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Impact of cycle rickshaw trolley (CRT) as non-motorised freight transport in Delhi

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Abstract

Cycle rickshaw trolley (CRT) is a widely used non-motorised mode of intra-city freight transport in Delhi. While a number of studies are available for non-motorised passenger rickshaws, role of CRT in urban goods movement has not been studied adequately. This paper presents findings from a survey of 2000 CRT drivers in Delhi in 2011. The paper highlights the contribution of CRT in city goods movement, savings in fuel and emissions and benefits to CRT drivers. If CRT s are replaced by motorised vehicles, CO2 emissions from vehicular traffic will increase by over 3% and hydrocarbon emissions will increase by over 8% and six to seven hundred thousand people will have to find alternate employment. The findings have a direct impact on various urban freight policies and welfare policies for the poor.

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... Regarding the economic benefits, the studies proposed the reduction of energy consumption, delivery time, and traffic congestion [31,36,40], since bicycles are able to use exclusive bicycle paths and avoid imposed traffic constraints [23]. The environmental benefits have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutants, and noise emissions, whilst the social benefits included the possible generation of jobs and an improvement in the quality of life of the population. ...
... The environmental benefits have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutants, and noise emissions, whilst the social benefits included the possible generation of jobs and an improvement in the quality of life of the population. It is important to reinforce the conclusions of [23], which pointed out the health problems that could be caused by the use of bicycles (with human propulsion) and the excess load weight (some cases about 195 kg). ...
... With reference to the scope of its application, it was possible to obtain information about the average speed developed by the vehicles considered in the studies and the cargo capacity, as well as the characteristics of the cities where the studies were applied. The average bicycle/tricycle speed varied from 2 to 6 km/h [23], while that of a light commercial vehicle reached 25 km/h [25]. Regarding cargo capacity, Gruber et al. [25] suggested a value of 100 kg for the capacity on electric bicycles in Germany, whereas [31] revealed the existence of a weight limitation of 60 kg for shipments on electric-assisted bicycles in England. ...
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The advent of new technologies in last mile deliveries is about to cause a disruption in the traditional business model applied in urban cargo transportation, thus presenting innumerous research opportunities in this field of knowledge. In this context, identifying new operation models and vehicles that could be applied for last mile deliveries in urban areas becomes crucial. Therefore, this paper aims to identify, through a systematic literature review, the main types of vehicles addressed in the literature that could be used in the last mile of urban freight distribution in order to increase the sustainability of this type of operation. The results indicate a trend for the implementation of smaller and lighter vehicles for last mile deliveries in urban areas: 47% of the studies suggest, among other alternatives, the use of bicycles and tricycles; while 53% of the articles support the use of light commercial vehicles. Another trend observed in this type of distribution, indicated in 64% of the studies, is the shift from conventional (fossil fuels) to alternative sources of energy (electricity).
... Em relação às barreiras, aqui definidas como obstáculos que impedem a implantação das propostas, foi identificada a recusa por parte de alguns clientes em assinar contratos com empresas que utilizam o serviço de entrega de bicicletas, por considerar que esse mercado ainda é operado por freelancers, pequenas e médias empresas (Gruber et al., 2014;Gruber & Kihm, 2016;Schliwa et al., 2015). É importante também apontar os problemas de saúde que podem ser causados pelo uso de bicicletas com propulsão humana em relação ao excesso de peso transportado (Oliveira et al., 2017;Sadhu et al., 2014). Outra barreira refere-se às infraestruturas das cidades, especialmente aos sistemas de alimentação de veículos elétricos (Morganti & Browne, 2018) e à necessidade de construção de centros de desconsolidação para facilitar a distribuição de cargas por VPEs ou VHs (Björklund & Gustafsson, 2015;Heitz & Beziat, 2016;Rizet et al., 2016;Taniguchi et al., 2016). ...
... Referindo-se aos benefícios econômicos, alguns estudos propuseram a redução do consumo de energia, tempo de entrega e congestionamento (Dampier & Marinov, 2015;Rizet et al., 2016;Schliwa et al., 2015), uma vez que as bicicletas são capazes de usar ciclovias exclusivas e evitar restrições impostas ao tráfego (Sadhu et al., 2014). Os benefícios ambientais concentraram-se na redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa, poluentes atmosféricos (Aditjandra et al., 2016;Delgado et al., 2017;Racz et al., 2015), emissões de ruído, qualidade do ar, enquanto os benefícios sociais incluíram a possível geração de empregos e melhoria na qualidade de vida da população (Arvidsson & Pazirandeh, 2017). ...
... Avaliando-se a velocidade desenvolvida pelos veículos, pode-se considerar que a velocidade média das bicicletas/triciclos variava de 2 a 6 km/h (Sadhu et al., 2014), enquanto um VUC pode chegar a 25 km/h (Gruber et al., 2014). Por intermédio dos resultados deste estudo, foi possível identificar uma mudança na maneira de operar a distribuição da última milha. ...
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RESUMO O advento de novas tecnologias nas entregas de última milha pode causar uma mudança no modelo de negócio tradicional aplicado no transporte de cargas urbanas, também conhecido como entrega na última milha, apresentando, assim, diversas oportunidades de pesquisa nessa área do conhecimento. Neste contexto, identificar os novos modelos de operação e veículos que podem ser aplicados para entregas de última milha em áreas urbanas tornam-se vitais em termos de sustentabilidade ambiental. Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar na literatura, por meio de uma revisão sistemática, os principais tipos de veículos que podem ser usados na última milha da distribuição de carga urbana, a fim de aumentar a sustentabilidade ambiental desse tipo de operação. Com base na literatura pesquisada, foram selecionados 28 artigos. Os resultados indicaram uma tendência para a implementação de veículos menores e mais leves para entregas na última milha em áreas urbanas, tais como o uso de bicicletas, triciclos, motocicletas e veículos urbanos comerciais (VUCs). Outra tendência observada foi a mudança de combustíveis fósseis para fontes alternativas de energia, principalmente com a utilização de veículos elétricos. Palavras-chave: Distribuição de frete urbano. Última milha. Veículos elétricos. ABSTRACT The advent of new technologies in last-mile deliveries can cause a shift in the traditional business model applied to urban cargo transportation also known as last-mile delivery, thus presenting numerous research opportunities in this area of knowledge. In this context, identifying in the literature the new operating models and vehicles that can be applied to last-mile deliveries in urban areas become vital in terms of environmental sustainability. This paper aims to identify in the literature, through a systematic review, the main types of vehicles that can be used in the last mile of the urban load distribution, in order to increase the environmental sustainability of this type of operation. Within the researched literature, 28 articles were selected. The results indicated a trend towards the implementation of smaller and lighter vehicles for last mile deliveries in urban areas
... • New Delhi has been named the world's most polluted city among 1600 cities by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and vehicular emissions are a major contributor to this situation [31]. ...
... This would considerably reduce the productivity losses for commuters who use buses, encouraging other private transport users to commute by buses due to the reduced transit time. Our study also adds strong credibility to various works in literature that make a case for dedicated lanes for buses in New Delhi [16], [31]. In order to make dedicated bus lanes effective, it would be important to have more frequent, and more comfortable buses. ...
Article
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We conduct a preliminary investigation into the levels of congestion in New Delhi, motivated by concerns due to rapidly growing vehicular congestion in Indian cities. First, we provide statistical evidence for the rising congestion levels on the roads of New Delhi from taxi GPS traces. Then, we estimate the economic costs of congestion in New Delhi. In particular, we estimate the marginal and the total costs of congestion. In calculating the marginal costs, we consider the following factors: (i) productivity loss, (ii) air pollution costs, and (iii) costs due to accidents. In calculating the total costs, in addition to the above factors, we also estimate the costs due to the wastage of fuel. We also project the associated costs due to productivity loss and air pollution till 2030. The projected traffic congestion costs for New Delhi comes around 14658 million US$/yr for the year 2030. The key takeaway from our current study is that costs due to productivity loss, particularly from buses, dominates the overall economic costs. Additionally, the expected increase in fuel wastage makes a strong case for intelligent traffic management systems.
... A Figura 3 mostra a relação dos 28 artigos selecionados, relacionando ano da publicação, título, periódico/congresso e respectivos autores. & MARINOV, 2015;RIZET et al., 2016;SCHLIWA et al., 2015), uma vez que as bicicletas são capazes de usar ciclovias exclusivas e evitar restrições impostas ao tráfego (SADHU et al., 2014). Os benefícios ambientais concentraram-se na redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa, poluentes atmosféricos (ADITJANDRA et al., 2016;DELGADO et al., 2017;RACZ et al., 2015) ...
... Vale ressaltar que Alessandrini et al. (2015), consideraram o uso de VUCs não tripulado movido a eletricidade, porém, os veículos autônomos ainda estão em fase de testes para melhorar o hardware e o software (RANIERI et al., 2018), enquanto Foltynski (2014) sugeriu o uso de bicicletas, triciclos e motocicletas em conjunto com VPEs, como alternativas para a entrega na última milha.importante também apontar os problemas de saúde que podem ser causados pelo uso de bicicletas com propulsão humana em relação ao excesso de peso transportado(OLIVEIRA et al., 2017;SADHU et al., 2014). Outra barreira refere-se às infraestruturas das cidades, especialmente aos sistemas de alimentação de veículos elétricos (MORGANTI & BROWNE, 2018) e à necessidade de construção de centros de desconsolidação para facilitar a distribuição de cargas por VPEs ou VHs ...
Chapter
A obra intitulada “Conhecimentos contemporâneos ligados a gestão de negócios vol. 1”, publicada pela Brazilian Journals Publicações de Periódicos e Editora, apresenta um conjunto de dez capítulos que visa abordar assuntos relacionados com as áreas ligadas à gestão de negócios. Logo, os artigos apresentados neste volume abordam: a discussão da importância da auditoria no processo de gestão da qualidade dos serviços de saúde. A metodologia foi revisão de literatura, com abordagem qualitativa; o e-business como uma importante área de oportunidade no setor de comércio eletrônico; proposição de um roteiro prático baseado nas práticas relevantes de desenvolvimento de fornecedores, barreiras a serem evitadas pelos gestores e fatores críticos de sucesso identificados na literatura revisada e em cinco empresas brasileiras do segmento automotivo. Embora o desenvolvimento de fornecedores (DF) seja amplamente conhecido, não há um roteiro para orientar os gerentes organizacionais na hora de aplicá-lo, entre outros trabalhos importantes para à de gestão de negócios. Dessa forma, agradecemos aos autores por todo esforço e dedicação que contribuíram para a construção dessa obra, e esperamos que este livro possa colaborar para a discussão e entendimento de temas relevantes para a área de gestão de negócios, orientando docentes, estudantes, gestores e pesquisadores à reflexão sobre os assuntos aqui apresentados.
... A Figura 3 mostra a relação dos 28 artigos selecionados, relacionando ano da publicação, título, periódico/congresso e respectivos autores. & MARINOV, 2015;RIZET et al., 2016;SCHLIWA et al., 2015), uma vez que as bicicletas são capazes de usar ciclovias exclusivas e evitar restrições impostas ao tráfego (SADHU et al., 2014). Os benefícios ambientais concentraram-se na redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa, poluentes atmosféricos (ADITJANDRA et al., 2016;DELGADO et al., 2017;RACZ et al., 2015) ...
... Vale ressaltar que Alessandrini et al. (2015), consideraram o uso de VUCs não tripulado movido a eletricidade, porém, os veículos autônomos ainda estão em fase de testes para melhorar o hardware e o software (RANIERI et al., 2018), enquanto Foltynski (2014) sugeriu o uso de bicicletas, triciclos e motocicletas em conjunto com VPEs, como alternativas para a entrega na última milha.importante também apontar os problemas de saúde que podem ser causados pelo uso de bicicletas com propulsão humana em relação ao excesso de peso transportado(OLIVEIRA et al., 2017;SADHU et al., 2014). Outra barreira refere-se às infraestruturas das cidades, especialmente aos sistemas de alimentação de veículos elétricos (MORGANTI & BROWNE, 2018) e à necessidade de construção de centros de desconsolidação para facilitar a distribuição de cargas por VPEs ou VHs ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A obra intitulada “Conhecimentos contemporâneos ligados a gestão de negócios vol 1”, publicada pela Brazilian Journals Publicações de Periódicos e Editora, apresenta um conjunto de sete capítulos que visa abordar assuntos relacionados com as áreas ligadas à gestão de negócios. Logo, os artigos apresentados neste volume abordam: a discussão da importância da auditoria no processo de gestão da qualidade dos serviços de saúde. A metodologia foi revisão de literatura, com abordagem qualitativa; o e-business como uma importante área de oportunidade no setor de comércio eletrônico; proposição de um roteiro prático baseado nas práticas relevantes de desenvolvimento de fornecedores, barreiras a serem evitadas pelos gestores e fatores críticos de sucesso identificados na literatura revisada e em cinco empresas brasileiras do segmento automotivo. Embora o desenvolvimento de fornecedores (DF) seja amplamente conhecido, não há um roteiro para orientar os gerentes organizacionais na hora de aplicá-lo, entre outros trabalhos importantes para à de gestão de negócios. Dessa forma, agradecemos aos autores por todo esforço e dedicação que contribuíram para a construção dessa obra, e esperamos que este livro possa colaborar para a discussão e entendimento de temas relevantes para a área de gestão de negócios, orientando docentes, estudantes, gestores e pesquisadores à reflexão sobre os assuntos aqui apresentados.
... Tiwari, Jain and others have carried out pioneering work in this field (e.g. [4], [5][6][7][8]). According to these authors, cycling was once a very popular means of transportation in Delhi: in 1980, almost 18% of all trips were by bicycle. ...
... Moreover, bicycles are used by many low-wage workers in Delhi (e.g. rickshaws and delivery of many goods) [8], as illustrated in Fig. 1. Nonetheless, there is very little cycling infrastructure dedicated to cyclists, resulting in high rates of collisions, high level of exposure to air pollution and noise [4,6]. ...
Article
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Background In India, many cities struggle with extreme levels of air pollution and noise. Delhi, in particular, has the notorious reputation of being one of the most polluted cities in the world. Cyclists constitute a particularly exposed population, since they cycle among motor vehicles without any protection. This paper modeled the cyclists’ exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise in Delhi, India. Methods Using primary data collected on 1,229 kms of roads in Delhi, Generalized Additive Mixed Models with Auto-Regressive terms (GAMMAR) are constructed for noise exposure, NO2 exposure and NO2 inhalation doses. Results Results show that cyclists are exposed to 47 µg/m³ of NO2 and 3.3 dB(A) more when cycling on a primary road than on a residential street. Using WHO guideline values for noise and air pollution, we assessed how many minutes of inhaling doses and noise doses become potentially harmful to cyclists’ health in Delhi. Such thresholds are quickly exceeded: after cycling one hour in an area with moderate predicted values of noise and air pollution, the noise dose and inhaled dose of NO2 will reach 212% and 403 µg on residential streets, and 459% and 482 µg on primary roads, respectively. Conclusion Policy makers should take these results into account to minimize cyclists’ exposure, especially for the most deprived people.
... From a socioeconomic perspective, cargo cycles contribute to major decreases in unemployment, since they do not oblige employees to own a driver's license, and that increases the industry hiring pool (6). A study performed in India by Sadhu et al. assesses the benefits associated with cycle rickshaw trolleys (CRT), the most widely used nonmotorized mode for intracity freight transport in Delhi, through 2000 surveys with Delhi-based CRT drivers (17). The study concludes that one of the most significant advantages of this mode is the number of jobs it creates, which can be up to 700,000 jobs. ...
... Sadhu et al. confirm that CRTs are associated with 3% of CO 2 savings and an 8% reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. Moreover, shifting to CRT leads to a major decrease in the number of vehicle-related accidents and fatalities, thus improving roadway safety (17). ...
Article
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Freight constitutes a large portion of urban daily traffic, contributing to emissions, noise, and safety concerns. Moreover, urban freight logistics are often hindered by the last mile, characterized by significant delays and high delivery costs. Firms in dense urban areas are therefore seeking more efficient and reliable modes for their last-mile services. One mode that has been gaining widespread interest is the cargo cycle. Current research on cargo cycles is limited; however, their success in effectively delivering urban goods is gaining recognition. An examination was done of the economic feasibility of using different types of cargo cycles in varying urban contexts. A case study that assessed replacing the U.S. Postal Service vehicles with cargo cycles for last-mile mail deliveries in three population densities is presented. With the use of existing depots, the results of the case study indicate that electric cargo trikes have the lowest net present value among the modes in congested areas with high population densities such as central business districts. Moreover, having a depot positioned within the delivery area was found to play a significant role in increasing the competitiveness of trikes compared with other modes.
... The authors have focused on economic (capital and operational costs), environmental (PM, SO 2 , NOx, VOC, CO and GHG emissions), transport energy (the fuel consumption and energy consumption) and operation (vehicles used, shipments, vehicles km, shipments/km, weight, tour-driving time) dimensions. Impact assessment of another type of bicycle, namely a cycle rickshaw trolley, was performed by Sadhu et al (2014). The authors have conducted a survey with drivers to assess the impact on environment (CO,CH 4 , NO X, PM and GHG emissions), fuel savings, traffic congestion and wellbeing of rickshaw drivers (safety, employment and psychological impact). ...
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This paper presents the outcomes of the sustainability assessment of a last mile delivery service introduced in a real-world case study. The methodology used integrates multi criteria decision making analysis, sustainability pillars and scenario analysis to best reflect the conflicting needs of stakeholders involved in the last mile delivery system. The case study provides an application of the framework to the delivery system of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission where six alternative solutions were analysed and compared: i) the existing service using a manually-driven Euro 4 light commercial vehicle (LCV); ii) the same service using a Euro 6 LCV; iii) the same service using an electric LCV (eLCV); iv) a service composed by an automated delivery droid (robot) coupled with a Euro 4 LCV; v) a service with the delivery droid coupled with a depot station; and vi) a service with the delivery droid coupled with the eLCV. The results show that low-capital investment in delivery droids could lead to significant savings on the operational costs, whilst improving the environmental performance of the system. Nevertheless, there are potential social sustainability shortcomings in terms of safety and equity.
... Replacing existing light delivery vehicles that are powered by an internal combustion engine to EVs for LML services can be more sustainable than traditional delivery trucks or vans [1,12,102]. New technologies to achieve sustainable LML can be performed with innovative management strategies for LML deliveries such as LML delivery services during the night avoiding high traffic congestion [103] and using EVs [78] for CO 2 emission reduction with fuel saving. • ...
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One of the most challenging problems in last mile logistics (LML) has been the strategic delivery due to various market risks and opportunities. This paper provides a systematic review of LML-related studies to find current issues and future opportunities for the LML service industry. To that end, 169 works were selected as target studies for in-depth analysis of recent LML advances. First, text mining analysis was performed to effectively understand the underlying LML themes in the target studies. Then, the novel definition and typology of LML delivery services were suggested. Finally, this paper proposed the next generation of LML research through advanced delivery technique-based LML services, environmentally sustainable LML systems, improvement of LML operations in real industries, effective management of uncertainties in LML, and LML delivery services for decentralized manufacturing services. We believe that this systematic literature review can serve as a useful tool for LML decision makers and stakeholders.
... Motor vehicle speeds are reduced by mixing (Dey et al., 2008), but because of rapid acceleration and higher speed capability, are more likely to crash into slower moving vehicles. Dedicated lanes for tricycles are shown to increase overall road capacity while decreasing accident risk (Sadhu et al., 2014). Many Chinese cities have instead resorted to eliminating the dedicated bicycle lane in favour of non-motorised movement in a marked space by curbside, in the effort to increase motor vehicle throughput. ...
Article
Goods distribution is a growing proportion of intra-urban transport worldwide due to changes in supply chains and e-commerce, yet has received scant attention in research. Cities have opted for a regulatory approach to truck movement and deliveries at a local level but few have tried to develop a systematic approach to management. Following certain suggestions in the literature, a hierarchical deliveries approach is being adopted in some new developments in Europe and Australia using light vehicles at the local level. In East, South and South-East Asia, where 3-wheeled non-motorised vehicles have been a mainstay of goods and people transport for several decades, they are under renewed pressure from city governments. This study of the tricycle in Beijing examines their role for packages delivery, food and beverage distribution and waste and recycling services, which covers nearly all of the uses of utilitarian tricycles in northern Chinese cities. Drivers (n = 97) were interviewed, their usual trips were mapped, and the subsequent trip was recorded using a geo-positioning system. These trips were compared with trips executed by small, motorised vans, favoured since 2014 by Beijing government. Operations can be divided into four categories according to delivery chain organisation, field operations and vehicle type. Motorised alternatives to the tricycle are shown to be uncompetitive in terms of time, cost and energy efficiency. This first detailed examination of the operations of the tricycle in a Chinese city provides a useful base for consideration of local distribution services organisation and a possible model for cities outside China.
... Although motorised auto-rickshaws produce high emissions which deteriorate the climatic conditions, non-motorised cycle and electric rickshaws are considered as energy-efficient mobility options, especially in cities where there are large numbers of conventional fuel-powered vehicles (Priye and Manoj, 2020). In a study by Sadhu et al. (Sadhu et al., 2014) in Delhi, they found that the contribution of non-motorised rickshaws to savings in fuel and emissions in cities is so significant that if they are replaced by motorised vehicles there will be>3 percent increase in carbon dioxide emissions and 8 percent increase in hydrocarbon emissions. Therefore, in recent years, there has been the production and proliferation of non-motorised rickshaws across developing worlds (Harding and Kandlikar, 2017). ...
Article
Shared taxis, mini-buses, and motorcycles have been the conventional means of intra-city public transportation in most parts of Africa. In recent years, auto-rickshaws are fast becoming an alternative and preferred form of public transport in many African cities. This article adopts descriptive statistics to analyze the demographic characteristics of 429 auto-rickshaw operators in Kumasi and logistic regression analysis to understand the association between these demographic characteristics and operational attributes and challenges. The study found that auto-rickshaw operators in Kumasi possess gender, age, and educational characteristics similar to other transport operators in Ghana and elsewhere. Auto-rickshaw operators, however, differ from others in terms of their origin characteristics, as they are mostly migrant workers. Findings also revealed that the income generated by an auto-rickshaw operator is influenced by his training, union membership and type of transport activity. There is a general lack of compliance with road safety and traffic regulations irrespective of the educational level and training of auto-rickshaw operators. Nevertheless, operators who are relatively educated are more likely to maintain their auto-rickshaws than the less educated ones. The article recommends, among others, the strengthening of driver licensing and law enforcement regimes in Ghana while making formal training and education for auto-rickshaw operators mandatory.
... Especially, socially disadvantaged people could have the possibility of employment (Moolenburgh et al., 2019). Sadhu et al. (2014) conclude that cargo cycles can contribute to a decrease in unemployment. Their conclusion is based on a study of intracity freight transport in Delhi (India). ...
Article
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Electric cargo cycles (E-cargo cycles) have the potential to reduce the negative impacts of transportation systems, when utilised for the right application. There is a growing literature pertaining to them, especially for commercial transport. It is essential to have a comprehensive outlook of the prevailing literature to synthesise the existing knowledge base. Therefore, this work comprehensively consolidates the studies in the growing field of E-cargo cycles. The primary focus is on commercial transport. However, insights obtained from the very limited number of studies pertaining to private transport is also presented. Within commercial transport, the focus is on typology, penetration, impacts, and operational and policy requirements. The typology is developed based on (i) Trip type, (ii) Network configuration, and (iii) Fleet composition. The factors influencing the penetration of E-cargo cycles are identified and classified into six groups, namely (i) Operation, (ii) Vehicular, (iii) Infrastructural, (iv) Workforce, (v) Organisational, and (vi) Policy. Furthermore, the impacts of E-cargo cycles are categorised as (i) Economic, (ii) Environmental, (iii) Societal, (iv) Traffic and safety, (v) Operational, and (vi) Governance. Besides, factors that influence the impact on cost-of-using E-cargo cycles are found and grouped under (i) Customer, (ii) Operator, and (iii) Policy maker. To facilitate the selection of network configuration and fleet composition, when beginning to utilise E-cargo cycles, a simplified decision making scheme is provided. Policy requirements discussed in the pertinent literature are also described and categorised as (i) Regulatory, (ii) Incentive, (iii) Infrastructural, and (iv) Awareness creation. Finally, a typology is provided for private transport, along with a summary on penetration and impacts.
... In this domain, a large part of the research focuses on environmental impacts compared with conventional delivery operations. Sadhu et al. analyzed the data collected from 2,000 cycle rickshaw trolley (CRT) drivers in Delhi in 2011 and showed that CRTs for city goods movements reduced fuel use and vehicle emissions (11). Saenz et al. compared the carbon footprint of a cargo-cycles logistics service with that of a traditional system (12). ...
Article
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Urban deliveries are traditionally carried out with vans or trucks. These vehicles tend to face parking difficulties in dense urban areas, leading to traffic congestion. Smaller and nimbler vehicles by design, such as cargo-cycles, struggle to compete in distance range and carrying capacity. However, a system of cargo-cycles complemented with strategically located cargo-storing hubs can overcome some limitations of the cargo-cycles. Past research provides a limited perspective on how demand characteristics and parking conditions in urban areas are related to potential benefits of this system. To fill this gap, we propose a model to simulate the performance of different operational scenarios—a truck-only scenario and a cargo-cycle with mobile hubs scenario—under different delivery demand and parking conditions. We apply the model to a case study using data synthesized from observed freight-carrier demand in Singapore. The exploration of alternative demand scenarios informs how demand characteristics influence the viability of the solution. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis clarifies the contributing factors to the demonstrated results. The combination of cargo-cycles and hubs can achieve progressive reductions in kilometers-traveled and hours-traveled up to around densities of 150 deliveries/km ² , beyond which savings taper off. Whereas the reduction in kilometers-traveled is influenced by the the carrying capacity of the cargo-cycle, the reduction in hours-traveled is related to to the cargo-cycle ability to effectively decrease the parking dwell time by reducing, for instance, the time spent searching for parking and the time spent walking to a delivery destination.
... Il terzo caso di studio proviene da Delhi in India, ed è descritto nell'articolo di Sadhu et al. (2014). Esso descrive l'uso diffuso dei cosiddetti cycle rickshaw trolley (CRT) per il movimento delle merci, attraverso le risultanze di un sondaggio a 2000 guidatori di CRT nel 2011. ...
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RIVISTA DI ECONOMIA E POLITICA DEI TRASPORTI (ISSN 2282-6599) anno 2018, n° 1, Articolo 5 Il trasporto merci in contesti urbani risulta rilevante per la necessità di mantenere un’alta qualità della vita, correlata alla disponibilità ed all’accesso a beni e servizi (merci o trasformazioni di merci). L’offerta di tali beni e servizi comporta, però, la generazione di esternalità negative, quali inquinamento atmosferico ed acustico, consumo di energia, congestione stradale ed incidentalità. Garantire un’alta qualità della vita urbana non può prescindere dalla contestuale riduzione delle esternalità negative generate dal trasporto merci, necessario per offrire beni e servizi. Recentemente, la crescita e l’incentivazione della mobilità ciclistica in ambienti urbani, visti i comprovati benefici ambientali, economici e sociali, ha stimolato anche la nascita della mobilità merci ciclistica, ovvero della ciclologistica. La ciclologistica è una soluzione di logistica urbana sostenibile, che prevede il trasporto di merci attraverso l’utilizzo di mezzi a trazione umana, la cui spinta propulsiva è ottenuta mediante pedalata, sia essa assistita o meno. La relativa novità di questo modo di trasporto merci rende necessarie ricerche volte alla comprensione e al monitoraggio nella sua evoluzione, per poter informare gli amministratori locali ed i professionisti della mobilità (architetti, economisti, ingegneri, politologi, ecc.) nei loro processi decisionali e giudizi professionali. L’approfondimento di questa ricerca ha come obiettivo, quindi, la comprensione del fenomeno della ciclologistica attraverso una raccolta sistematica delle informazioni reperite nella letteratura scientifica relative ad esperienze internazionali.
... Regarding the last mile of UFT, trucks are often recognized by public authorities as vehicles that may contribute significantly to traffic congestion and pollution in urban areas (Castillo-Manzano et al., 2016). Therefore, the literature has indicated delivery operations based on more sustainable fleets such as trolleys, bicycles/tricycles (motorized or not) and light-duty vehicles (Faccio and Gamberi, 2015;Gruber and Kihm, 2016;Koning and Conway, 2016;Margaritis et al., 2016;Roumboutsos et al., 2014;Sadhu et al., 2014). Moreover, academic research seeks to develop strategies aiming to reduce constraints related to the last mile of distribution process, such as distance, travel time and delivery costs. ...
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Pre-charge and post-charge data (particularly on speed and road usage) in the London congestion charge zone is used to estimate demand and cost curves for road usage. Pre-charge congestion costs are estimated, and shown to be small (0.1% of the area GDP). They are largely (90%) eliminated by the charge, which produces an economic benefit. Charge proceeds are about three times larger than the value of the congestion. Unfortunately, the yearly amortisation and operation costs of the charge system appear to be significantly higher than the economic benefit produced by the system. The London congestion charge, which is a great technical and political success, seems to be an economic failure. It could be defined as mini Concorde.
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The cycle rickshaw is a popular transportation device. The aim of the study was to assess workload of cycle rickshaw pullers--physiological and subjective at four different places in India. Subjects were instructed to pull a cycle rickshaw with two passengers, for 20 min. Working and recovery heart rates were recorded. The mean values of energy expenditure of pulling a cycle rickshaw varied from 23.5 +/- 2.66 to 25.35 +/- 1.51 kJ/min. Relative cardiac strain and cardiac cost indicated that the job is 'heavy' to 'very heavy'. Subjective assessment of workload was 'heavy' to 'very heavy'. The combined workload assessed from physiological parameters and subjective assessment indicated that the job could be categorised as 'heavy' to 'very heavy' at all the places studied and needs to be reduced by redesigning the structural and functional components of the cycle rickshaw. The rickshaw pullers carry out the jobs many times per day, sometimes without proper rest pauses between trips. The outcome of the research project is beneficial for cycle rickshaw pullers, health administrators as well as manufacturers of cycle rickshaws. Primarily, the manufacturers would be able to use the data for producing a newer model of cycle rickshaw, which would require less energy to drive. The health administrators would be able to take policy decisions for administering better health care for the unorganised and underprivileged workers. The pullers could be guided into taking care of their health by improving their work practice, i.e. taking a sufficient rest pause between trips.
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