necessary to develop a resilient food supply that will withstand unexpected future shocks and deliver the required amounts of nutrients to consumers. By increasing the sustainability of food and agriculture, the food system will be able to handle challenges such as climate change, declining agricultural resources, growing population/urbanization, pandemics, and recessions/shortages. Micronutrient deficiency, otherwise called hidden hunger, is one of the major malnutrition consequences worldwide, particularly in middle- or low- income countries. Unlike essential mineral or nutrient compounds, micronutrients could be less of a priority due to their small levels of requirement. However, insufficient micronutrients caused critical adverse health symptoms and are excessively vital for young children’s development. Therefore, there have been numerous attempts to enhance minerals and nutrients in food crops, including biofortification, food fortification, and supplementation. Based on several interventions involving micronutrients, modern technology, such as nanotechnology, can be applied to enhance sustainability and to reduce the food system’s environmental impact. Previous studies have addressed various strategies or interventions to mitigate major micronutrient deficiency including iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. Comparably small amounts of studies have addressed vitamin B 12 deficiency and its fortification in food crops. Vitamin B 12 deficiency causes serious adverse health effects, including in the nervous or blood systems, and occurs along with other micronutrient deficiencies, such as folate, iron, and zinc, worldwide, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Mitigation for B 12 deficiency has mainly focused on developing pharmacological and medical treatments such as vitamin B 12 serum or supplements. Further studies are required to undertake a sustainable approach to fortify vitamin B 12 in plant-based food sources for public health worldwide. This review paper highlights nanoparticle application as a promising technology for enhancing vitamin B 12 without conventional genetic modification requirements. The nanoparticle can efficiently deliver the mineral/nutrient using coating techniques to targeted sites into the plant. This is mainly because nanoparticles have better solubility and permeability due to their nano size with high surface exposure. Vitamin B 12 -coated nanoparticles would be absorbed, translocated, and accumulated by the plant and eventually enhance the bioavailability in food crops. Furthermore, by reducing adverse environmental effects, such as leaching issues that mainly occur with conventional fertilizer usage, it would be possible to develop more sustainable food fortification.