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Characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in the fruiting bodies of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) and bed logs after fruiting of the mushroom

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Abstract

This study determined the vitamin B12 content in commercially available dried fruiting bodies of shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes. The vitamin B12 contents in dried donko-type fruiting bodies with closed caps (5.61 ± 3.90 μg/100 g dry weight), did not significantly differ from those of dried koushin-type fruiting bodies with open caps (4.23 ± 2.42 μg/100 g dry weight). The bed logs after fruiting of the mushroom also contained the vitamin B12 levels similar to that in the dried shiitake fruiting bodies. To determine whether the dried shiitake fruiting bodies and their bed logs contained vitamin B12 or other corrinoid compounds that are inactive in humans, we purified corrinoid compounds using an immunoaffinity column and identified vitamin B12 using vitamin B12-dependent Escherichia coli 215 bioautograms and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) chromatograms. Dried shiitake fruiting bodies rarely contained an unnatural corrinoid vitamin B12[c-lactone] that is inactive in humans. Given that shiitake mushroom lacks the ability to synthesize vitamin B12de novo, the vitamin B12 found in dried shiitake fruiting bodies must have been derived from the bed logs.

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... The total vitamin B 12 compounds were extracted by boiling at pH 4.8 in the presence of 4.0 Â 10 À4 % KCN ( Bito et al., 2014). Vitamin B 12 was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with an octadecyl silica column (4 lm, 4.6 Â 150 mm, Inertsil Ò ODS-3, GL Sciences Inc., Tokyo, Japan). ...
... Moreover, the absence of air during VD and MVD might inhibit oxidation of uronic acid. Table 2 Table 2), which was similar to the results reported by Bito et al. (2014). Vitamin B 12 was relatively resistant to temperature. ...
... Lower temperature, high vacuum, and short drying time of MVD could protect vitamin B 12 from being destroyed. Consumption of approximately 50 g of dried shiitake mushrooms could provide the recommended vitamin B 12 dietary allowance for adults (2.4 lg/day) ( Bito et al., 2014). Vitamin D 2 is almost absent in cultivated mushrooms, while the content of vitamin D 2 can be increased after 1 h of irradiation with UV-B light ( Jasinghe & Perera, 2006). ...
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Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.
... In addition, high levels of Vitamin B 12 were detected in the commercially available dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies (Lentinula edodes), which are used in various vegetarian dishes. The Vitamin B 12 contents of dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies (100 g dry weight) significantly varied and the average Vitamin B 12 value was approximately 5.61 μg [50]. Dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies rarely contained the inactive corrinoid, Vitamin B 12 [c-lactone] as well as Vitamin B 12 [50]. ...
... The Vitamin B 12 contents of dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies (100 g dry weight) significantly varied and the average Vitamin B 12 value was approximately 5.61 μg [50]. Dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies rarely contained the inactive corrinoid, Vitamin B 12 [c-lactone] as well as Vitamin B 12 [50]. Lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies also contain considerable amounts of Vitamin B 12 [c-lactone] [51]. ...
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The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.
... Less common mushrooms such as Craterellus cornucopioides and Cantharellus cibarius may contain 1.09-2.65 µg/100 g [109]. Best known Asiatic Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) can contain up to 5.61 ± 3.9 µg of Cbl per 100 g of dry weight (mostly in active form), although with great variability [110]. For instance, a portion of 50 g of dried shiitake could be adequate to achieve the daily requirement, thought this scenario is an unlikely everyday scenario [107,110]. ...
... Best known Asiatic Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) can contain up to 5.61 ± 3.9 µg of Cbl per 100 g of dry weight (mostly in active form), although with great variability [110]. For instance, a portion of 50 g of dried shiitake could be adequate to achieve the daily requirement, thought this scenario is an unlikely everyday scenario [107,110]. ...
Article
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Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) is an essential water-soluble vitamin that plays a pivotal role for several physiologic functions during one’s lifespan. Only certain microorganisms are able to synthetize B12, thus humans obtain cobalamin exclusively from their diet, specifically from animal-derived foods. Specific sub-group populations are at risk of vitamin B12 subclinical deficiency due to different factors including poor intake of animal source foods and age-dependent decrease in the capacity of intestinal B12 uptake. Consumption of animal products produces some negative health issues and negatively impacts sustainability while a plant-based diet increases the risk of B12 deficiency. Taking a cue from the aforementioned considerations, this narrative review aims to summarize facts about B12 deficiency and the burden of inadequate dietary intake in elderly population, as well as to discuss sustainable approaches to vitamin B12 deficiency in aging population.
... 85 B 12 found in shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies has not been attributed to the de novo biosynthesis of B 12 , but appears to be derived from B 12 sources outside the mushrooms, presumably concomitant B 12 -synthesizing bacteria or those existing in bed logs. 85 Similarly cultivated white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fruiting bodies contain approximately 0.2 lg of B 12 per 100 g dry weight, 86 with the highest B 12 content found in the peel portion. B 12 was also detected at similar levels in their composts. ...
... Dried shiitake mushroom fruiting bodies rarely contain the inactive corrinoid, B 12 [c-lactone]. 85 Lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies contain considerable amounts of B 12 [c-lactone]. 87 B 12 [c-lactone] binds weakly to the intrinsic factor, which is involved in the gastrointestinal absorption of B 12 and inhibits the B 12 -dependent enzymes. ...
Article
Vitamin B 12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B 12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B 12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B 12 , which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs. In aquatic environments, most phytoplankton acquire vitamin B 12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria, and they become food for larval fish and bivalves. Edible plants and mushrooms rarely contain a considerable amount of vitamin B 12 , mainly due to concomitant bacteria in soil and/or their aerial surfaces. Thus, humans acquire vitamin B 12 formed by microbial interaction via mainly ruminants and fish (or shellfish) as food sources. In this review, up-to-date information on vitamin B 12 sources and bioavailability are also discussed. Impact statement To prevent vitamin B 12 (B 12 ) deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify foods that contain high levels of B 12 . B 12 is synthesized by only certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants or animals. The synthesized B 12 is transferred and accumulated in animal tissues, even in certain plant tissues via microbial interaction. Meats and milks of herbivorous ruminant animals are good sources of B 12 for humans. Ruminants acquire the essential B 12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria inside the body. Thus, we also depend on B 12 -producing bacteria located in ruminant stomachs. While edible plants and mushrooms rarely contain a considerable amount of B 12 , mainly due to concomitant bacteria in soil and/or their aerial surfaces. In this mini-review, we described up-to-date information on B 12 sources and bioavailability with reference to the interaction of microbes as B 12 -producers.
... In the specific case of L. edodes, studies focus on the mushrooms' own constituent substances. Some focus on their beneficial, nutritional or pharmacological effects for mankind (BITO et al., 2014;FINIMUNDY et al., 2014); others on their harmful effects for other biological targets, including their antimicrobial effect for E. coli (SÁNCHEZ-MINUTTI et al., 2016). Perhaps that is the reason why studies on edible mushrooms sanitary quality have been neglected. ...
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Mushrooms are millennial foods that make up the diet of populations in various parts of the world, and in Brazil, although consumption is still modest, compared to other countries, there has been a significant increase in demand. Edible mushrooms have attractive nutritional and functional qualities, among them: proteins of good quality and low caloric value. Some mushroom species, such as Shiitake, when consumed fresh do not undergo sanitization processes in order not to modify their texture, taste and aroma. Thus, due to the variation of origin, management and production, it is not possible to know if this product is free of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective of this work was to analyze the sanitary quality of Shiitake in natura, commercialized in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Samples from two different producers were analyzed for the detection of total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonela spp., Fungi and associated nematodes. The results were negative for total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as for nematodes. However, it was detected the presence of Salmonela spp. in two samples of one of the producers, which make them unfit for human consumption because they represent a risk for the consumer. Fungi were also found contaminating the product.
... As a popular nonstaple food, shiitake is rich in dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins and low in fat [8]. Several important components have been separated from its basidiocarp, mycelium, and culture medium [9,10], including biologically active polysaccharides, ergothioneine, phenolics, amino acids, dietary fiber, ergosterol, vitamins B1, B2, and C, and minerals. By experimental researches, shiitake mushroom has demonstrated many important therapeutic properties, including antitumoral, hipocolesterolemic, antifungic, and antimicrobial activities, along with a high antioxidant potential [11][12][13]. ...
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Long-term storage can largely degrade the taste and quality of dried shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes). This paper aimed at developing a rapid method for discrimination of the regular and aged shiitake by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis and chemometrics. Regular (𝑛 = 197) and aged (𝑛 = 133) samples of shiitake were collected from six main producing areas in two successive years (2013 and 2014). NIR reflectance spectra (4000–12000 cm−1) were measured with finely ground powders. Different data preprocessing method including smoothing, taking second-order derivatives (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV) were investigated to reduce the unwanted spectral variations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) were used to develop classification models. The results indicate that SNV and D2 can largely enhance the classification accuracy.Thebest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of classification were 0.967, 0.953, and 0.961 obtained by SNV-LS-SVM and 0.933, 0.930, and 0.932 obtained by SNV-PLSDA, respectively.Moreover, the low model complexity and the high accuracy in predicting objects produced in different years demonstrate that the classification models had a good generalization performance.
... Less common mushrooms such as Craterellus cornucopioides or Cantharellus cibarius may contain 1.09-2.65 µg/100 g [177]. Shiitake mushrooms, popular among vegetarians, can contain up to 5.61 ± 3.9 µg of Cbl per 100 g of dry weight (mostly in active form), although with great variability [178]. Even in this case, although a portion of 50 g of dried shiitake could be adequate to achieve the daily requirement, it is unlikely that this will happen daily. ...
Article
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Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.
... Shiitake has high nutritional content as well as excellent flavor. This high-quality mushroom has important nutrients including dietary fiber (Mattila et al. 2002), minerals (George et al. 2014), vitamin B 12 (Bito et al. 2014) and vitamin D (Jasinghe and Perera 2006), while it does not have vitamins A and C. ...
Chapter
Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is the third most commonly cultivated edible mushroom species in the world. It has attracted people’s attention with its medical properties as well as taste and nutritional value. Shiitake which has been known and used in Chinese medicine for more than 2000 years is now considered a great resource for modern clinical and pharmacological research. This mushroom contains many biologically active compounds (polysaccharides, lentinan, LEM and KS–2, ergosterol, nucleic acid derivatives, water-soluble lignins, eritadenine, etc.) which possess different medicinal effects such as antitumor, immunomodulatory, hypocholesterolemic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti–inflammatory and antioxidant. The chapter presents an overview of the research on the shiitake mushroom including its taxonomy, cultivation techniques, biotechnological approach, functional compounds and medicinal properties.
... As demonstrated above, only a few previous studies focused on vitamin B 12 fortification in food crops (Sato et al., 2004;Bito et al., 2013;Keshavarz and Moghadam, 2017; Table 1). Various studies only focused on the quantification and determination of vitamin B 12 in food crops such as Hippophae rhamnoides berries (Nakos et al., 2017), edible algae (Kumudha, 2015), mushrooms (Watanabe et al., 2012(Watanabe et al., , 2014Bito et al., 2014Bito et al., , 2016, and fermented plant-based products (Watanabe et al., 2013). Titcomb and Tanumihardjo (2019) highlighted that high intake of vitamin B 12 did not show adverse effects on human bodies. ...
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It is necessary to develop a resilient food supply that will withstand unexpected future shocks and deliver the required amounts of nutrients to consumers. By increasing the sustainability of food and agriculture, the food system will be able to handle challenges such as climate change, declining agricultural resources, growing population/urbanization, pandemics, and recessions/shortages. Micronutrient deficiency, otherwise called hidden hunger, is one of the major malnutrition consequences worldwide, particularly in middle- or low- income countries. Unlike essential mineral or nutrient compounds, micronutrients could be less of a priority due to their small levels of requirement. However, insufficient micronutrients caused critical adverse health symptoms and are excessively vital for young children’s development. Therefore, there have been numerous attempts to enhance minerals and nutrients in food crops, including biofortification, food fortification, and supplementation. Based on several interventions involving micronutrients, modern technology, such as nanotechnology, can be applied to enhance sustainability and to reduce the food system’s environmental impact. Previous studies have addressed various strategies or interventions to mitigate major micronutrient deficiency including iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. Comparably small amounts of studies have addressed vitamin B 12 deficiency and its fortification in food crops. Vitamin B 12 deficiency causes serious adverse health effects, including in the nervous or blood systems, and occurs along with other micronutrient deficiencies, such as folate, iron, and zinc, worldwide, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Mitigation for B 12 deficiency has mainly focused on developing pharmacological and medical treatments such as vitamin B 12 serum or supplements. Further studies are required to undertake a sustainable approach to fortify vitamin B 12 in plant-based food sources for public health worldwide. This review paper highlights nanoparticle application as a promising technology for enhancing vitamin B 12 without conventional genetic modification requirements. The nanoparticle can efficiently deliver the mineral/nutrient using coating techniques to targeted sites into the plant. This is mainly because nanoparticles have better solubility and permeability due to their nano size with high surface exposure. Vitamin B 12 -coated nanoparticles would be absorbed, translocated, and accumulated by the plant and eventually enhance the bioavailability in food crops. Furthermore, by reducing adverse environmental effects, such as leaching issues that mainly occur with conventional fertilizer usage, it would be possible to develop more sustainable food fortification.
... c ? g [31,33] Tempe (fermented soybean product) 0.7-8 ? g [34] Shiitake mushrooms 4.2-5.6 c ? g [35] RDI recommended dietary intake a The form in which the eggs are prepared influences the content and absorption of vitamin B 12 [30] b [46,47]. Factors that moderate the response to supplementation in subclinical deficiency may include differences by ethnicity, gender, increasing age, dosage, and cause of the deficiency state. ...
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Purpose of Review Health organizations throughout the world advocate diets that emphasize vegetables, fruits, pulses, grains, and minimally processed staple foods as beneficial throughout life and in old age. However, concern exists that the dietary exclusion or minimalization of flesh foods may compromise the nutritional status of some nutrients, including vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The purpose of this study is to discuss the metabolism and dietary sources of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc and review observational studies that investigate the status of these micronutrients in older vegetarians compared to their non-vegetarian counterparts. Recent Findings The few comparative studies that are available suggest that vitamin B12 status is lower in older vegetarian compared to omnivorous populations; however, subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency due to malabsorption is prevalent regardless of dietary pattern. Zinc status appears comparable but not optimal in either group. Whether iron status is compromised in older vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians is unclear. Summary Dietary practices that improve zinc and iron bioavailability are appropriate strategies in the management of suboptimal nutrient status in apparently healthy older vegetarian populations. Older populations may benefit from vitamin B12 and zinc supplementation, irrespective of dietary pattern.
... Indeed, it can be important for vegetarians to consume L. edodes, because vegetables do not contain vitamin B12 and its deciency can cause anaemia. 5 In addition, lentinan produced by L. edodes exhibits immunopotentiation effects and can exert anti-tumor activities by enhancing normal bodily immune functions, although it cannot directly kill tumor cells. 6 The highest plantation areas of maize exist in North America followed by Asia, Latin America, and Europe. ...
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Using agro-residues in bioreactors to produce mushrooms is an important component of eco-agriculture. Here, we tested the cultivation of Lentinula edodes with corn cob (CC) and corn straw (CS), and then evaluated the resulting enzyme activities, agronomic traits, textures and nutrient compositions of mushrooms. Laccase (T1 formula, 3.26 g U⁻¹) and carboxymethyl cellulase (T3 formula, 1.01 g U⁻¹) activities were the highest at the time for a complete substrate colonization stage (TCSC), while acidic xylanase activity was the highest (CK formula, 4.05 g U⁻¹) in the mushroom block to color-turned (TMBCT) stage. The biological efficiency of growth on the T6 formula was 8.82% higher than growth on the CK formula, wherein the low C/N ratio of the substrate had an obvious negative effect on yield while the mass ratio of pileus (MRP) of fruiting bodies did not change with mixed substrates. No significant differences were observed in mineral composition for CK formulas, but corn crop waste (CCW) formulas exhibited more optimal nutritional contents. A formula containing more corn cob and sawdust (SD) (sum of at least 70%) as the substrate can produce fruiting bodies with good hardness. These results indicate that the use of corn cobs as the main ingredient, mixed with sawdust and corn straw to grow L. edodes provides a more efficient use of agro-residues for growth. Thus, mixed agro-residue formulas have exceptional advantages in texture, nutrition of fruiting bodies, and yields.
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This study determined the vitamin B(12) content of six wild edible mushrooms which are consumed by European vegetarians. Zero or trace levels (0.01-0.09 µg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B(12) were determined in porcini mushrooms (Boletus spp.), parasol mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), and black morels (Morchella conica). By contrast, black trumpet (Craterellus cornucopioides) and golden chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) mushrooms contained considerable levels (1.09-2.65 µg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B(12). To determine whether C. cornucopioides or C. cibarius contained vitamin B(12) or other corrinoid compounds that are inactive in humans, we purified a corrinoid compound using an immunoaffinity column and identified it as vitamin B(12) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms.
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A potential approach for determining the estimated average requirement (EAR) is based on the observation that a water-soluble vitamin or its catabolite(s) can be detected in urine. In this approach, the urinary excretion of a water-soluble vitamin or its catabolite(s) increase when the intake exceeds the requirement. This approach is applied to vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and niacin. A second approach is to determine the blood concentration. In this case, the requirement is indicated by a value rather than a threshold level. The second approach is applied to vitamin B6, vitamin B12, foliate, and vitamin C. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) was calculated by multiplying the EAR by 1.2. For pantothenic acid and biotin, there were insufficient data for determining the EAR. Thus, adequate intakes were set based on food surveillance data.
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The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and in conjunction to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods.
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To evaluate whether certain foods contain vitamin B12 or inactive corrinoids, a simple technique, bioautography with vitamin B12-dependent Escherichia coli mutant after separation of the sample by silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography, is available. By using the method, vitamin B12-compounds found in some edible cyanobacteria are readily identified. This bioautography has great advantages (simplicity, speed, and inexpensiveness) for the analysis of vitamin B12-compounds in food.
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Glial cells, myelin and the interstitium are the structures of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) mainly affected by vitamin B(12) (cobalamin, Cbl) deficiency. Most of the response to the damage caused by Cbl deficiency seems to come from astrocytes and microglia, and is manifested as an increase in the number of cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, the presence of ultrastructural signs of activation, and changes in cytokine and growth factor production and secretion. Myelin damage particularly affects the lamellae, which are disorganized by edema, as is the interstitium. Surprisingly, rat Schwann cells (myelin-forming cells of the peripheral nervous system) are fully activated but the few oligodendrocytes (myelin-forming cells of the CNS) are scarcely activated. The presence of intramyelin and interstitial edema raises questions about the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. The results obtained in the CNS of Cbl-deficient rats indicate that cytokine and growth factor imbalance is a key point in the pathogenesis of Cbl-deficient neuropathy. In the rat, Cbl deficiency increases the spinal cord (SC) synthesis and CSF levels of myelinotoxic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and soluble (s) CD40:sCD40 ligand dyad) and a myelinotoxic growth factor (nerve growth factor), but decreases SC synthesis and CSF levels of a myelinotrophic cytokine (interleukin-6) and a myelinotrophic growth factor (epidermal growth factor, EGF). The in vivo administration of IL-6 or EGF, or agents antagonizing the excess myelinotoxic agent, is as effective as Cbl in repairing or preventing Cbl-deficiency-induced CNS lesions. An imbalance in TNF-alpha and EGF levels has also been found in the CSF and serum of patients with severe Cbl deficiency.
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A gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of chloramine-T (C-T) in milk, ice cream, whole egg, mechanically deboned poultry meat, and croquettes has been developed. After hydrolysis of the C-T and precipitation and filtration of proteins and lipids, the hydrolysis products, p-toluenesulfonamide (p-TS), is extracted with ethyl acetate. Dried and concentrated extract is subjected to gas-liquid chromatography (column: 10% OV-7 on 100-120 mesh Gas-Chrom Q), using a flame ionization detector. This method is capable of detecting 1 ppm of C-T and the average recovery is 80%.
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The status of thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and vitamins B-6, B-12, C, A, D, and E was investigated in 37 middle-aged and healthy French vegetarians by means of a dietary survey and biochemical studies. Values were compared with those of a group of nonvegetarians. Unsatisfactory intakes of vitamin B-6 were observed: vitamin B-6 intake as a percentage of the French Recommended Dietary Allowances was approximately 66% for vegetarians and approximately 58% for nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had a higher mean intake of thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins C, A, D, and E than did nonvegetarians. Vegetarians did not have a higher risk rate for a biochemical vitamin deficiency of thiamin, riboflavin, folates, and vitamins B-6, C, A, and E than the nonvegetarians. The percentage of subjects assessed as abnormal by blood vitamin concentrations was higher in vegetarians for vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12) and vitamin D, which indicated a higher risk for a deficiency of vitamins B-12 and D in this group.
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Six cobalamin-biotin conjugates have been prepared. The cobalamin-biotin conjugates were prepared to evaluate the effect that the location of attachment had on the binding with transcobalamin II (TCII), the cobalamin binding protein in plasma, and to evaluate their potential use for in vitro and in vivo applications. This study focused only on the effect of binding with TCII. To decrease the possibility of steric problems in binding of the cobalamin conjugates with TCII, and biotin's binding with streptavidin or avidin, moieties of 11-18 atoms in length were used as linkers. Four biotin conjugates were prepared which were attached to the corrin ring of the cobalamin molecule (on b-, c-, d-, and e-side chains). One conjugate was attached to the 5'-OH of the ribose moiety, and another conjugate was attached at the cobalt metal (in place of the cyanide moiety of cyanocobalamin). Competitive binding studies were conducted where various amounts of the cobalamin-biotin conjugates and their precursor cobalamin derivatives competed with [57Co]cyanocobalamin for binding of recombinant human TCII (rhTCII). Evaluation of cobalamin derivatives which were conjugated at the 5'-OH of ribose or the cobalt metal center indicated that conjugation at either of these positions had little effect on binding with rhTCII. However, conjugates where the attachment was made on the corrin ring substituents had a large variation in binding with rhTCII. Conjugates on the e-propionamide side chain had little effect (relative affinity was equal to or decreased less than a factor of 3) on binding with rhTCII, conjugates of the b-isomer had decreased binding (relative affinity decreased less than a factor of 10), conjugates of the d-propionamide had further decreased binding (relative affinity decreased between 44 and 69 times), and conjugates on the c-acetamide group had poor binding to rhTCII (relative affinity decreased between 295 and 1160 times). The significance of the side chains on the corrin ring in providing specificity and high-affinity binding with rhTCII is discussed.
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The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised.
Standard tables of food composition in Japan – vitamin K, B6, and B12
  • Science and Technology Agency Resources Council
  • Science and Technology Agency Resources Council
Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects
  • Watanabe