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Coconut is one of the most important commercial crop in tropical areas and usually referred as ‘tree of heaven’ or ‘tree of abundance’. India is the third largest producer of coconut in the world with 10.56 million tonnes of coconut per year. The aim of this review is to give a broad spectrum of different food and non-food products that can be derived from coconut. Apart from the edible by-products, coconut palm also provides a series of non-food by-products such as activated carbon, shell powder, fibre, charcoal, handicrafts, furniture, and roofing. It can also be as a source of fuel for the rural areas and industries. There is an urgent need for intense research and commercialization of the technology so as to provide an additional source of income and to improve the economic status of the farmers and the country.
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Indian Food Industry Mag
Vol 32 No 6, Nov-Dec 2013
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Coconut: An extensive review on value added products
*Sangamithra Aa, Swamy Gabriela Johnb, Sorna Prema Rc, Chandrasekar Vd,
Sasikala Se, Hasker Ef,
a ,b ,c Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai- 638 052,
Tamil Nadu, India
d Department of Food and Agricultural Process Engineering, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,
Coimbatore – 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
eDepartment of Food Process Engineering, SRM University, Chennai- 603 203, Tamil Nadu, India
f Department of Food Technology, DGMMES Mampad College, Malappuram Dt -676 542, Kerala,
Coconut is one of the most important commercial
crop in tropical areas and usually referred as tree of
heaven’ or ‘tree of abundance’. India is the third largest
producer of coconut in the world with 10.56 million
tonnes of coconut per year. The aim of this review is to
give a broad spectrum of different food and non-food
products that can be derived from coconut. Apart from
the edible by-products, coconut palm also provides a series
of non-food by-products such as activated carbon, shell
powder, fibre, charcoal, handicrafts, furniture, and
roofing. It can also be as a source of fuel for the rural
areas and industries. There is an urgent need for intense
research and commercialization of the technology so as
to provide an additional source of income and to improve
the economic status of the farmers and the country.
Keywords: Coconut; industrial crop; value added products;
coconut milk; coconut water
Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is one of the most
important crops in tropical areas. It is usually referred as
‘tree of heaven’ or ‘kalpavriksha’ because it provides more
useful and diverse product to the people. Coconut is grown
in more than 93 countries in the world in an area of 12
million hectares, with an annual production of 59.98
million tonnes of nuts. According to Food and Agricultural
Organization, Indonesia is one of the largest coconuts
producing country with a production of 18 million tones
of coconuts followed by Philippines with an annual
production of 15.86 million tones of coconuts. India
occupies third position in the world level with an annual
production of 10.56 million tonnes of coconuts. In India,
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa,
West Bengal and Assam are the major coconut producing
states in India. India consumes 50% of annual production
for their culinary and religious purpose, 35% used as copra,
2% for manufacturing of value added products, 11% for
tender uses and 2% for seed purpose.
Coconut tree can grow up to 30m long with pinnate
leave s of 4-6 m long and pinnae 60– 90cm long .
Coconutfruit hasthree layers like theexocarp,mesocarp
andendocarp (Fig.1). The exocarp and mesocarp is husk
of the cocon ut whic h has many com mercial and
traditional uses. The endocarp is the hard shell which has
threegerminationpores or eyes that are clearly visible on
its outer surface. Lining the shell is a white albuminous
endosperm or ‘coconut meat’ and the inner cavity is filled
with a clear sweet refreshing liquid called ‘coconut water’.
A full sized coconut weighs about 1.44kg. Coconut has
the greatest importance in the national economy as a
potential source of employment and income generation
among the plantation crops. The demand for coconut is
high because of its usage and the adaptability of coconut
palm to grow under various climatic and soil conditions.
Value addition of coconut has a vital role to develop new
products for increasing the income of the people. Coconut
products and by-products can be commercially exploited
for multiple purposes.
Fig.1. Internal view of Coconut (Sadava et al. 2009)
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Nutritional and Health Benefits
The coconut provides a wholesome and nutritious
source of meat, water, milk, and oil. Table 1. Shows the
nutritional composition of coconut kernel and coconut
water. Coconut is also considered as a ‘functional food’
because it provides additional health benefits apart from
its nutritional constituents.
Coconut water is sterile in its natural form and
is been considered as sports drink because of its high
potassium and mineral content. This nutritive beverage
contains greater amount of minerals such as sodium,
potassium, phosphorus, chlorides, magnesium, ascorbic
acids, vitamins B and also sugars. It is also rich in amino
acids like arginine, alanine, and cystine. Almost 50% of
the fatty acids in coconut oil are the 12-carbon Lauric Acid.
Coconut water is also used as an oral rehydration fluid
fo r child ren and elderl y peop l e suffe r i ng fro m
gastroenteritis. (Nadanasabapathy and Kumar 2013;
Campos et al. 1996) One of the useful components in
cocon ut water is cytokini ns , which are a class of
phytohormones (Kende and Zeevaart 1997).
Table 1. Nutritional composition of fresh
coconut kernel and coconut water
On enzymatic digestion of coconut oil, it yields
a monoglyceride called monolaurin which can kill harmful
pathogens like bacteria, viruses and fungi. The presence
of lauric acid also reduces the blood cholesterol level
thereby protecting heart from cardiovascular diseases.
Coconut oil is rich in antioxidants which fight against the
free radicals and protects human from aging. Coconut oil
acts as a hair conditioner which retains the moisture and
makes the hair healthy.(Agero and Verallo-Rowell 2004).
It maintains the digestive system and prevents our body
from digestive disorder like irritable bowel syndrome, heart
burning, etc. The consumption of coconut increases the
absorption of amino acids, minerals, vitamins and other
nutrients. It reduces the blood sucrose level, cures kidney
disease, liver disease, kidney bladder infections and
periodontal diseases.
Food Products
The various edible products from coconut includes
coconut milk, dried coconut or copra, desiccated coconut,
coconut oil, coconut water, Nate-de-coco, coconut flour,
vinegar, jaggery etc. Coconut is considered as food and
also as oil seed crop. Fig 2. shows the different possible
value added food products from coconut. These varieties
of coconut products offer a vast scope for further
development, value addition and commercialization.
Desiccated coconut
Desiccated coconut is obtained from drying of
shredded, ground coconut after separating from the brown
testa. The fresh matured coconuts are de-husked and de-
shelled. The de-shelling is done by a sharp knife to get
the kernel, and the kernel is disintegrated into smaller size
using hammer mill or pin mill. The coconut flakes are
steam blanched for about 20 minutes to reduce the
microbial count. The disintegrated kernel is dried in the
hot air dryer at temperature of 80-90°C for about 10 hours
to reduce the moisture content up to 3%. It was found
that 60–120°C temperature of air with velocity of 2.5m/
s could reduce the moisture level from 105% d.b to 3%
d.b.(Madhiyanon et al. 2009). The desiccated coconut has
more shelf life and easy to transport. It is widely used in
confectioneries, baking, puddings, and ice creams.
Desiccated coconut can be added to foods for its texture,
added coconut flavor, garnish for savory foods, as a dusting
for the outer layer and as a substitute to raw grated coconut.
Coconut milk
Coconut milk is a natural and very versatile
ingredient broadly used in Asian and Indian cuisine. It is
an oil-water emulsion obtained from the aqueous extract
of coconut meat. The coconut kernel is disintegrated using
rotary wedge cutter, then it is pressed and squeezed with
hot water to extract the milk from the kernel. After
extraction milk is filtered to remove the solids then it is
pasteurized to eliminate the micro organism. Increase in
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temperature of water during extraction does not have
positive effect but the repeated extractions increase the
quantity of milk by 11.01% (Anjaya et al. 1996). Coconut
milk is considered as a substitute for cow milk and can
be used by lactose intolerant people. The fresh coconut
milk serves as a valuable food for children suffering from
nutritional deficiency. It has more vitamin A content than
the coconut itself and has adequate minerals. It was found
that the coconut milk extracted with water at 80°C and
having pH of 8 was yielded milk with highest total solids.
Addition of 15% skim milk powder to coconut-natural
milk blend improved the sensory and nutritional qualities
of the product (Saleem et al. 2004). Coconut milk can
be consumed raw or used as a milk substitute in coffee,
tea and can also be mixed with fruits to make a yoghurt
The presence of different components in coconut
milk holds numerous health benefits. Lauric acid in
coconut milk acts as antiviral and antibacterial agent,
magnesium controls the blood sugar level, phosphorus
strengthens the bones, selenium reduces the joint
in f lamm a tion, and ma n gane s e hel ps to pr e v ent
osteoporosis. 10 to 20 grams of lauric acid per day is
considered an appropriate amount which can be obtained
from roughly 6 to 12 ounces of good quality coconut
milk. Coconut milk also reduces the risk of cardiovascular
Coconut cream
Coconut cream is chiefly used as a fat source, is
similar to coconut milk but had a thicker and paste like
consistency than coconut milk. 10,000 mature nuts could
yield about 2500 kg of coconut cream and 500 kg of
residual grating. Addition of food additives like emulsifiers
and stabilizers to the coconut milk are involved during
the production of cream. This mixture was mixed well to
get the desired consistency then it is moved to the plate
heat exchangers for pasteurization (80°C) and hot filled
into the container. It had a shelf life of nearly 6 month
once if opened. It can be used directly or diluted with
water to make various preparations such as fish and meat
dishes, curries, sweets, deserts, puddings, cakes, cookies,
jam, ice creams etc. Addition of coconut cream to the
soy milk, increased the yield of tofu (Escueta et al. 1985).
An earlier study also shows that the gamma irradiated
coconut cream powder (0-15KGy) had no significant
changes in sensory properties after prolonged storage (Yusof
et al. 2007). Coconut fat does not contain trans-fatty acids
but contains monoglycerides, which is readily absorbed
by the body and converted into energy shortly after it is
consumed. Because the fat is easily metabolized and not
stor ed in th e body , it doesnt tra nsform into bad
cholesterols that may clog up the arteries. Thus it lowers
the risk of heart disease.
Coconut flour
Coconut flour is a unique product prepared from
coconut residue obtained after the extraction of coconut
milk. It is a rich healthy source of dietary fiber which can
be used as bulking agents, filling agents and as a substitute
for wheat, rice and potato flour at certain levels and the
flour can also be incorporated into various food products
like baked products, snack and extruded foods and steamed
products. Coconut flour is considered as a good source
of fiber and protein. It contains about 600 g total dietary
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fibre/kg in which 560 g insoluble and 40 g soluble fibre/
kg. It was found that the glycemic index of coconut flour
supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of
dietary fiber from coconut flour (Trinidad et al. 2003;
Trinidad et al. 2006). It was found that the amount of
wheat flour used for noodles making in Asia accounts for
about 40% of the total flour consumed, hence coconut
flour can be incorporated up to 20% into wheat flour
noodl es in orde r to improve its health ben efi ts.
(Gunathilake and Abeyrathne 2008). The coconut flour is
loaded with numerous nutrients and it is free from gluten
and phytic acid. The health benefits of coconut flour
includes protection against strokes, significant reduction
in blood pressure, enhanced energy production and it also
boosts thyroid function, balances blood sugar and insulin
level, cleanses the body’s internal systems.
Coconut yoghurt
Yoghurt is a fermented product obtained by the
fermentation of cow milk using lactic acid bacteria such
as Streptococcu s therm oph ile s and Lactobacill us
delbrueckii spp. Bulgaricus. Yogurt from coconut milk can
also be consumed by lactose intolerant. (Yaakob et al.
2012) optimized the ingredients for coconut yoghurt
processing. One liter of coconut milk was preheated at a
temperature of 90°C for 3 min. It was then cooled till
the temperature reduced to 40°C. 3% inoculum was
mixed to the coconut milk and the cultured coconut milk
was incubated at 37°C for 8 hours then it was stored at
4°C. A combination of soymilk (50%) and coconut milk
(50%) has also been used in the preparation of soy-
coconut yoghurt. (Belewu et al. 2005). Studies also shows
that the there is no significant difference between the
yogurt produced from skimmed cow milk and coconut-
cow milk composites in all sensory attributes. Thus
coconut milk can be used along with cow milk to
produce acceptable and affordable yoghurt (Sanful 2009).
Coconut water concentrate and Packaged
tender coconut water
Coconut water concentrate can be produced using
spray evaporation technique. Frozen coconut water is
prepared from fresh coconut water. Fresh coconut water
obtained from freshly opened shell under hygienic
conditions. The suspended solids and oils were removed
by centrifugation before concentration whereas minerals
were removed from the centrifuged coconut water by
passing it through ionic resin packed column to get a
sweet taste. The concentrate had a shelf life of 6 months
to 24 mon t hs depen d ing upon the degree of
concentration. Ten litres of coconut water would yield
about 800g of concentrate. The concentrate can also be
frozen or preserved in cans and after dilution to the
desired strength; it can be used in the production of
carbonated and non-carbonated coconut beverages as a
base. (Muralidharan and A Sr 2011).
Tender Coconut Water is an eco friendly refreshing
drink and also a natural isotonic beverage which balance
electrolyte in our blood. Delta lactone is responsible for
the characteristic flavor of tender coconut water. The tender
coconut water has several functional activities such as
hydrating electrolytic fluid, anti-carcinogenic, anti-
myocardial infarction, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-
ageing, and anti-thrombotic effects (Campbell-Falck et al.
2000; Loki and Rajamohan 2003). Packed tender coconut
water involves collection of water, filtration, adjustment
of pH, total soluble sugar and taste, pasteurization,
filtration and packaging. Ultra filtration system can also
be used to clarify the tender coconut water (Jayanti et al.
2010). It can either be packed in bottles or in cartons.
The bottled drink can be stored for three months at ambient
temperature. (Reddy et al. 2007) developed a system for
non thermal preservation of tender coconut water using
low ash filter paper and cellulose nitrate membrane which
reduced the microbial population and retained the
organoleptic properties. Coconut water is rich in dietary
fiber, enzymes, vitamin C, amino acids, minerals such as
magnesium and potassium. But it is low in calories,
chlorides and cholesterol. When coconut water is applied
on skin, it reduces acne, lowers the visible signs of ageing,
stretch marks and cures eczema. On drinking coconut
water, it boosts the immune system and fights against
common cold and flu; prevents muscle cramps, cures
heartburn, dengue fever and dysentery; aids the kidneys
in filtering the toxins and thus reduces the risk of kidney
Nata-de-cocois a chewy, translucent, jelly like
food stuff prepared by fermentation of matured coconut
water.Itis most frequently sweetened as a candy or
dessert, and can accompany with various stuffs like
drinks,ice cream,puddingsand fruit mixes. This dessert
can be prepared by culturing Acetobacter xylinum through
fermentation of coconut water which produces microbial
cellulose for gel formation (Cannon and Anderson 1991).
For the production of nata de coco with soft surface and
chewy texture, (Jagannath et al. 2008) reported that pH
4, 10 % sucrose and 0.5% ammonium was the most
appropriate conditions. Culture solution was prepared by
addition of sugar to the mature coconut water which is
inoculated with Acetobacter xylinum, kept it for 2-3 weeks
without any disturbance in a vessel. A jelly like substances
was formed at the top of the vessel. This jelly was
separated and washed with water in order to remove the
acids adhere on the surface of the jelly and then it was
cut into pieces and packed.
Coconut Vinegar
Coconut vinegar, an alternate for synthetic vinegar,
can be prepared from coconut water or from the sap of
the coconut tree. It is extensively used as flavoring and
preservative agents in pickles, salad dressings and sauces.
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It is rich in vitamins and minerals such as calcium,
phosphorous, iron, sodium and also found to have anti
inflammatory and anti microbial properties (Shahidi et
al. 2008). Coconut vinegar is the resultant product of
alcoholic and acetic fermentation of sugar enriched
coconut water. After filtering, the coconut water is
adjusted to 15° Brix by the addition of refined sugar and
the mixture is heated to boiling point. The pasteurized
mixture is then cooled and inoculated with active dry
yeast (1.5g/l iter). After 5 to 7 days of alcoho lic
fermentation, mother vinegar or starter culture is added
for effective acetic fermentation. The acidification process
continued for up to 7 days and then the coconut vinegar
is harvested by siphoning.
Snow ball tender nut
Snow ball tender nut is a round, soft, white
coloured ball shaped tender coconut without husk, shell
and testa. 8 months old coconut is more suitable for
making snow ball tender nut. The tender coconut water
can be consumed by inserting a straw through the top
white tender coconut kernel. A groove is made in the shell
by using a snow ball nut machine developed by Central
Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), Kasargod,
Kerala. By inserting a scooping tool, between the tender
kernel and shell, the snow ball is scooped out from the
shell. Since the tender coconut water retains its sterility
since it is not exposed to the atmosphere. The shelf life
can be prolonged to more than 10 days if the tender nut
is individually packed and refrigerated under hygienic
Coconut oil
Coconut oil is extracted from the kernel or meat
of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm. It
contains more amount of saturated fat which leads to slow
down oxidation resulting resistant to rancidity, lasting up
to two years without spoiling. It has been reported that
certain fatty acids and their derivatives of coconut oil can
have det r imen tal ef fect s on inactiv atin g vari o us
microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, and
enveloped viruses. Coconut oil is generally obtained by
mechanical extraction methods. In dry extraction method
well dried copra is pressed in a screw press or hydraulic
press to extract oil by breaking the oil cells in the kernel.
After extraction, the oil and cake is separated by filtration.
A study shows that the crude coconut oil had more
stability than refined oil because the refined oil reduces
the amount of tocopherol in the oil (Gordon and Rahman
1991). Cake can be used as the substrate for alpha amylase
pr oducti on using As p ergill u s or y z a e sp e cies
(Ramachandran et al. 2004). Enzymatic extraction of oil
was found to be a better method in terms of energy
consumption and an yield of 8% was obtained when
extracted using the enzymes polygalacturonases, á-amylase
and proteases (McGlone et al. 1986).
Virgin coconut oil
Virgin coconut oil is said to be mother of all oils.
It is rich in vitamin E, medium chain fatt y acids
particularly lauric acid, vitamins, minerals, antioxidant
and exhibits good digestibility. About 50% lauric acid
present in the virgin coconut oil which gives immune
power to the human. The coconut oil produced through
the wet method is known as virgin coconut oil. Virgin
coconut oil was not subjected to high temperatures,
solvents or refining process and therefore retains the fresh
scent and taste of coconuts. The virgin coconut oil can
be produced from fresh coconut meat or milk. It can be
extracted from fresh meat by grating, drying and pressing.
Producing it from coconut milk involves grating, mixing
it with water and then centrifuging at high speed. The milk
can also be fermented for 36–48 hours, the oil removed,
and the cream is heated to remove any remaining oil. This
method of extraction of coconut oil from coconut milk
eliminates the use of solvent which may considerably
reduce the investment cost and energy requirements.
Moreover, it eliminates the RBD (refining, bleaching and
deodorizing) process (Villarino et al. 2007). A number of
previous reports confirmed the presence of higher amount
of phenolic contents, which correlated with higher
antioxidant activity in virgin coconut oil, compared with
refined coconut oil (Marina et al. 2009). Coconut oil helps
to boost metabolism and raise body temperatures to
promote thyroid health. It also heals the bruises, cures
damaged tissues, moisturizes the skin, nourishes the brain,
reverses the neurodegenerative diseases and prevents
gastrointestinal mal absorption diseases.
Coconut protein powder
Coconut protein powder can be recovered from
coconut wet processing waste which is obtained during
the production of virgin coconut oil. The coconut milk
from fresh and mature coconut undergoes protease
treatment (100 tyrosine units/liter of coconut milk) for 2
h in order to carry out effective destabilization of the
coconut milk emulsion. Enzyme-treated milk is subjected
to centrifugation at 7,000 rpm to obtain cream, coconut
skim milk, and solid protein. Further, skim milk and solid
protein is thoroughly mixed in the ratio of 8:2 v/w,
homogenized and fed into a spray dryer. Then the protein
powder is collected through a cyclone separator. The
coconut protein powder showed high protein content of
about 33 % and low fat content of 3 %. The protein
powder had good emulsifying properties than skim milk
protein and also had more water retention and swelling
capacity than other dietary fibers (Naik et al. 2012;
Raghavendra et al. 2004).
Neera and Toddy
Coconut toddy also called as palm wine is a
sweetish, milk white liquid obtained when young coconut
inflorescence is tapped. The unfermented sweet sap is
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called Neera which obtained before fermentation. A little
lime is added to the collecting earthen pot to prevent the
sap from fermenting. Toddy is obtained by natural
fermentation of sap, when the sap flows from the spadix,
fermentation starts suddenly. Flora such as bacteria and
fungi are responsible for fermentation of coconut sap.
Toddy is fully fermented in six to eight hours. Alcoholic
content of toddy is about 4-6% and had less shelf life.
The main ingredient of the fermented sap is sucrose and
there is very little reducing sugar, although other sugars
like glucose, fructose, maltose and raffinose are present.
It was found that the fresh toddy contains 14.1% of total
soluble solids which on natural fermentation during
storage reduced to 11.4% and the alcohol, protein,
ascorbic acid and titratable acidity were found to increase
with fermentation and hence it has to be consumed
within 12 hours of collection itself to avoid acidic or sour
taste (Hariharan 2012). Alcoholic liquid prepared from
toddy called coconut arrack, which is generally distilled
to between 33% and 50% alcohol by volume.
Coconut jaggery
Coconut jaggery is prepared by the concentration
of unfermented coconut sap. Jaggery is a wealthy source
of calcium, iron and many other vitamins and minerals.
It acts as a low calorie natural sweetening agent and
digestive agent. The collected sap contains around 80%
of water which has to be removed by evaporation. Before
heating, the sap is filtered using sand filters to remove
the impurities and a small quantity of alum is added to
induce the precipitation of lime and magnesium. This
will make the final jaggery much less deliquescent with
a better colour and will remain hard for a reasonable
period. After evaporation, a thick mass is obtained, which
on further heating leads to crystallization and on cooling
it sets a solid form. The final product has a dark colour
due to the caramelization of sugar.
Coconut Refined Sugar
The coconut sap is treated with two percent lime
to coagulate albuminous impurities. The limed sap is then
carbonated in two stages and filtered to remove surplus
lime. The clarified liquid is evaporated to the extent of
75 per cent sugar content and the resultant syrup is
concentrated in vacuum pans till crystallization begins.
The syrup is then discharged into crystallizers and the
cr y stalli ne su g ar is sepa r ated by ce ntrif u g atio n
(Muralidharan and A Sr 2011). Based on a study by Food
and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the glycemic index
(GI) of coconut sap sugar is 35 and therefore it is
considered as low glycemic index food, that it will not
raise the blood sugar levels. Low glycemic index food is
good for the control of diabetes mellitus and it has been
found that it lowers the bad cholesterol or low density
lipoprotein cholesterol. Hence coconut sugar is considered
to be healthier than refined cane sugar.
Coconut Jam
Jam is an intermediate moisture food prepared
from the residual pulp left after removal of water from
the kernels. Young tender coconuts are widely consumed
as fresh can also be converted into value-added products
such as jam. Coconut jam is prepared by boiling the pulp
with sugar, pectin, acid, and other minor ingredients such
as preservatives, coloring, and flavoring materials, to a
reasonably thick consistency firm enough to hold the fruit
tissues in position. The desired amount of sugar was added
to the pulp mixture and heated continuously on under low
flame. When the total soluble solids reached 60 °Brix,
pectin (1.25 %) and citric acid (0.5 %) were added to
the boiling pulp and the mixture was stirred continuously
using a steel ladle. Heating can be stopped when the total
soluble solids reached 67–68 °Brix. The hot mixture was
filled into sterilized glass bottles and cooled under ambient
conditions. The prepared jam can be stored for a period
of 6 mo nths at am bient te m p eratu r e w i thout
compromising the quality. (Chauhan et al. 2013) studied
the organoleptic properties and shelf stability of mixed
fruit jam using tender coconut pulp and pineapple pulp
in different ratios. It was found that the combination of
tender coconut pulp and pineapple pulp in the ratio of
75:25 resulted in a jam with good organoleptic and textural
Coconut syrup
Coconut syrup is a translucent nutty flavored free
flowing liquid prepared from coconut milk. It is becoming
an important export oriented product to countries, where
coconut is not grown. It is used as a topping for bakery
products or as a mixer in alcoholic drinks or may be
diluted with water and used in the preparation of cakes
and other delicacies. For the preparation of coconut syrup
an equal amount of sugar is added to the homogenized
coconut milk and 0.05 percent citric acid or 0.25 percent
sodium phosphate is also added. The mixture is heated
till the total soluble solids reaches around 65 to 68
percent. The hot syrup can immediately be transferred to
lacquered tin cans, sealed and cooled under normal water.
It can be used as an instant drink when mixed with water
and is also an excellent bread spread.
Coconut Candy and Honey
Coconut candy is made either from coconut cream
or coconut milk. Malt syrup and sugar is added to the
coconut milk in the desired proportion. Then the mixture
is heated to very high temperature for caramelization to
occur. After attaining the thick consistency the thick mass
is transferred into the mold and then cooled. Once after
cooled, the candy is cut into desired shape and size and
Coconut honey is free-flowing viscous syrup,
similar to coconut syrup but less creamy and less nutty
in flavor. It is prepared by blending one part of skimmed
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coconut milk with half part of refined sugar and half part
of glucose, in which sodium alginate is added as a
stabilizer. Coconut cream may also be added to improve
the flavor of the product. The mixture is heated for about
15 minutes then homogenized and cooked in steam-
jacketed kettle. TSS of coconut honey is 75%. The final
product is a golden coloured thick viscous liquid with
nutty flavor. This can be widely used as a base for soft
drinks manufacturing.
Coconut is considered as a healthy food and hence
there is a high demand for shifting the market towards
value added products such as coconut milk, coconut
cream, coconut vinegar, etc as mentioned above. Apart
from the above products, other uses includes that coconut
shell, leaf, husk, etc is used as fuel in many rural areas
and in industries for boiler operations. Coconut leaf
thatches are used as roofing in many of houses in
developing countries. A variety of handicraft product can
be made from wood, shell, husk, etc which increase
revenue of small scale industries. Value addition also
minimizes the waste and reduces the environmental
degradation. To achieve large-scale commercial use, the
products must be produced, packaged and delivered to
market in a form that meets the consumer requirements.
Coconut has great culinary, medicinal, cosmetic and
industrial application; therefore, all the efforts should be
made to promote the value added products of coconut
through national and global level. Also, the research and
development shoul d be dir ect ed to explo re new
technologies for the development of coconut industries.
Further Readings
Agero AL, Verallo-Rowell VM (2004) A randomized
double-blind controlled trial comparing extra
virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer
for mild to moderate xerosis. Dermatitis : contact,
atopic, occupational, drug 15:109-116
Anjaya C, Arlina M, Adawiyah D (1996) Effects of
extraction, antioxidant, bleaching agent on the
shelf life of coconut milk packed in retort pouch.
Buletin Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 7
Belewu M, Belewu K, Olatunji S (2005) Soy-coconut
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... Minuman segar nira merupakan salah satu produk yang populer di India(Hebbar et al., 2015). Setidaknya dari 10.000 liter nira sebanyak 6.000 liter nira diproduksi menjadi minuman segar setiap harinya(Poduval et al., 2014). Tidak hanya di India, minuman nira juga populer di Thailand dan Filipina (Hebbar et al., dilakukan proses deodorisasi dan pasteurisasi dengan suhu 80 ˚C selama 15 menit. ...
Banyumas merupakan daerah pada urutan ketiga di Jawa Tengah berdasarkan produktivitas tanaman kelapanya. Selain daging buahnya, tanaman kelapa juga dapat dimanfaatkan niranya. Pemanfaatan nira kelapa di Kabupaten Banyumas sebagian besar diusahakan oleh UMKM baru sebatas bahan baku pembuatan gula kelapa dan gula kristal, belum dibuat untuk berbagai macam produk olahan pangan seperti minuman segar dan sirup. Oleh karena itu diperlukan diversifikasi produk olahan nira kelapa yang dapat dikembangkan pada skala UMKM. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui ragam jenis produk yang dapat dikembangkan dari nira kelapa, dan menentukan urutan prioritas alternatif produk nira kelapa yang dapat dikembangkan pada skala UMKM. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelusuran pustaka dan indepth interview dengan pakar, metode perbandingan berpasangan, Bayes, dan metode interval kelas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 30 jenis produk yang dapat dikembangkan dari nira kelapa. Urutan prioritas produk potensial nira kelapa berdasarkan analisis Bayes Urutan prioritas produk nira kelapa untuk dikembangkan saat ini pada skala UMKM di Banyumas yakni 1) gula putih kristal, 2) minuman segar, 3) jelly drink, dengan kategori sesuai, diikuti oleh 4) sirup, 5) permen, 6) kecap asin, 7) nektar, 8) yakult, 9) yoghurt dengan kategori cukup sesuai, dan 10) kefir, dengan kategori tidak sesuai.
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This study highlights technical efficiency of crop production as an important aspect of pursuing output growth in agriculture and smallholders’ farming. Using a randomly selected sample of 152 smallholder coconut in Johor, Malaysia, a stochastic frontier production model was applied, using Cobb–Douglas production function to determine the production elasticity coefficients of inputs, technical efficiency and the determinants of efficiency. The study reveals that coconut production responds positively to increases in fertilizers, fungicides and the area planted. The study also found that transportation, education and experience were the significant determinants of technical efficiency. The technical efficiency analysis suggests that about 60% of smallholders in the sample are below 70% efficient and suggesting that opportunities still exist for increasing technical efficiency among smallholders through better use of existing resources and technology. The results highlight some recommendations in improving efficiency by promoting access to productive resources, education and more reliable transportation systems.
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In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ingredient formulation and processing parameters of coconut milk yogurt production such as temperature, time, and amount of starter culture on the sensory evaluation responses. Besides, the physicochemical properties such as pH, titratable acidity, and viscosity of the yogurt were also analysed. The analyses show that the coconut yogurts have a pH from 4.01 to 5.79, acidity from 0.461 to 2.079 (%), and viscosity from 433 to 21,833 cp during the optimization process. From the analysis of variance, the R2 of all response variables is more than 0.73 that indicates that a high proportion of variability was explained by the model. Based on the response surface 3D plot of the sensory evaluation, the optimum acceptability of the coconut yogurt processing parameter are at temperature of 37oC, 8 h of the fermentation duration, and 3%(w/w) of the starter culture.
An attempt was made to utilize the residual coconut pulp left in the tender coconuts after removal of coconut water. The coconut pulp was mixed with pineapple pulp in different proportions to increase the acceptability of the jam. An increase in the level of coconut pulp was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the fat content as well as Na, K, and Ca contents in the jam. Texture profile analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in hardness whereas adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness increased significantly (p < 0.05) with an increase in the level of coconut pulp in the jam affecting its setting quality. The L* and a* values were found to increase significantly (p < 0.05), whereas b* values decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with an increase in the tender coconut pulp level. The jam containing 75 % tender coconut pulp and 25 % pineapple pulp showed a maximum sensory acceptability for the mixed jam. The jam prepared at optimum conditions of coconut and pineapple pulp showed a good sensory acceptability after 6 months of storage at 28 ± 2 and 37 °C storage conditions on the basis of physicochemical and sensory attributes.
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of tender coconut water (TCW) were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated female rats. Liver damage was evidenced by the increased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and decreased levels of serum proteins and by histopathological studies in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Increased lipid peroxidation was evidenced by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) viz, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides (HP) and conjugated dienes (CD), and also by significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione reductase (GR) and also reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver. On the other hand, CCl4-intoxicated rats treated with TCW retained almost normal levels of these constituents. Decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CCl4-intoxicated rats and their reversal of antioxidant enzyme activities in TCW treated rats, shows the effectiveness of TCW in combating CCl4-induced oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective effect of TCW is also evidenced from the histopathological studies of liver, which did not show any fatty infiltration or necrosis, as observed in CCl4-intoxicated rats.
Coconut cream was added to soymilk at 0, 4.7, 9.0, 16.6, 33.3, and 50% levels prior to coagulation with calcium sulfate. The protein and moisture content of the tofu decreased while fat increased with increasing levels of added coconut cream. The percent yield of tofu did not increase up to 4.7% added coconut cream but increased significantly when 9.0% or more coconut cream was added to soymilk. Hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and gumminess were increased by low levels of added coconut cream and decreased with high levels of coconut cream. This simple technology of coconut cream enrichment increased the caloric density of the tofu without affecting its acceptability.
A laboratory scale technique for nonthermal sterilization of green coconut water was developed. The process consisted of two-stage filtrations under constant pressure using different filter media; namely, low ash filter paper (Whatman 42) in the first stage and cellulose nitrate membrane (0.2-µm pore opening) in the second stage. The quality of the filtered water was evaluated with respect to microbial population, organoleptic characteristics, nutrient contents and physical properties. The water after the second stage of filtration was sterile with no visible growth of microbes on culture plates. The taste of the processed water did not change significantly; however, the flavor and overall acceptability decreased about 9 and 11%, respectively. The water also remained sterile after 1 month in aseptically packed condition, but overall acceptability further decreased by 6%. The filtration reduced different nutrients of the fresh water like fat, ash, total sugar, reducing sugar and protein by 40.0, 43.9, 23.4, 29.2 and 13.3%, respectively; the removal of K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Cu was 10.15, 16.14, 19.04, 20.85 and 22.21%, respectively. The removal of these nutrients increased surface tension and decreased viscosity of the coconut water. Packaging of sterile green coconut water as soft drink has a good global market as it ensures its widespread availability, quantity and reasonable price. Non-thermal sterilization by membrane filtration has been found to be an alternative to thermal sterilization as the later adversely deteriorates many essential qualities of this delicate coconut water. The present non-thermal sterilization technique maintained the sterility, nutritional quality and desirable organoleptic profile of the processed water. Thus, this process could be applied for production of green coconut water as packaged soft drink.
Blends of all-purpose wheat flour and coconut flour (ground residue of virgin coconut oil extraction) were prepared for the preparation of noodles. Mixing behavior (water absorption, arrival, dough development time and stability) of the blends was determined by farinograph. Noodles were evaluated for cooked weight, cooking losses, nutritional composition and sensory properties. Water absorption decreases with the substitution increases, whereas dough development time, arrival time and stability were increased up to 20% substitution level. However, at 30% level, an unstable farinogram was observed. Weight increase during cooking is not significantly different to that of noodles prepared with control (100% wheat flour) in all levels of substitutions tested, and solid losses remained less than 5% during cooking in all blends. Protein and fiber content of noodles increased when substitution level increased. Coconut flour addition up to 20% was not significantly different to noodles made with 100% wheat flour for all sensory properties, whereas 30% substitution affects negatively for appearance, texture and overall acceptability of the product. Wheat flour is not a good source of fiber and protein, although wheat flour noodles are popular in the world. Coconut flour is considered as a good source of fiber (10.45%) and protein (21.65%). It has been estimated that the amount of wheat flour used for noodles making in Asia accounts for about 40% of the total flour consumed, so coconut flour can be incorporated up to 20% into wheat flour noodles in order to improve its health benefits.
Clarification of tender coconut water was carried out in a continuous stirred ultrafiltration cell at transmembrane pressures of 276, 414, 552 and 690 kPa and at stirrer speeds of 800 (Reynolds number [Re] = 0.93 × 105), 1,000 (Re = 1.17 × 105), 1,400 (Re = 1.63 × 105) and 1,600 (Re = 1.87 × 105) rpm, for each pressure. Permeate flux decline was analyzed using a first-order kinetic model for the development of the polarized layer resistance. Correlations were proposed for the steady-state polarized layer resistance with the operating conditions, e.g., transmembrane pressure difference, Reynolds number and membrane resistance. Decrease in membrane permeability after subsequent experiments was also quantified. Average irreversible fouling resistance was estimated as 7.5 × 1012 m−1. Using the developed design equations of the stirred continuous ultrafiltration system, finally, the performance of such system in terms of productivity as function of operating conditions, membrane area and number of cleaning cycles was also evaluated.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSThe application of membrane technology is one of the emerging areas in the food industry. The major application includes fruit juice clarification and concentration. Because of the nonthermal nature of membrane separation, the juice can be clarified at room temperature and packed aseptically for longer shelf life without the loss of its initial quality parameters. The major problem during clarification is decline in permeate flux of fruit juice with time. Identification of the reasons for flux decline is essential for designing membrane modules to make the clarification process commercially viable. The quality of juice during storage is vital, so the determination of the variation of its physicochemical properties during storage is also important. The present study helps in designing membrane modules for the production of clarified tender coconut water.
A study was carried out to determine optimum decontamination dose for a locally manufactured coconut cream powder. Samples were gamma irradiated (0–15 kGy) and ageing process was achieved using GEER oven at 60 °C for 7 days, which is equivalent to one-year storage at room temperature. Iodine value (IV), ranging from 4.8 to 6.4, was not affected by radiation doses and storage, however peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) generally increased with radiation doses. In most samples, peroxide value (meq/kg) reduced after storage, whilst the TBA (mg malonaldehyde/kg), indicator for product quality, slightly increased. The sensory evaluation conducted using 25 taste panellists indicated that scores on odour, creamy taste and overall acceptance for all irradiated samples at more than 5 kGy were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the control. However, the panellists could not detect any significant differences among the irradiation doses (P>0.05). All stored products were significantly different in colour, creamy taste, odour and overall acceptance (P<0.05) when compared to the non-stored non-irradiated control. Microbiological count of the samples prior to irradiation was in the range of 1×102–1.7×103 cfu/g with no detection of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation. Based on the TBA and overall sensory acceptance, gamma irradiation of 5 kGy was found to be the optimum dose and lower doses can be considered to decontaminate coconut cream powder.