Collaboration of Libraries, Archives and Museums: A Perspective from Japan
Takashi KOGA (Tenri University, Tenri, Nara, Japan)
<A poster for IFLA WLIC 2013, 17-23 Aug. 2013, Singapore>
Collaboration and/or convergence of libraries, archives and museums (hereafter LAM) is one of the important topics of LAM communities worldwide, as shown by the activities of the
IFLA Governing Board Working Group on Convergence. While the topic of LAM collaboration has been discussed extensively in recent years in Japan, the potential and actual
collaboration processes and results of that collaboration have not been thus clarified. This poster presentation suggests a three-fold process for LAM collaboration, based on issues
and activities in Japan: (1) a technical service stage, aimed at preservation and organization of LAM resources; (2) a public service stage, including reference service and exhibitions;
and (3) a policy and management stage, including collaboration and/or convergence of LAM as real organizations.
How to Understand “LAM Collaboration”?
<My Concern Regarding LAM Collaboration>
* The main issues should be management of a diverse range of documents, ma-
terials, objects, and information/cultural resources, rather than convergence of
LAMs as institutions.
- e..g., Musical field: ordinary books, scores, instruments, recorded materials
(records, CDs, cassette tapes, video tapes, DVDs, and so on.)
* The diversity of such resources in the electronic environment should also be
- “In recent years, as all kinds of recorded information has migrated into digital
form, the problems and challenges facing the several pro-
fessions [including those related to libraries, archives and
museums] have converged.” (Bates and Maack (2010), p.
<Suggestion of a Three-Fold Model>
(1) Technical Service Stage, (2) Public Service Stage, and (3)
Policy and Management Stage
→ This model will suggest concrete steps toward LAM col-
Stage 1: Technical Service Stage
<Preservation and Conservation>
[Relationships between preservation and conservation
cf. Yasue (2010)]
* Importance of “preservation as management”
- Includes conservation techniques
- Ensures compatibility of preservation and usage of materials
and collections (e.g. substitution measures such as micro-
films and digitization)
- Common challenges of digital preservation for LAMs
* Relationships with crisis and disaster management
- Rescue activities for cultural resources and rare documents
in Japan (especially after “3.11” mega earthquake) →
These can be connected with policy issues (Stage 3).
WƌĞƐĞƌǀ ĂƟŽŶD ĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ/ƐƐƵĞƐ
ŽŶƐĞƌǀ ĂƟŽŶdĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů/ƐƐƵ ĞƐ
<Organization of Cultural/Information Resources>
[Model of the organization based on NISO (2007)]
* Several issues concerning the organization
- Acknowledgement of unique techniques in each field
(e.g. ISBD, RDA for libraries / ISAD(G), EAD for
archives / IGMOI, CRM for museums), and cross-
walk techniques such as Dublin Core
- Common challenges: metadata for collections as well
as objects, identifiers, subject headings, authority
controls for creators and works, and so on.
How to Understand “LAM Collaboration”? Stage 1: Technical Service Stage
A revised web version
* Providing digitized (or born-digital) materials and/or collections (e.g.,
Europeana (EU), NDL Search (National Diet Library, Japan))
* Can each professional sphere, particularly that of
museums, provide appropriate information for users'
questions (i.e., information needs) from trustworthy
* Museums have an advantage, but libraries and
archives also provide exhibition service using their
materials and/or collections.
<Information Literacy Instruction>
* Increasing importance for archives as well as libraries; “Visitor pro-
grams” at museums can be included in such instructions.
<National / Regional / Internal Policy for LAM>
* Policy for content/materials/collections as well as
institutions and infrastructures should be considered.
- e.g., cultural heritage policy, memory policy, the “Knowledge Digital
Archives” Project (Japan), the “Public Knowledge Information Resource
Management” Policy (South Korea), the “National Cultural Information
Resources Sharing Project” (China)
<Convergence of LAM as Institutions>
*This should be conducted carefully, so that the
unique aims and functions of each institution are
<Management of “Internal LAM”> (cf. Okano (2011))
Some institutions include LAM characteristics from the beginning, such
as literary museums/archives.
*LAM collaboration starts with treatment (preservation, organization,
etc.) of each collection (Stage 1), and then advances into the ser-
vices using the collections for the users (Stage 2). The overall col-
laboration style and services are defined by policy and management
instruments (Stage 3).
* Each stage here does not exist independently; rather, policy and
management instruments define and influence technical and public
- e.g., Policy for preservation, reference service, and development of
- Methods to define policy and management instruments: a “bottom-
up” approach might be preferred, because it would reflect the
unique aims and functions of LAMs.
- The possibility of new technical/public service approaches and
techniques, that are not covered by existing LAMs.
Contact: Takashi KOGA／ Associate Professor, Librarianship Course, Center for Liberal Arts Edu-
cation and Research, Tenri University, Tenri, Nara, Japan; M.A, M.L.S. (Syracuse [USA], 2002)
;dŚŝƐƉŽ ƐƚĞƌƉƌĞƐĞŶ ƚĂƟŽŶŝƐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚ ďǇ< <E , /͗ ' ƌĂŶƚ-in-ŝĚ ĨŽ ƌz Ž ƵŶŐ^ĐŝĞŶƟƐƚƐ;ͿďǇƚ ŚĞD ŝŶŝƐƚƌǇŽĨĚ ƵĐĂͲ
ƟŽŶ͕ ƵůƚƵ ƌĞ͕ ^ƉŽƌƚ Ɛ͕ ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞĂŶĚdĞĐŚ ŶŽůŽŐǇŝŶ: ĂƉĂŶ͕ E Ž͘ Ϯϱϳ ϯ Ϭϭϵϭ͘ Ϳ
・A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. 3rd
ed. Bethesda: U.S. National Information Standards Organization
(NISO), 2007. <http://www.niso.org/publications/rp/framew ork3.pdf
・Bates, Marcia J. and Mary Niles Maack. “Introduction to the Ency-
clopedia of Library and Information Sciences, Third edition. ” in:
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. 3rd ed. Bates and
Maack (eds.), Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2010. vol. 1, p. xiii-xx.
・(In Japanese) Koga, Takashi. “
.” [MLA collaboration.] in:
Joho Shigen no Shakai Seido to Keiei
. [Administration and Manage-
ment of Information Resources.] Akira Nemoto (ed.), T okyo: Univer-
sity of Tokyo Press, 2013, p. 241-256.
・(In Japanese) Okano, Hiroyuki. “
Uchinaru MLA Renkei: Nihon Kindai
.” [Internal MLA Collaboration: the Museum of Modern
Japanese Literature.] in:
Digital Bunka Shigen no Katsuy o: Chiiki no
Kioku to Archive
. [Usage of Digital Cultural Resources: Memory in
Local Communities and Archive.] Intellectual Resources Initiatives
(ed.), Tokyo: Bensei Shuppan, 2011, p. 103-113.
・(In Japanese) Yasue, Akio. “Bunka Shigen Kikan n o Hozon Manage-
ment.” [Preservation management at cultural resources institutions.]
in: Toshokan, Hakubutsukan, Bunshokan no Renkei. [Collaboration of
Libraries, Museums and Archives.] Research Committee, Japan
Society for Library and Information Science (ed.), Tokyo: Bensei
Shuppan, 2010, p. 57-71.
Tenri Central Library (Tenri, Nara, Japan)
Stage 2: Public Service Stage
Stage 3: Policy and Management Stage
Wrap-up: Potentials and Challenges
of the Three-Fold Model
Stage 2: Public Service Stage
Web : http://researchmap.jp/T_Koga_Govinfo/