ArticlePDF Available

Can Matrix Reimprinting Be Effective in the Treatment of Emotional Conditions in a Public Health Setting? Results of a U.K. Pilot Study



Objectives: This pilot study was carried out to establish the feasibility and effectiveness of Matrix Reimprinting (MR). A dedicated MR/ Emotional Freedom Techniques service was delivered in a community setting within the National Health Service in the metropolitan borough of Sandwell, United Kingdom. Method: Over a 15-month period, the study followed clients accessing the service for a range of emotional conditions. At the start and end of their treatment, clients were asked to complete the CORE-10 (psychological distress; main outcome variable), Warwick-Edinburgh Mental WellBeing Scale (WEMWBS; mental well-being), Rosenberg Self Esteem and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; anxiety and depression) measurement scales. Results: 24 clients were included in the MR pilot study, and the mean number of sessions attended was 8.33 (Mdn = 6.5). There were both statistically and clinically significant improvements for CORE-10 (52% change, p < .001), Rosenberg Self-Esteem (46% change, p < .001), HADS Anxiety (35% change, p = .007), and HADS total score (34% change, p = .011) and a statistically significant improvement for WEMWBS (30% change, p < .001). All MR clients showed clinical improvements. Conclusions: Despite the limited sample size and other limitations, significant improvements were shown. The results support the potential of MR as a cost-effective treatment to reduce the burden of a range of physical and psychological disorders. Further larger studies are called for, with protocols to minimize dropouts.
Can Matrix Reimprinting be effective in the treatment of emotional conditions
in a public health setting? Results of a UK pilot study
Keywords: Matrix Reimprinting, EFT, therapy, emotion, trauma, anxiety.
Description of objectives
A pilot study was carried out to establish the feasibility and effectiveness of Matrix
Reimprinting (MR).
A dedicated MR/ EFT service, within the National Health Service (NHS) in the district
of Sandwell, UK.
Method including assessments
Over a 15 month period, clients accessing the EFT service for a range of emotional
conditions were invited to participate in the pilot study. Those who gave consent
were entered into the study. At the start and end of their treatment, clients were
asked to complete the CORE10 (main outcome variable), WEMWBS, Rosenberg
Self Esteem and HADS measurement scales.
Twenty-four clients were included in the MR pilot study. A total of 92% were female,
and 79.2% were White British. The mean age was 47 years (range 18-66 years),
and mean number of sessions attended was 8.33 (median 6.5). CORE10,
Rosenberg Self-Esteem and HADS Depression scores showed both statistically and
clinically significant improvements, with statistically significant improvement for
WEMWBS. Mean CORE10 scores improved from 21.9 at start to 10.5 at end
(SD=6.1, p<0.001) and all MR clients showed improvements.
Despite the limited sample size and other limitations, significant improvements were
shown. The results support the potential of MR as a cost-effective treatment to
reduce the burden of a range of physical and psychological disorders. Further larger
studies are called for, with protocols to minimise drop-outs.
Matrix reimprinting (MR) is a recently developed technique that can improve health
and wellbeing by allowing clients to access and transform painful memories about
traumatic events (Dawson & Allenby, 2010). It was evolved from Emotional Freedom
Techniques (EFT), a gentle therapy that can be used for a variety of issues.
Subjects gently tap with their fingertips on acupressure points (mainly on the head
and hands) and relate this to the voicing of specific statements (Craig 2011). MR is
an energy psychology technique which incorporates EFT, parts/inner child work,
referred to in MR as ECHOs (Energy Consciousness Holograms) and also integrates
recent understanding from quantum and epigenetic science. Using MR, the client
works with the ECHO to release the stress or trauma. A new and positive picture is
then created and highlighted, which is used to reprogram the mind with the new
information, indicating that the trauma is over (Dawson & Allenby 2010).
MR is particularly effective in helping clients to overcome a variety of serious health
and emotional challenges, including traumatic memories, sexual abuse, addictions
and phobias (Dawson & Allenby 2010). Although MR, like EFT, can be easily taught
and self-administered, MR clients are not advised to use the technique by
themselves for extreme issues (Dawson & Allenby, 2010).
Research suggesting that EFT may be an efficient and effective intervention for a
range of psychological disorders has grown exponentially over the past decade and
two systematic reviews have been recently published (Feinstein 2012, Boath et al.,
2012a). Although there are a growing number of MR practitioners (around 2,500
worldwide) and anecdotal evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of MR for a wide
range of issues including: trauma, fibromyalgia, allergies, phobias, pain
management, depression, anxiety and, stress reduction, a literature search of
nursing, medical and psychological electronic databases using the key terms ‘matrix
reimprinting’ revealed no published clinical studies of MR to date. Other than an
unpublished study using MR for civilian survivors of war in Bosnia (Rolling et al
2012), the authors are not aware of any other research ongoing or published. This
report is therefore the first ever published study of MR.
Sandwell, an urban district comprising six Towns in the West Midlands, UK,
introduced a formal EFT/MR service in November 2010. The service was launched
as part of Sandwell’s Confidence and Wellbeing Team Service (CWBT, Sandwell,
2012). The Team offers a range of services, aiming to create opportunities for clients
to maintain and improve their own wellbeing and provide community and primary
health care mental health services that are flexible and meet the emotional needs of
those living and working in Sandwell. An evaluation of this service was carried out in
2012 (Stewart et al, in press). The evaluation was conducted by AS over a 15
month period. Though regarded as a pilot study, it was undertaken in the NHS as a
“Service Evaluation”. In the UK, Service Evaluation is recognised as a method to
investigate how well current services or initiatives are working and produce internal
recommendations for service development or improvement (NHS Direct 2013).
Although EFT had previously been used by some therapists within Sandwell and
elsewhere in the National Health Service (NHS) on an ad-hoc basis, to the authors’
knowledge, this was the first service explicitly dedicated to offering EFT/MR within
the NHS. As MR is related to EFT (Dawson & Allenby, 2010), it was considered
appropriate and acceptable to incorporate it into some of the sessions, especially for
patients with more serious issues, such as traumatic memories, sexual abuse,
bereavement , self-harm and other conditions at the discretion of the practitioner.
This pilot study was therefore undertaken to establish the feasibility and
effectiveness of MR in this setting.
This MR pilot study was part of the larger EFT pilot (Stewart et al 2013). Clients who
received MR were identified and analysed separately. The MR clients had already
given informed consent.
All Sandwell GPs and health professionals were given information about the nature
and availability of the service. Clients were also able to self-refer. Referrals were
accepted for any condition, providing that clients were aged over 18, and not classed
as “vulnerable adults”, defined as adults who are at greater than normal risk of abuse
(NHS Choices 2013).
The therapy was delivered by AS, an AAMET accredited (AAMET 2013) and highly
experienced EFT and MR practitioner and health researcher. Prior to the launch of
the EFT service, ethical approval for the Pilot Study as a Service Evaluation was
secured from both Sandwell PCT and Staffordshire University. All clients were
invited to give informed consent to their data being used, but agreeing to participate
in the study was not a condition of treatment.
At the start and end of their treatment, clients were asked to complete each of the
following measurement scales: CORE-10 (the main outcome variable) for
psychological distress covering anxiety, depression, trauma, physical problems,
functioning and risk to self (CORE IMS, 2012), Hospital Anxiety and Depression
Scale (HADS; Zigmond & Snaith 1983), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg
1989) and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS, 2012).
Sandwell CWBT used the online CORE NET system (CORE IMS 2012), and
required CORE-10 and WEMWBS scales to be electronically administered at each
appointment to track progress and gather routine data; this was part of routine data
collection, and separate from the pilot study.
Each client was given a 10-15 minute introduction to EFT initially, then MR was
incorporated during the course of therapy. Clients receiving MR were guided though
the process by AS. Initial appointments were of up to 90 minutes duration, with each
subsequent appointment lasting up to 60 minutes.
Data analysis was undertaken using SPSS v19 (IBM 2010). Mean pre, post and
follow-up scores for each measurement scale were compared using paired t-tests (or
Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests for non-normally distributed variables). Further t-test
and correlation analysis was carried out to test for differences in scores by gender
and age. Data for all clients who gave consent were entered into the evaluation and
analysed irrespective of whether they had completed their therapy.
A total of 24 clients received MR, and 19 (79%) of them completed their therapy.
Only 2 clients were male and the remaining 22 (92%) were female. The mean age
for all clients receiving MR was 47(SD=12, range 18-66 years). In all, 19 (79.2%) of
clients were White British, two clients were Indian and one client each were: Black
British, Pakistani and Mixed Race. The mean number of clinical sessions attended
was 8.33 (SD = 9.2, median 6.5; range 3-49). N=21 clients received 9 sessions or
less, one client received 12, one received 17 sessions and one received 49
sessions. The main presenting conditions were: anxiety (14; 58.3%) and depression
(5; 20.8%). Clients identified up to four additional issues, including traumatic
memories, sexual abuse, depression, bereavement and anger. These conditions
were not mutually exclusive.
Most of the measurement scales used in this pilot have acknowledged thresholds for
clinical “cases”, shown in Table 1.
Normal Case Range Notes
CORE-10 <10 11-30 0-30 Higher score = higher psychological distress
11-14=”mild”; 15-19=”moderate”;
20-24=”moderate severe”; 25-30=”severe”
Clinically significant change = <10 at start & >10 at
WEMWBS n/a n/a 14-70 No threshold for “caseness”;
higher score = higher mental wellbeing
Rosenberg Self-Esteem 15-25 0-14 0-30 Higher score = higher self-esteem
HADS Anxiety <8 8-21 0-21 0-7: Normal
8-10: Cause for concern; monitor for change
11-12: Probable clinical case requiring assessment
HADS Depression <8 8-21 0-21 0-7: Normal
8-10: Cause for concern; monitor for change
11-12: Probable clinical case requiring assessment
Table 1. Thresholds for clinical cases.
MR was used with all clients who reported traumatic memories (7), sexual abuse (3),
bereavement (2) and self-harm (1), plus 13 who reported depression. Clinical results
are shown in Table 2:
Mean score
Mean score
P value
(* Significant)
CORE-10 21.9 10.5 6.1 <0.001 *23
WEMWBS 34.8 49.6 10.8 <0.001 *22
Rosenberg Self-Esteem 11.0 20.4 6.6 <0.001 *16
HADS Anxiety 16.1 10.5 4.1 <0.007 *10
HADS Depression 11.1 7.4 5.7 0.07 10
HADS Total 26.8 17.8 8.9 <0.017 *10
Table 2. Results of inferential analysis pre and post-therapy.
CORE-10 has a 'clinical cut-off' score of 10; mean CORE-10 scores were far in
excess of 10 (caseness) at start and only a little over 10 (normal) at end. HADS
scores (for anxiety and depression domains individually) of 0-7 are considered
normal, 8-10 indicates cause for concern, while 11-12 represent probable clinical
cases requiring assessment. Both HADS anxiety and depression domains were
over 8 at start, but HADS Depression was under 8 at end; this effect was not
statistically significant, however. Mean Rosenberg Self-Esteem scores were less
than 15 at the start (indicative of low self-esteem), but were in the normal range (15-
25) at the end. WEMWBS scores (where higher scores represent higher mental
wellbeing) also increased significantly. The limited sample size prevented further
subgroup analysis.
Figure 1 shows CORE-10 scores at the start of therapy, plotted against scores at the
end. Each dot represents a client seen by the service who gave consent. CORE-10
scores at the start (left-hand side) are plotted against those at the end of treatment
(bottom). Clients shown above the diagonal line improved, while any below the line
deteriorated. It can be seen that all clients improved between the two time points.
Figure 1. Scatter Plot for CORE-10 scores at start and end of therapy.
The practitioner (AS) used MR for all clients who reported trauma (including sexual
abuse), bereavement and self-harm. These MR clients may therefore be considered
to have experienced emotional issues that were more severe than those who would
benefit from EFT alone. Nevertheless, all clients improved and statistically
significant differences were achieved for most measurements.
A general risk of having clients talk about trauma is that it will lead to
retraumatization rather than desensitization (Van der Kolk et al 1996). This safety
issue is minimized with MR as it is based on EFT which is considered safe
(Hartmann 2003) and no severe abreactions were experienced by this group of
Few reasons were given for dropout, though the dropout rate was similar to other
studies involving EFT on which MR is based (Karatzias et al 2011 (39%); Boath et
al 2012a (33%). However it is worthy of note that some clients declined a follow-up
appointment as they felt that their issue had been dealt with and that they no longer
needed treatment. Several clients contacted the service to say they would not be
attending further appointments because they felt that their issues had been resolved,
and were unwilling to attend for follow-up. Future studies should include a protocol
for minimising dropouts and loss to follow-up, such as a robust system of tracking,
reminders and contacting clients to elicit completion of all measurement instruments,
including reasons for drop out and other information where required.
Limitations of the Pilot Study
This pilot study was a “service evaluation” (NHS Direct 2013), so no control groups
were used. More robust research designs would address many of the limitations of
this study.
The fact that all clients also received EFT and may have used EFT between
sessions meant that it was not possible to evaluate the effect of using MR alone.
The small sample size of this pilot study did not permit subgroup analysis or the
ability to infer its results to the wider population. Sample size was restricted by the
fact that the clinic could only offer a limited number of weekly appointments, as well
as factors such as drop out and low attendance for follow-up. The diverse nature of
emotional issues reported and addressed during therapy has also limited the ability
to produce meaningful stratified analysis by condition. Future research, with larger a
larger sample could focus on particular conditions, such as MR for PTSD.
Clients were not followed up long term to see if they had remained symptom free.
However clients were aware that they could self-refer back to clinic if they required
further sessions, or if symptoms re-emerged. It is worthy of note that at the time of
writing (over 12 months after the end of treatment), none of the 24 clients in this
study had sought repeated treatment from the clinic. Informal contact with some of
the clients and their GPs suggested that they remained well.
Experience, training and professional background of practitioners is important, and
MR was carried out by a highly trained and experienced practitioner. Variability in
skills and experience of practitioners would however be expected in other settings.
AS delivered the MR and also collected the evaluation data; clients were aware that
he was evaluating the service, and this may have biased their responses. Also, AS’s
strong allegiance to EFT and MR may have influenced clients’ responses.
On average, just over 8 clinical sessions were required (with a median number of 6.5
sessions), suggesting that MR may be a very cost-effective treatment. In this
economically challenging era, this compares well with other therapies used for
serious disorders such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, where 6-20 sessions may
be required, depending on the condition and severity. (NICE 2008). Three clients,
however, required more than 10 sessions, and the highest number of sessions
attended (49) is extremely unusual in the authors’ experience. This was for a client
who had a range of issues including depression, anxiety, serious sexual and physical
abuse, self-harm and an eating disorder. This client is now completely rehabilitated,
has since completed a counselling course and undertakes voluntary work.
As previously discussed, both EFT and MR can be self-administered. Although it is
not recommended that clients use MR for serious issues and so clients were strongly
advised not to do this. However clients were encouraged to use EFT between
sessions. This is important, since clients need not wait until the next appointment if
they are experiencing emotional distress. This empowers the client and hopefully
reduces dependency on the therapist, further reducing demand upon the service
over a given time period.
Studies should be carried out using a wide variety of disease severity, following-up
clients for a period of up to 6 months to a year to assess long term outcome. Future
evaluations should also consider including qualitative assessments to provide insight
into participants’ views and experiences of MR.
As with EFT (Karatzias et al (2011), there is also much speculation out mechanisms
to explain the effectiveness of MR, and a dismantling study would therefore be
MR was delivered by the same practitioner (AS ) throughout and no provision was
made for this in the current study to assess treatment fidelity. Treatment fidelity is
critical to ensure the accuracy and consistency of the MR intervention and so future
research, should include treatment fidelity measures.
Conclusions and Recommendations
In conclusion, MR shows promise as a useful clinical tool, with possible applications
for a number of mental health services. However, larger studies (preferably clinical
trials) are required in order to provide definitive evidence of the long term
effectiveness of MR, its acceptability to clients and the economic implications.
Despite the limitations outlined above, the results of this small pilot evaluation
support the potential of MR to reduce the burden of a range of physical and
psychological disorders and highlight the need for further research in this area.
AAMET (2013). Selecting an EFT training course. Association for the Advancement
of Meridian Energy Techniques. Retrieved April, 17, 2013 from
Boath E, Stewart A, Carryer A (2012A). Tapping for PEAS: Emotional Freedom
Technique (EFT) in reducing Presentation Expression Anxiety Syndrome (PEAS) in
University students. Innovative Practice in Higher Education 1(2).
Boath E, Stewart A, Carryer A (2012B). A narrative systematic review of the
effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT). Staffordshire University,
CPSI Monograph.
CORE IMS Ltd. Retrieved December, 18, 2012 from
Craig G (2011). The EFT manual (2nd Ed.). Santa Rosa, CA: Energy Psychology
Dawson K, Allenby S (2010). Matrix Reimprinting using EFT. London: Hay House.
Feinstein D (2012). Acupoint stimulation in treating psychological disorders:
Evidence of efficacy. Review of General Psychology. Advance online publication.
Hartmann S (2003). Adventures in EFT (6th ed). Eastbourne: Dragon Rising.
IBM SPSS Statistics, Rel. 19.0.0. 2010. Chicago: IBM Inc.
Karatzias T, Power K, Brown K, McGoldrick T, Begum M, Young J, Loughran P,
Chouliara Z, Adam S (2011). A Controlled Comparison of the Effectiveness and
Efficiency of Two Psychological Therapies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal
of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199, (6), 372-378.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008). Cognitive behavioural
therapy for the management of common mental health problems: Commissioning
guide. Retrieved January, 02, 2013 from cbt commissioningguide.pdf
NHS Choices (2013). Vulnerable adults. National Health Service. Retrieved April, 17,
2013 from
NHS Direct (2013). Service evaluation. National Health Service. Retrieved April, 17,
2013 from
Rolling C, Boath E, Stewart A (2012) A Study in Bosnia - from trauma to peace. EFT
Spring gathering, Sutton Coldfield, UK.
Rosenberg M (1989). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Revised edition.
Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Sandwell Confidence and Wellbeing Team. Retrieved December, 18, 2012 from
Stewart A, Boath E, Carryer A, Walton I, Hill L (2013). Can Emotional Freedom
Techniques (EFT) be effective in the treatment of emotional conditions? Results of a
service evaluation in Sandwell. Journal of Psychological Therapies in Primary Care
In press.
Van der Kolk, BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L (1996). Traumatic stress: the effects of
overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York. Guilford Press.
Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) Retrieved December, 18,
2013 from
Zigmond AS & Snaith RP (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale.
ActaPsychiatrica Scandinavica, 67,(6), 361-370.
... Table (2) portrays that the age of the patient at the beginning of the addiction, it's found that more than half of the patient in study group & control group (60 %, and 62.2% respectively)were less than or equal eighteen years old, more than half of the patients stated that curiosity is the main cause for their addiction, and were used from five or more Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp: (30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45), Month: May -August 2020, Available at: Page | 34 Novelty Journals different types of substances. ...
... These findings were compatible with a report conducted in USA by substance abuse and mental health services administration (2016) that reported that men have higher rates of use or dependence than women (24,25) .Regarding residence of the studied subjects, the current study pointed out that urban patients establish 82.2%, which demonstrating higher percentage of addiction than those of rural areas. Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp: (30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45), Month: May -August 2020, Available at: ...
... Also, handling negative thought and emotion through provision of relaxation technique as an element of emotional freedom techniques to reduce anxiety and stress . Vol. 7, Issue 2, pp: (30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45), Month: May -August 2020, Available at: ...
Full-text available
Background: Numerous researchers have found a recurrent co-occurrence of craving & psychological distress among addict patients'. Thus, this necessitate applying evidence-based practice like the EFT techniques that are characterized by its simplicity, and used it as a self-help tool for managing craving , and psychological symptoms like anxiety and depression. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of emotional freedom techniques on psychological symptoms & cravings among patients with substance related disorders. Design: Quasi experimental research design was used. Setting: The present study was conducted at Elmaamoura Hospital for psychiatric Medicine in Alexandria. Subjects: The subjects of the study comprised of 90 patients. Tools: Three tools were used:, Tool I: Interview questionnaire sheet (Socio-demographic and clinical data)., Tool II: Substance-related disorders &Alcohol Cravings (The Penn Alcohol Craving Scale(PACS),Tool III: The Symptom Checklist 90 scale (SCL-90 R),Results: Applying psycho-educational program of emotional freedom techniques (EFT) significant reducing level of craving, and All statistically significant decrease was observed in the three global indices (GSI,PSDI,PST) and all of the SCL-90 subscales nine dimensions after the sessions , indicating a reduction in psychological distress(P < 0.005). Conclusion: Applying psycho-educational program of emotional freedom techniques (EFT) significant reducing level of craving, significant improvements in psychological symptoms among substance related disorders patients'. Recommendations: These results demonstrate that EFT could be an efficient adjunct tool for addiction treatment by reducing the high levels of craving & decreasing severity of the general psychological symptom distress among addict patients.
... Clinical EFT meets the standards set out by Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA) as an evidence-based practice [25]. The psychological and physiological benefits of EFT include the treatment of anxiety, post-traumatic stress, self-esteem, mental well-being [26], weight-loss [27], food cravings [28], and pain [29]. ...
... This result was inconsistent with previous findings in which EFT was more efficacious in reducing food cravings than waitlist controls [28] and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [37]. Additionally, inconsistent with prior work in which self-esteem improvements were found following EFT exposure [26], self-esteem did not differ between groups or across time in the current study. ...
Full-text available
Background Although significant health improvements are indicated from weight-loss following bariatric surgery, many individuals are unable to lose weight or maintain their weight-loss. The current study aimed to assess whether post-surgery care comprising Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), an emerging energy psychology intervention, combined with a behaviour-based nutrition and portion control eating plan in an online self-guided delivery would aid weight-loss and maintenance in bariatric patients. Methods A 6-month randomised controlled parallel-group trial. Participants (N = 343; aged 21–69 years; BMI ≥30 kg/m²) had undergone bariatric surgery (12 + months prior) and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Portion Perfection for Bariatric Patients (PPBP; n = 109), PPBP combined with an eight-week online self-paced EFT treatment (n = 107), and a treatment as usual (TAU) control (n = 127). Participants completed measures of BMI, emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, food cravings, and self-esteem at 8-week post-treatment (n = 158) and 6-month follow-up (n = 109). Results Mixed-design analyses of variances were conducted to examine the effect of the interventions on outcome measures (pre-intervention, 8-week post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up). Emotional eating decreased significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention for the PPBP and PPBP with EFT groups, and at 6-month follow-up for the TAU group only. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in other outcome variables. However, at 6-months the PPBP with EFT group experienced the greatest improvements in emotional eating (-16.33%), uncontrolled eating (-9.36%), and self-esteem (+4.43%), compared to PPBP only or TAU. Conclusion The effect of EFT combined with the eating plan on psychological variables was largely inconsistent with prior research and discussion of how this may be optimised in future trials is discussed. Clinical trial registration ACTRN12616001257459.
... 22 The significant difference in scores of anxiety between baseline and post-test assessment supports the effectiveness of EFT. 23 Likewise, research using the subjects' repeated measure design showed a significant and strong decrease in anxiety following 3 days of emotional freedom technique with subsequent followups at one month and half year. 24 Management of anxiety could play an important role in the enhancement of psychological well-being of students. ...
Full-text available
Background: Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), otherwise called tapping, is a developing psychological treatment based on tapping therapy that has been utilized to treat an assortment of conditions, including anxiety. Study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of emotional freedom technique as a tapping therapy for the treatment of anxiety among female university students. Method: Quasi experimental design was used. Study was conducted at International Islamic University, from October 2018 to December 2018. Following convenience sampling, a sample of seventy female university students (N=70) with age range of 18 to 25 years was selected from International Islamic university, Islamabad out of 100 students (N=100) based on inclusion criteria. Following a pre-test and post-test design, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered before and after implementation of emotional freedom technique in order to determine the anxiety i-e State- Anxiety and Trait-Anxiety. Results: For Data Analysis, in SPSS 23, paired sample t-test was used. Paired sample t-test indicated a significant pre and post test difference in the state and trait anxiety levels in female university students (p<.001) Conclusion: Thus, using Emotional freedom technique as a tapping therapy can decrease state and trait anxiety among university students.
... EFT has also begun to filter into some NHS trusts, such as Birmingham and Solihull Primary Care Mental Health Trust, Chesterfield Psychological Services and NHS Forth Valley. Two studies have evaluated EFT use within NHS settings (Stewart et al, 2013a;2013b), and the Rotherham Institute for Obesity used to offer EFT treatment alongside other talk therapies until its closure following local council funding cuts. EFT has been shown to be at least as effective as CBT and to deliver significant positive results in fewer sessions and with lasting results (Jasubhai and Mukundan, 1998;Stapleton et al, 2016;Gaesser and Karan, 2017). ...
Emotional freedom techniques (EFTs) are an innovative combined somatic and cognitive therapy. Derived from key principles within traditional Chinese medicine, they incorporate elements of exposure, cognitive and other conventional psychotherapies. Increasing evidence suggests that EFTs are effective in treating various physical and psychological conditions and across several population groups. Studies indicate that the somatic component is essential to its ease of use, rapid effect and durability of results. EFTs can be used as self-help tools or applied therapeutically in groups or individually. There is a lack of research specifically examining its applicability to older adults, but a ground-breaking project with nurses in France suggests that EFTs may offer significant potential to moderate pain and stress levels and to improve mood, interaction and quality of life among this group, including those with multiple and complex comorbidities.
... When a variant of EFT called matrix reimprinting was made available on a trial basis within the United Kingdom's National Health Service (NHS), 59% of the patients who enrolled in the therapy reported that they were seeking help with anxiety-related issues (Stewart et al., 2013). At the end of the trial, the anxiety scores of the NHS patients were indeed significantly reduced compared with baseline (p = 0.007). ...
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) combines elements of exposure and cognitive therapies with acupressure for the treatment of psychological distress. Randomized controlled trials retrieved by literature search were assessed for quality using the criteria developed by the American Psychological Association's Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Treatments. As of December 2015, 14 studies (n = 658) met inclusion criteria. Results were analyzed using an inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. The pre-post effect size for the EFT treatment group was 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.64; p < 0.001), whereas the effect size for combined controls was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.67; p = 0.001). Emotional freedom technique treatment demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety scores, even when accounting for the effect size of control treatment. However, there were too few data available comparing EFT to standard-of-care treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, and further research is needed to establish the relative efficacy of EFT to established protocols.
Full-text available
Background: Among a group of therapies collectively known as energy psychology (EP), emotional freedom techniques (EFT) is the most widely practiced. Clinical EFT is an evidence-based practice combining elements of cognitive and exposure therapies with the manual stimulation of acupuncture points (acupoints). Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of outcomes after clinical EFT treatment in reducing depression. Methods: All studies (2005-2015) evaluating EFT for sufferers of depression were identified by electronic search; these included both outcome studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our focus was depressive symptoms as measured by a variety of psychometric questionnaires and scales. We used meta-analysis to calculate effect sizes at three time points including posttest, follow-ups less than 90 days, and follow-ups more than 90 days. Results: In total, 20 studies were qualified for inclusion, 12 RCTs and 8 outcome studies. The number of participants treated with EFT included N = 461 in outcome studies and N = 398 in RCTs. Clinical EFT showed a large effect size in the treatment of depression in RCTs. At posttest, Cohen׳s d for RCTs was 1.85 and for outcome studies was 0.70. Effect sizes for follow-ups less than 90 days were 1.21, and for ≥ 90 days were 1.11. EFT were more efficacious than diaphragmatic breathing (DB) and supportive interview (SI) in posttest measurements (P = .06 versus DB, P < .001 versus SI), and sleep hygiene education (SHE) at follow-up (P = .036). No significant treatment effect difference between EFT and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) was found. EFT were superior to treatment as usual (TAU), and efficacious in treatment time frames ranging from 1 to 10 sessions. The mean of symptom reductions across all studies was -41%. Conclusions: The results show that Clinical EFT were highly effective in reducing depressive symptoms in a variety of populations and settings. EFT were equal or superior to TAU and other active treatment controls. The posttest effect size for EFT (d = 1.31) was larger than that measured in meta-analyses of antidepressant drug trials and psychotherapy studies. EFT produced large treatment effects whether delivered in group or individual format, and participants maintained their gains over time. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of depression improvement subsequent to EFT treatment.
A randomized controlled trial of veterans with clinical levels of PTSD symptoms found significant improvements after EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques). Although pain, depression, and anxiety were not the primary targets of treatment, significant improvements in these conditions were noted. Subjects (N = 59) received 6 sessions of EFT coaching supplementary to primary care. They were assessed using the SA-45, which measures 9 mental health symptom domains, and also has 2 general scales measuring the breadth and depth of psychological distress. Anxiety and depression both reduced significantly, as did the breadth and depth of psychological symptoms. Pain decreased significantly during the intervention period (– 41%, p <.0001). Subjects were followed at 3 and 6 months, revealing significant relationships between PTSD, depression, and anxiety at several assessment points. At follow-up, pain remained significantly lower than at pretest. The results of this study are consistent with other reports showing that, as PTSD symptoms are reduced, general mental health improves, and pain levels drop. The ability of EFT to produce reliable and long-term gains after relatively brief interventions indicates its utility in reducing the estimated trillion-dollar cost of treating veteran mental health disorders in the coming years.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.