Cytogenetical damage in exfoliated oral mucosa cells in elderly people suffering denture stomatitis
Department of Dental Clinics, University of Sacred Heart, USC, Bauru, SP, Brazil. Gerodontology
(Impact Factor: 1.09).
06/2009; 27(3):183-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00315.x
The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from chronic denture stomatitis patients and healthy controls.
Over the course of ageing, individuals may develop many diseases such as denture stomatitis.
A total of 23 chronic denture stomatitis patients and 23 controls presenting good oral conditions were included in this study. Individuals had epithelial cells mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and placed on clean slides, which were checked for nuclear phenotypes.
The results indicated no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from chronic denture stomatitis patients when compared to healthy controls. Nevertheless, chronic denture stomatitis was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis as depicted by significant differences (p < 0.05) between groups. No interaction was observed between smoking and chronic denture stomatitis.
In summary, these data indicated that chronic denture stomatitis was able to induce cytotoxic effects as assessed by a micronucleus test.
Available from: Soraya Castro Trindade
- "By eliminating cells with genetic alterations, which may include genes engaged in DNA repair and/or in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation (proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors), apoptosis constitutes a protective mechanism against cancer resulting from genetic and/or chromosomal mutations involving such genes . By constantly renewing tissues , apoptosis ensures tissue homeostasis; however, its occurrence in increased frequencies can be indicative of genotoxic effects that are related to the initiation of a malignant transformation process    . Few studies have been conducted aiming to investigate the association between periodontal disease and occurrence of micronuclei and nuclear changes indicative of apoptosis    . "
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This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities, through micronuclei, and apoptosis by the sum of karyorrhexis, pyknosis and condensed chromatin in individuals with chronic periodontitis, gingivitis associated with biofilm and no periodontal disease.
Materials and methods:
This study included 72 individuals divided into three groups: gingivitis (n = 21), periodontitis (n = 24) and control (n = 27). Information on sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle was obtained. Full mouth clinical examination was performed to define the periodontal condition. Exfoliated cells from gingival mucosa were collected for computation of micronuclei and nuclear changes indicative of apoptosis. The differences in the occurrence of endpoints (micronucleus, karyorrhexis, pyknosis and condensed chromatin) were evaluated using the conditional test to compare proportions in a rare events situation.
There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of micronucleus (p > 0.1) between gingivitis, periodontitis and control groups. The occurrence of apoptosis was significantly higher among individuals with periodontitis compared to individuals with gingivitis (p < 0.05) and controls (p < 0.025).
The findings showed that the inflammatory process generated by gingivitis and periodontitis is not related to a higher occurrence of chromosomal damage. However, the higher occurrence of apoptosis in individuals with periodontitis points to genotoxic effects induced by periodontal infection.
Available from: Stefano Bonassi
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ABSTRACT: The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations.
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