Aerobic and Strength Training Reduces Adiposity in Overweight Latina Adolescents

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 07/2009; 41(7):1494-503. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31819b6aea
Source: PubMed


To date, no study has examined the synergistic effects of a nutrition and combination of aerobic and strength training (CAST) on both adiposity and metabolic parameters in overweight Latina adolescent females. The goal was to assess if a 16-wk nutrition plus CAST pilot study had stronger effects on reducing adiposity and on improving glucose/insulin indices compared with control (C), nutrition only (N), and a nutrition plus strength training (N + ST) groups.
In a 16-wk randomized trial, 41 overweight Latina girls (15.2 +/- 1.1 yr) were randomly assigned to C (n = 7), N (n = 10), N + ST (n = 9), or N + CAST (n = 15). All intervention groups received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once a week), whereas the N + ST also received strength training (twice a week) and the N + CAST received a combination of strength and aerobic training (twice a week). The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one repetition maximum, physical activity by the 7-d accelerometry and the 3-d physical activity recall, dietary intake by 3-d records, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test, and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group, effects were tested using ANCOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons.
There were significant overall intervention effects for all adiposity measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], BMI z-scores, and DEXA total body fat), with a decrease of 3% in the N + CAST group compared with a 3% increase in the N + ST group (P < or = 0.05). There was also an intervention effect for fasting glucose with the N group increasing by 3% and the N + CAST group decreasing by 4% (P < or = 0.05).
The CAST was more effective than nutrition alone or nutrition plus strength training for reducing multiple adiposity outcomes and fasting glucose in overweight Latina girls. However, further research investigating and identifying intervention approaches that improve both adiposity and insulin indices, particularly in high-risk populations, are warranted.

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Available from: Courtney Byrd-Williams, Dec 19, 2014
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    • "To date, we are aware of two studies [37,38] wherein the effect of combined resistance and aerobic exercise on insulin sensitivity was examined in obese youth. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, Bell et al. [37] examined the effects of circuit training (3 times/wk, 60 min/session) on insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique in a mixed sample of obese boys and girls (n=14). "
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    ABSTRACT: As with the dramatic increases in childhood obesity over the past decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased among children and adolescents in the United States. Insulin resistance is a common feature of childhood obesity and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in obese youth. Although cross-sectional studies report beneficial effects of physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness on insulin sensitivity, the role of regular exercise alone (e.g., no calorie restriction) as a strategy to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes is unclear in obese children and adolescents. In this mini review, we examined the independent effects of various exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese youth.
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    • "Several studies show positive chronic effects, on the energy expenditure and body composition, with the combination of ST exercise and AT exercise in the same training program (Dolezal and Potteiger, 1998; Balabinis et al. 2003;; Davis et al., 2009; Sillanpää et al., 2009). Although, only a few combine in the same session ST with AT exercises (Dolezal and Potteiger, 1998; Davis et al, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of Strength Training (ST) with Aerobic Training (AT) exercises in the same training session, which commonly appears in literature as the concurrent training, is widely used in fitness and physical condition programs, especially when the aim is to increase the energy expenditure during and after training session. The aim of this study was to identify, through literature, whether the combination of exercises of the ST with exercises of the AT allows changes in body composition and energy expenditure during and after the training session. Chronic studies have showed a positive effect on body composition (decreased in relative body fat) when the ST are combined with AT. Similarly, the acute effects of the order of combining these two types of exercise does not seem to affect energy expenditure, measured by oxygen consumption (VO2), during the training session and only change this expenditure in the first 15 minutes after the training session. In conclusion, we can say that the studies indicate that the combination of exercises of the ST with exercises of the AT has a positive effect on changes in body composition, and energy expenditure during and after training sessions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Human Kinetics
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    • "As a supplement pilot study to the SANO study, an additional 15 female participants were randomly assigned to a Nutrition + Combination of Aerobic and Strength Training (N + CAST) group. A detailed description of the methods and results have been previously described (17). Participants in the N+CAST received the same nutrition education class (as listed above), and also received CAST exercise training two times per week for approximately 60 minutes per session. "
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    ABSTRACT: This review highlights various components of interventions that reduced obesity and type 2 diabetes risk factors among overweight Latino youth. A total of 114 overweight Latino adolescents completed one of four randomized controlled trials: 1) strength training (ST; boys only); 2) modified carbohydrate nutrition program (N); 3) combination of N+ST; or 4) N + Combination of Aerobic and ST (N+CAST; girls only). Measures included: strength by 1-repetition max, dietary intake by 3-d records, body composition by DEXA/MRI, glucose/insulin indices by oral and IV glucose tolerance tests. ST improved insulin sensitivity by 45% in Latino boys, and N, N+ST, and N+CAST improved glucose control in Latino boys and girls. The CAST approach reduced all adiposity measures by ∼3% in Latina girls. Participants who decreased added sugar, increased dietary fiber, and had increased parental attendance, regardless of intervention group, improved insulin action and reduced visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, ST, CAST, and a modified carbohydrate nutrition program with separate parental classes were all successful components of the interventions that decreased obesity and related metabolic diseases.
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