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Der Wespenbussard (Pernis apivorus) ein Nahrungsspezialist- Der Einfluß sozialer Hymenopteren auf Habitatnutzung und Home Range-Größe

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Is the European Honey-buzzard (Pemis apivorus) a feeding specialist? The influence of social hymenoptera on habitat selection and home range size In the years 1984-88 and 1996-98 a long-term study of the food specialist European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus) was conducted in southern 8urgenland, Austria. The study examined the influence of social Hymenoptera, in particular of wasps of the genus Vespidae, on habitat selection and home range size. (1) 404 prey items were collected at 56 nest sites and the occurrence of Hymenoptera in the nests was compared with their abundance (Iine transects, wasp nest density) in the environment. A few hymenoptera species comprised 81,8 % of prey items found (76,4 % wasps, 5,4 % bumblebees). Less abundant were frogs at 7,5 %, birds at 6,3 %, lizards at 1,1 % and various invertebrates at 3,3 % (Fig. 2). In comparison to their abundance large colonies of Vespula-species (V. vulgaris and V. germanica) were definitely prefered, whereas hornets (Vespa crabro) and field wasps (Pofistes spp.) were rather avoided. The frequency of Dolichovespula-species found as prey was similar to their occurrence in the environment. (2) In examining habitat utilization more than 2/3 of all observations (n := 157) occured in forests. Of 8 habitat types distinguished in the study area, mature and medium-aged forests, orchards, and small wetlands were preferred. Monocultures of arable fields, hay meadows and dense young wood stands were avoided by foraging European Honey-buzzards (Fig. 4). In habitats with the highest Hymenoptera density the hunting success (excavated nests) was highest (Fig. 6) and therefore they are the most important on es for the spedes. (3) Individual birds could be identified according to plumage characteristics. Altogether 45 home ranges (18 females and 27 males, minimum convex polygon) were analysed. Three different phases of the breeding cycle were analysed: (A) arrival start of breeding, (8) incubation, and (C) rearing time -independence of young, according to which 3 partial home ranges were calculated (Tab. 1). Home ranges were smallest (females 2,6 km2, males 3,2 km2) in phase (A) and largest in Phase (C) (females 14,6 km2, males 15,4 km2). Only during (8) incubation did the home ranges of females (3,7 km2) and males (7,2 km2) differ to a large extent. years when Hymenoptera were abundant, home range size varied between 7,9 and 16 km2 in poor Hymenoptera years between 16 and 25 km2• About 50 % of all observations of females (n 267) took place less than 1 km from the nest site; in contrast almost 50 % of all hunting males (n =622) were observed between 1 and 2 km (Fig. 8) from the nest. Most birds hunted within a radius of 3 km ot the nest site. Maximum distances from the nest for females were > 6 km, and for males> 7 km. When data from both sexes were pooled, significant differences in ranging behaviour in relation to Hymenoptera density were found. In years with abundant Hymenoptera, observations were concentrated within a radius of 1 km from the nest. In years with lower numbers of Hymenoptera birds flew for larger distances (observation peak 1-2 km, Fig. 9) when searching for food.
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... ou Polistes sp., mas também captura vespas europeias (V. crabro), embora em proporções muito pequenas (PALAUS SOLER, 1960;GAMAUF, 1999;ROBERTS et al., 1999;van MANEN et al., 2011;van DIERMEN et al., 2013;HARMSEN & BIJLSMA, 2014;ZIESEMER & MEYBURG, 2015;ONOFRE n. publ.). Em Portugal, numa população existente em montados da região de Cabeção/Mora, a maior parte da alimentação dada às crias de Vespeiro era constituída por larvas de vespas do género Polistes, nomeadamente Polistes gallicus (ONOFRE n. publ.). ...
... ;GALEOTTI & INGLISA, 2001;KRIŠTÍN & KAŇUCH, 2005;LOURENÇO, 2018), Vespeiro (Pernis apivorus)(GAMAUF, 1999;ROBERTS et al., 1999; van BERGEN, 2019), Picanço-real (Lanius meridionalis) (LEPLEY et al., 2004), Picanço-de-dorso-ruivo (Lanius collurio) (TRYJANOWSKI et al., 2003), Gaio (Garrulus glandarius) (STACHANOFF cit. in SPRADBERY, 1973) e Pega-rabuda (Pica pica) (OWEN, 1956). Uma vez sendo capazes de capturar vespões como a Vespa-europeia, é pois de esperar que sejam também potenciais predadoras da Vespa-asiática, tanto mais que esta é uma espécie um pouco mais pequena e os seus ninhos estão na sua grande parte ao ar livre. ...
... , estas espécies são incapazes de atacar colónias grandes activas.A contribuição de cada uma das espécies referidas na limitação natural da expansão da Vespa-asiática, bem como de outras aves que consomem vespas, nomeadamente a Vespa-europeia, parece ser pouco significativa. Contudo, o Abelharuco e o Vespeiro poderão ser a excepção, visto serem especialistas, ou mais especializados, em Himenópteros e em Vespídeos, respectivamente (cf.GAMAUF, 1999;PURROY & PURROY, 2016;VALERA, 2016;ORTA et al., 2020; BASTIAN & BASTIAN, 2022). São potencialmente os inimigos mais importantes da Os Predadores Naturais da Vespa-Asiática 5Vespa-asiática, razão pela qual são abordados com maior pormenor a seguir e relativamente aos quais o Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária (INIAV) tem estudos em curso e propostos a financiamento.Vespeiro (Pernis apivorus)O Vespeiro, ou Busardo-vespeiro 1 (Figura 1), é uma espécie migradora, reprodutora estival, presente em quase todos os países da Europa, exceto a Irlanda e a Islândia, e que passa o Inverno em África, a sul do Saara(ORTA et al., 2020;EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY, 2022). ...
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Neste artigo fazemos uma revisão dos predadores vertebrados naturais da Vespa-asiática ( Vespa velutina ) na Europa e em Portugal em particular, enumerando aqueles para os quais já existem observações comprovadas e aqueles que, por se alimentarem da Vespa-europeia ( Vespa crabro ), mesmo que irregularmente, podem ser considerados consumidores potenciais da primeira. Damos particular atenção ao Vespeiro ( Pernis apivorus ) e ao Abelharuco ( Merops apiaster ), por serem potencialmente os predadores vertebrados mais importantes da Vespa-asiática, seja porque são especialistas em insectos da subordem Apocrita -que inclui as vespas, abelhas e formigas -, seja porque para eles existe considerável informação sobre a sua ecologia trófica. Fruto de um estudo realizado em 2021, os resultados confirmam que o Abelharuco captura Vespa-asiática, mas desconhecemos ainda quão importante é este consumo. Embora a Abelha-europeia ( Apis mellifera ) seja a espécie mais frequente nos restos de presas colhidos, a dieta desta ave aparenta ser diversa.
... This migratory raptor breeds in Europe during the summer and overwinters in Africa. The adults have specific adaptations in order to prey on wasps, which form the bulk of their diet (76.4%; Gamauf 1999). Remains of preys were collected in one or two nests per year, except for 2017, when no breeding pairs were detected. ...
... Large colonies by social wasps that last 5-6 months, such as those of the Common Wasp Vespula vulgaris and the German Wasp Vespula germanica, are the preferred food source of the European Honey Buzzard (Gamauf 1999). Thus, in principle, the species should easily detect the Asian Hornet secondary nests, which are spherical and large (up to 1×0.8 m), built preferentially in tree canopies (Villemant et al. 2010) and easier to find compared to other native species that nest in the ground or close to it (e.g. ...
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This paper reports the first case of predation on the nests of Asian Hornet Vespa velutina by the European Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus, as well as the use of this resource by a breeding pair to provision their nestlings. The Asian Hornet is listed among the 100 most invasive alien species and is expanding in Western Europe. Our finding opens the door to a number of questions, including the effects of this additional allochthonous resource on the European Honey Buzzard populations, as well as the potential of this raptor as a biocontrol agent.
... El halcón abejero (Pernis apivorus (Linnaeus 1758)) destruye parcialmente los nidos extrayendo panales con cría para alimentarse de las larvas o llevarlos a su nido para alimentar a los polluelos (Macià et al. 2019;Rebollo et al. 2019). Estas aves, especializadas en consumir avispas, cuentan con adaptaciones que las protegen de los aguijones de estos himenópteros, los cuales representan más del 75% de su dieta (Gamauf 1999). A pesar de que el Halcón abejero solo coincide con V. velutina en las inmediaciones de su nido y durante el período reproductivo, pues después migra hacia el sur, esta especie es uno de los aliados naturales en el control de la especie invasora (Rebollo et al. 2019). ...
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La invasión de Vespa velutina Lepeletier, 1836 experimenta un avance en la expansión a nuevas áreas y es, a día de hoy, una especie exótica invasora que genera alarma social y preocupación por sus impactos ecológicos, económicos y sociales. El objetivo de este trabajo es explorar los caracteres biológicos de la especie para entender la raíz de su éxito invasor y los impactos que genera. Estos se relacionan con aspectos tales como un complejo sistema social, un versátil comportamiento generalista o una alta tasa reproductiva sumada a la capacidad de establecer colonias a partir de una sola reina fecundada. Los impactos de este himenóptero sobre los ecosistemas y la apicultura se relacionan con su comportamiento como predador de insectos polinizadores, en particular de abejas de la miel. El incremento de la población durante el verano y su preferencia por las áreas urbanas y semiurbanas implican encuentros frecuentes con las personas, que a menudo sufren picaduras. Sus defensas involucran la comunicación química que desencadena ataques colectivos y la inyección de un veneno rico en toxinas que impacta la salud humana.
... All other food types will be discussed as 'alternative prey'. The most commonly described alternative prey items recorded during chick rearing phase are: bumblebee Apinae, Hornet Vespa crabro, amphibians, reptiles and bird nestlings (Hagen & Bakke, 1958;Itämies & Mikkola, 1972;Cramp & Simmons, 1988;Gamauf, 1999;Roberts, & Law, 2014;Ziesemer, & Meyburg, 2015). The importance of alternative prey is mainly expressed in the early nestling phase or in years where social wasps are scarce (e.g. ...
Research
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In 2018 a nest of Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus was found during a research project on Red kites Milvus milvus in Switzerland in an area where the cantons of Bern and Fribourg border. The diet was analysed by using a camera trap at the nest. In 2019 I started a private project to get an insight in Honey-buzzard density and reproduction in the area. 1)Territory density and reproduction: In 2018 one nest was found occasionally where two chicks fledged. In 2019, 8 territories were mapped in 54.3 hours of observing at high viewpoints, covering ca. 100 km2. At 7 territories the reproduction could be determined with a moderate certainty, resulting in only one successful territory where one young was raised. 2)Diet: By following nests with camera traps, diet was determined by number of prey items brought to the nest per adult. Two successful nests were followed, one in 2018 and one in 2019 during the chick rearing phase. Common wasp Vespula vulgaris and grey coloured combs, presumably dominated by European wasp Vespula germanica formed the most frequently delivered prey to both nests, but the share of the overall prey was bigger on the nest of 2018 than on the nest of 2019, resp. 68,9% and 60,1%. Also, the mean size of the combs per aforementioned wasp species was bigger in 2018 than in 2019. In 2019 more alternative prey were brought to the nest, like Hornet Vespa crabro, Bumblebee Apinae and one Vole Arvicolinae. 3)Wasp predation: Predation on social wasps was followed with camera traps at occasionally found wasp nests, three in 2018 and one in 2019. Honey-buzzards appeared in front of the camera at two of the three nests found in 2018, 5 individuals, but none started digging nor harvested from the nests. Badger Meles meles, Polecat Mustela putorius, Red fox Vulpus vulpus, and Pine marten Martes martes were recorded showing interest without predating on the nests. The single nest found in 2019 was predated completely by a Pine marten Martes martes.
... The honey buzzard is a forest-dwelling migratory raptor breeding in the Palearctic and wintering in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cramp, 1980). In the northern hemisphere, during the breeding season it feeds almost entirely on larvae of wasps and bumblebees, while frogs and small birds constitute alternative food (Itämies and Mikkola, 1972;Gamauf, 1999). Similarly, on the African wintering sites, insects constitute an important food source for honey buzzards (Cramp, 1980). ...
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The evidence of negative impacts of agricultural pesticides on non-target organisms is constantly growing. One of the most widely used group of pesticides are neonicotinoids, used in treatments of various plants, e.g. oilseed crops, corn and apples, to prevent crop damage by agricultural insect pests. Treatment effects have been found to spill over to non-target insects, such as bees, and more recently also to other animal groups, among them passerine birds. Very little is known, however, on the presence of neonicotinoids in other wild species at higher trophic levels. We present results on the presence of neonicotinoid residues in blood samples of a long-distant migratory food-specialist raptor, the European honey buzzard. Further, we investigate the spatial relationship between neonicotinoid residue prevalence in honey buzzards with that of crop fields where neonicotinoids are typically used. A majority of all blood samples contained neonicotinoids, thiacloprid accounting for most of the prevalence. While neonicotinoid residues were detected in both adults and nestlings, the methodological limit of quantification was exceeded only in nestlings. Neonicotinoids were present in all sampled nests. Neonicotinoid presence in honey buzzard nestlings’ blood matched spatially with the presence of oilseed plant fields. These are the first observations of neonicotinoids in a diurnal raptor. For better understanding the potential negative sub-lethal of neonicotinoids in wild vertebrates, new (experimental) studies are needed.
... It is not possible to determine the fine detail of the tagged birds' movements in this study because of the interval between fixes (one hour or longer). Although males search for food in all parts of their home range, they tend to actively defend their territory within a radius of 2 km of the nest (Gamauf 1988;Ziesemer 1997). In good weather conditions, they can spend a great deal of time in the air. ...
Conference Paper
To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Turkish Republic in 2023 the country aims at becoming one of the ten largest economies in the world. To achieve this aim President Erdogan is driving forward gigantic infrastructure projects in Istanbul. One of the most ambitious is the construction of a new airport in the north of the million-strong metropolis. The airport is planned to be enormous. To date it has apparently gone unnoticed by the planners that the site of the airport lies directly on one of the most important Eurasian migration flyways on the west coast of the Black Sea which, twice a year, millions of migrating birds, including large species such as the Lesser Spotted Eagle, use on passage. In the past, so-called bird strike has repeatedly led to at times disastrous aircraft crashes. On 3 October 1960 for example, 62 passengers died following a crash after take-off in Boston, USA. There is unfortunately no reliable information available on bird migration in the vicinity of the planned Istanbul airport. In 2003 we were able to use a prototype of a GSM transmitter powered by solar energy. This, fitted to a 20-year-old male Lesser Spotted Eagle in Germany, was programmed to provide as many data as possible depending on the state of the battery. This enabled fixes every 3-5 minutes. To date five Bosporus crossings by this eagle have been recorded. Four other transmitters, also fitted to adult Lesser Spotted Eagles in July 2013, can transmit a GPS fix even every 2-3 minutes - several hundred a day. In this study the passage of five adult Lesser Spotted Eagles in the area where the airport is under construction are precisely analysed using GSM transmitters, and an attempt is made to estimate the degree of threat to humans, aircraft and Lesser Spotted Eagles.
... It is not possible to determine the fine detail of the tagged birds' movements in this study because of the interval between fixes (one hour or longer). Although males search for food in all parts of their home range, they tend to actively defend their territory within a radius of 2 km of the nest (Gamauf 1988;Ziesemer 1997). In good weather conditions, they can spend a great deal of time in the air. ...
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... For example, Fischer (1982) suggested that the home range size varies considerably depending on habitat quality. In general, food abundance and availability have been shown to influence reproduction success and for raptors are correlated with habitat size and habitat quality (Byholm and Kekkonen 2008; Gamauf 1999; Newton 1992; Schmutz et al. 2008). WTSE were thought to have very large home ranges sizes because of the large size of the birds, but this has been proven wrong as a general idea for this species. ...
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