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Phytosociological analysis within the range of grey goral in Pakistan and Azad Kashmir

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  • Bioresource Research Centre
  • Bioresource Research Centre

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Phytosociological analysis of ha bitat, spread over some 5,000 km 2 , exploited by almost half the global population of endangered Himalayan grey goral ( Naemorhedus goral, order: Artiodactyla, sub-order: Ruminan tia, family: Bovidae) was carried out using line transect method, two way ordination using TWINSPAN and Sorenson’s coefficient of simila rity. Study suggests a high overall species diversity (99; trees 22, shrubs 24, herbs 31, grasses 52) and in different stands (22–77). The canopy was fairly open and trees (3.80-44.42%), shrubs (6.20-68.73%) and herbs/grasses (9.89–59.54%) contribut ed different covers in different stands. Trees and shrubs constituted perennial layers, while herbs a nd grasses dry up during autumn and winter. Pinus roxburghii was indicator species of habitat. Most of the other species exhibi ted a low constancy, except Dodonaea viscose (77.28%), Carissa opaca , Acacia modesta , Myrsine africana , Aristida cyanatha, Cynodon dactylon . Eight vegetative communities were established, each having its own species composition and distributed in different tr acts and shared high simila rity indices. Habitat loss was not directly responsib le for past population declin e yet serious management and monitoring is required in the wake of expected in creased grazing and wood cutting stresses.
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Pak. J. Bot., 41(2): 667-682, 2009.
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS WITHIN THE RANGE OF
GREY GORAL IN PAKISTAN AND AZAD KASHMIR
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS*, TANVEER AKHTAR1 AND AFSAR MIAN
1University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Bioresource Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Abstract
Phytosociological analysis of habitat, spread over some 5,000 km2, exploited by almost half
the global population of endangered Himalayan grey goral (Naemorhedus goral, order:
Artiodactyla, sub-order: Ruminantia, family: Bovidae) was carried out using line transect method,
two way ordination using TWINSPAN and Sorenson’s coefficient of similarity. Study suggests a
high overall species diversity (99; trees 22, shrubs 24, herbs 31, grasses 52) and in different stands
(22–77). The canopy was fairly open and trees (3.80-44.42%), shrubs (6.20-68.73%) and
herbs/grasses (9.89–59.54%) contributed different covers in different stands. Trees and shrubs
constituted perennial layers, while herbs and grasses dry up during autumn and winter. Pinus
roxburghii was indicator species of habitat. Most of the other species exhibited a low constancy,
except Dodonaea viscose (77.28%), Carissa opaca, Acacia modesta, Myrsine africana, Aristida
cyanatha, Cynodon dactylon. Eight vegetative communities were established, each having its own
species composition and distributed in different tracts and shared high similarity indices. Habitat
loss was not directly responsible for past population decline yet serious management and
monitoring is required in the wake of expected increased grazing and wood cutting stresses.
Introduction
Habitat is a specific set of physical, biological and chemical conditions that surround
an individual, a species or a community. It meets four important requirements of an animal
species, i.e., food, water, shelter and space and is determined by the biological requirements
of animal species. Macro- and micro-habitat selection is, thus, a reflection of the
evolutionary position, body size and correlated feeding strategies of the species (Geist &
Walther, 1974). Optimal habitat requirements for all the different factors are very rarely met
and hence a species has to find an amicable adjustment with the existing conditions of its
habitat. However, a species can not tolerate a departure in any of these biotic or abiotic
conditions, if it exceeds its range of tolerance, when the condition acts as limiting factor and
barrier to animal dispersal. Knowledge of habitat requirements of a species and their use is
essential to enhance effective management of the species (Riney, 1982).
Ungulates modify their activity pattern (Owen-Smith, 1979), size and composition of
social groups (Geist, 1967; Elsner-Schack, 1985) and feeding behaviour (Geist, 1974) in
response to habitat variation and level of disturbance. Grazers, being unselective feeders,
may show large groups in habitat having dominance of grasses, while browsers, being
selective in feeding habit, live in smaller groups or as solitary individuals (Jarman, 1974)
and hence browsers are more sensitive indicators of habitat quality than grazers (Owen-
Smith, 1979; Pachlatko and Nievergelt, 1985). Grey goral is generally believed to fall
between true sheep and goat has a mixed feeding habit and hence can potentially harvest
herb and shrub layers.
*E-mail: pbrc@.edu.pk; fakharabbas@hotmail.com
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
668
Almost half of the present global population of endangered Himalayan grey goral
(Naemorhedus goral, order: Artiodactyla, sub-order: Ruminantia, family: Bovidae) survives
under habitat conditions available in the area falling under territorial limits of Pakistan and
the associated tracts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Anon., 1989). Very little is known about
the type and status of goral habitat in this part of its distribution range. Habitat of this
species is known from some casual remarks (Schaller, 1977; Prater, 1980; Mead, 1989;
Roberts, 1997) and more careful studies conducted in protected areas (Mishra, 1993;
Mishra & Johnsingh, 1996; Pendharkar, 1993; Pendharkar & Goyal, 1995; Anwar, 1989;
Anwar & Chapman, 2000). Present study has designed on phytoecological analysis of wild
habitat of this species, distributed over a wide area of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir (5,000
km2 under specific goral habitat), to provide bench line information on its present status and
to be used as reference point for future possible changes.
Materials and Methods
Study area: Pakistan and Azad Kashmir (24-37oNL, 61-78oE, 796,099 km2, south Asia) is
a land of geographic diversity, southern and eastern parts occupied by plain terrain, while
mountains of varying heights are present in western and northern parts. Relatively drier
mountain ranges are present in western (Hindu Kush) and northern (Karakorum) parts,
while western reaches of the Great Himalayan Range run parallel but more southwardly to
Karakorum. Northern Himalayan mountain ranges of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir falling at
700-2,500 m above sea line (asl) falling under administrative districts of Mardan, Buner,
Kohistan, Masehra, Abbotabad, Rawalpindi and Azad Kashmir, are inhabited by the
Himalayan grey goral and constitute area under study.
Most rocks are late Precambrian or early Palaeozoic, basically sedimentary giving
loamy clay character, except for parts of Kohistan, which are Mesozoic and volcanic.
Mountains are mostly steep to arduous with narrow valleys, generally associated with
freshwater streams and lakes. Climate is temperate with four well defined seasons.
Summers are harsh at lower altitudes (exceeding 40o C in June-July) and winters at higher
altitudes (touching -15o C in December - January). Summer monsoons (July-August) are
more frequent in southern and eastern parts, while winter precipitation is more in western
and northern parts. Human population is very scattered in steep mountains, under goral
habitat, mainly depending upon livestock grazing and subsistence farming in isolated fields.
Sampling: Fifty-one stands (tracts having relatively homogeneous phytohabitat
conditions) were established over the distribution goral range (Fig. 1) and visited during
spring and early summer (February-June) 2003 and 2004. Line intercept method was
adopted for collection of vegetative data (Canfield, 1941). In each stand, 9-10 transects
were randomly laid to include all possible microhabitat variation. Length of the 50-m
long transect line touching a plant or passing through an imaginary plant canopy was
recorded, along with its species. Total length of the transect line shared by plants of
different species was worked out through regular pooling and percent cover of each plant
species was worked out by dividing the total length occupied by each plant species by
length of the transect line. Constancy appearance (number of transects having the species
divided by total number of transects in stand) of each species was calculated, which was
assigned one of the five constancy classes (class I= <21%, II= 2-40, III = 4-60, class IV =
61-80, V = >80: Muller-Dombois & Ellenberg, 1974). Representative specimen of each
plant species were collected and identified by comparing with reference collection
available at Herbarium, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan., following the
Flora of Pakistan (Nasir & Ali, 1972).
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GREY GORAL
669
Fig. 1. The tentative locations of different stands used for the habitat studies on the grey goral.
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
670
Analysis: Data on absolute cover of 470 transect samples was analysed using two ways
indicator species analysis, using TWINSPAN (a DOS based computer programme, PC
version 1.21, 1992) and groups of transects having reasonable similarity in species
composition were identified. Each group was recognized as a plant community and
named after plant species contributing significant cover. Sorensen’s coefficient of
similarity (Ss) was calculated between different communities (Causton, 1988), as per
formula:
2 X # common species X 100
Ss = # species in community A + # species in community B
The similarity coefficient was used for development of community association
dendrogram.
Results
General phytoecological features: Transect data on vegetative characters suggested 99
species for total goral habitat (Table 1). The number of species in different stands ranged
between 22 (stand # 13) and 77 (stand # 33). Data on life forms of different species
suggested that three definite vegetative layers were present. Tree layer was represented
by 22 species and shrub layer by 24. Ephemeral herbs and grasses were represented by 52
species (31 herbs, 21 grasses). Trees and shrub layers were perennial, while herbs and
grasses dried up during autumn and winter.
Most of species exhibited a low constancy of appearance. Pinus roxburghii was the
most widely distributed species, which appeared in all the vegetative types (constancy
class V) and appeared in 94.65% of transects. Dodonaea viscosa also exhibited a high
constancy of appearance (77.28% of stands; class IV). Two species (Carissa opaca and
Acacia modesta) shared constancy class III, and 6 others (Myrsine africana, Aristida
cyanatha, Cynodon dactylon, Themeda anathera, Grewia aptiva and Olea ferreuginea)
class II (21-40%), while 89 in class I (48 appeared in less than 10% of transects).
Overall cover ranged between 53.52 and 97.04% in different stands. Cover
contributed by different layers also varied between stands, i.e., tree between 3.80-
44.42%, shrubs 9.20-68.73%, and herbs and grasses 9.89-59.54% of the total cover.
None of the species individually claimed a very high vegetative cover in a stand.
Dodonaea viscosa (28.79%) and Pinus roxburghii (25.94) are 2 species, which claimed
more than 20% of cover in separate stands. For all other species cover remained below
20% and a majority of species claimed < 10% cover.
Vegetative communities: Ordination, through TWINSPAN, identified 8 vegetative
communities (Fig. 2) for geographic distribution of communities) as described below:
1. Acacia modesta - Dodonaea viscosa: Association of 27 species, appearing in 6.59%
(31) of transects and identified in 3 isolated stands of Mardan district located at 800 -
1750 m asl. Community had an average absolute cover of 89.97±3.21%, shared
between 9 species of trees (37.42±7.19%), 3 shrubs (36.65±7.19%) and 14 herbs and
grasses (28.90±3.11%).
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GREY GORAL
671
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
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FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
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Fig. 2. Distribution of plant communities in the habitat of grey goral in study area.
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
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2. Olea ferruginea-Acacia modesta: Association of 24 species appearing in 4.26% (20)
transects in 3 isolated stands of Mardan district (650-11800 m asl), having an
average absolute cover of 71.99±3.35%, shared between 6 trees (23.93±3.79%), 4
shrubs (25.51±2.31%) and 13 herbs and grasses (22.55±2.26%) species.
3. Dodonaea viscose-Pinus roxburghii: Community presented an association of 27
species, appearing in 15.11% (79) of transects having a comparatively wider
distribution over a fairly continuous tract of Mardan and Buner districts 700 – 2600
m asl. Community held an average absolute cover of 85.08±7.34%, shared between 5
species of trees (40.84±3.45%), 7 shrubs (29.5±6.5%) and 16 herbs and grasses
(14.73±4.28%).
4. Dodonaea viscosa-Pinus roxburghii-Myrsine africana: Community has been
identified in 50.63% (238) of transects, showing a very wide and fairly continuous
distribution (23 stands) at 800-2600 m asl from some part of Mardan but mainly
from Buner district. Community presented an association of 73 species, with an
average absolute cover of 85.6±1.82%, shared by 19 species of trees (33.12±2.15%),
21 shrubs (29.99±3.44%) and 33 herbs and grasses (22.56±1.44%).
5. Carissa opaca-Arthraxon prionodes: An association of 36 species, appearing in
4.04% (19) transects, represented community which appeared in 3 stands located in
southern parts of Azad Kashmir at 1200 - 3000 m asl. Average absolute community
cover of 82.62±0.29% was shared between 6 species of trees (9.30±2.55%), 7 shrubs
(28.19±6.93%) and 23 herbs and grasses (45.12±9.11%).
6. Pinus roxburghii-Carissa opaca: Community presented association of 34 species,
appearing in 12.76% (60) transects in 6 stands distributed over a wide and almost
continuous tract in eastern flank of Mansehra and central parts of the Azad Kashmir
at 1100-3000 m asl. The community had an average absolute cover of 84.10±2.15%,
shared between 7 species of trees (17.15±6.60%), 5 shrubs (22.65±3.01%) and 22
herbs and grasses (44.30±7.00%).
7. Stipa sibirica: Community represented an association of 29 species, appearing in
only 3.40% (16) of transects distributed in 2 isolated tracts of south-eastern parts of
Azad Kashmir at 1300-2600 m asl. Community held an average absolute cover of
75.64±2.51%, distributed between 2 species of trees (6.5±2.7%), 5 shrubs
(16.34±2.55%) and 22 herbs and grasses (52.80±2.75%).
8. Pinusroxburghii-Brachypodium sylvaticum-Poa araratica: Community presented an
association of 31 species, appearing in very few (7, 1.48%) transects. It was
identified from a single isolated stands present in the south-eastern parts of goral
distribution range in Azad Kashmir, at 1100 - 2000 m asl and had an average
absolute cover of 89.57%, shared by 2 species of trees (13.77%), 6 shrubs (20.49%)
and 23 herbs and grasses (55.31%).
Community association: Association dendrogram developed from similarity index
between different communities and TWINSPAN ordination (Fig. 3) suggested that all
communities shared Pinus roxburghii, which was regarded as an indicator of the goral
habitat. Total habitat was divided into 2 sub-types, each consisting of a group of 4
communities, sharing an association index of 31.15%. Qurecus incana worked as
indicator species for this primary bifurcation. Indicator species was present in 14 stands
located in comparatively eastern parts, while 37 stands, present in the western parts, did
not hold the species.
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GREY GORAL
677
Fig. 3. Association dendrogram of the plant communities identified through TWINSPAN analysis
in the grey goral habitat in Pakistan.
Sub-type sharing Q. incana was bifurcated into 2 groups, where Ziziphus
brachypodium acted as an indicator species and shared a similarity index of 77.23%.
Indicator species was present in 2 communities, distributed towards northern parts of
distribution range of sub-type. Valeriana stracheyi was present in Carissa opaca-
Arthraxon prionoides community, while indicator species was absent from Pinus
roxburghii-Carissa opaca community, and shared an association of 80.0%. Community
group with no representation of Z. brachypodium was separated on the basis of Aristida
cyanatha, to separate 2 communities. Stipa sibirica community held indicator species and
was distributed towards northern margin, while Daphne oleoides-Poa supine-Pinus
roxburghii community did not hold indicator species and was represented by a single
stand, located in south-eastern extremity of goral habitat. Two communities shared a very
high similarity of 86.21%.
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
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Sub-type not holding Q. incana was further bifurcated on the basis of distribution of
Mysrine africana. Two groups, thus created, shared a relatively low similarity index
(32.14%). Group of 5 stands located towards western parts did not hold indicator species,
while other group of 32 stands did hold indicator species. Stands not holding M. africana
was separated into two communities on the basis of Justica adhatoda. Acacia modesta-
Dodonaea viscosa community held indicator species, while Olea ferruginu-Acacia
modesta community was without the species. Two communities shared a high similarity
index of 74.50%. Group of 2 communities holding M. africana was separated on the
basis of distribution of Myostis asiatica. Two communities shared relatively low
association index (41.6%). Dodonaea viscosa-Pinus roxburghii community was
distributed over a wider tract (12 stands). Dodonaea viscosa-Pinus roxbughii-Myrsine
africana community did not hold the indicator species and was distributed over a very
wide tract (23 stands, 45%) in central and northern parts.
Discussion
Very few detailed studies are available on phyto-sociological analysis in habitat of
Himalayan grey goral. Vegetative habitat essentially provides food to herbivores, like
goral, and partly shelter, along with physical obstacles (Etchberger et al., 1989). It also
governs size and composition of social groups and the activity pattern of animal species
(Geist, 1974; Elsner-Schack, 1985). Knowing habitat requirements of a species and their
relative exploitation is essential to enhance the human potentials for the effective
management of the species (Riney, 1982; Pachlatko & Nievergelt, 1985).
General habitat of goral, in India, has been variously described through casual
sighting records on species in certain tract/ tracts. Based upon such records goral is
believed to be a cliff dweller (Schaller, 1977; Green, 1987; Heptner et al., 1989; Mead,
1989; Cavallini, 1992; Lovari & Apollonio, 1993) with a distribution range falling
between temperate forests and Alpine pastures (Green, 1987), including tropical moist
deciduous, pine subtropical forests and wet temperate and evergreen forests (Prater,
1965; Dang, 1968; Schaller, 1977; Green, 1981, 1987). Some detailed analysis of habitat
of Himalayan grey goral has been conducted over 39 km2 tract, falling under Majhatal
Harsang Wildlife Sanctuary, India, using layer by layer analysis through quadrat
sampling (Mishra, 1993; Mishra & Johnsingh 1996) through general visual impression
carried about vegetative density and characters in different sampling areas; over 27.5 km2
in Simbalbara Sanctuary, India (Pendharkar, 1993) and for 126 km2 in Margalla Hills
National Park, Pakistan (Anwar, 1989; Anwar & Chapman 2000). The present study
appears to the first attempt towards a more detailed phytosociological analysis carried out
in habitat of gorals over a wider area, spreading over 4,839 km2 of potential habitat,
distributed in Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, using 470 transect samples
collected from 51 stands. Study, however, has remained limited to the summer months
and in years of comparatively higher precipitation. Further studies, carried out in other
parts of year and in years having lower precipitation, may help in further understanding
of habitat variability, available to this ungulate in area under present study.
Diversity: Present study suggests presence of a minimum of 98 plant species, which are
distributed in different compositions in different areas under specific habitat of grey goral
in Pakistan, indicating a reasonably good vegetative diversity. This diversity is equally
reflected in trees (22 species), shrubs (24), herbs (31) and grasses (21). Two other studies
PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GREY GORAL
679
recorded 134 (54 tree, 44 shrub, 7 herb, 19 grass, 9 climber, 6 others) species from
Simbalbara Sanctuary, India (Pendharkar, 1993) and 23 (5 tree, 13 shrubs, 5 grasses) for
Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan (Anwar, 1989). Present study has recorded 37
species from Goral habitat in Margalla Hills, attributable to a better sampling. Species
diversity is expected to increase while moving towards eastern parts of Himalayan range,
attributable to increasing precipitation and hence a higher diversity is expected for
Simbalbara Sanctuary.
Stratification: Goral habitat has 3 well defined and regularly appearing vegetative
layers, i.e., tree, shrub, herbs (and gasses), appearing in different combinations in
different areas. Trees provide an open canopy, the cover ranging between 3.50 and
44.42% in different stands. Trees and shrubs are perennials and are available throughout
the year, while herbs and grasses layer is provided by ephemerals, which mainly sprout in
spring and/or monsoons and are almost dry during winter. No direct information is
available on vegetative stratification in goral habitat, yet presence of herbs, shrubs and
trees in lists of plant species, identified from goral habitat by Pendharkar (1993) and
Anwar (1989) reflect presence of 3 well defined layers. Present findings go in partial
conformity with Roberts (1997) suggesting that goral habitat has an open canopy. Grey
goral has though been reported from the vegetation types having a close canopy, yet it
appears to avoid such forests (Pendharkar, 1993).
Constancy: Majority of plant species appearing in goral habitat have a low constancy of
appearance. Only one species (Pinus roxbughii) claims 94.65% constancy, and has
appeared in all stands. Dodonaea viscosa is other species exhibiting a high (77.21%)
constancy. Only 2 species (Carissa opaca and Acacia modesta) have shown 41-60%
constancy, while another 6 appeared in 21-40% constancy class. Low constancy of
appearance of most species indicates variability in vegetative habitat conditions in
different parts of its distribution range. No comparative study is available on this aspect
of grey goral habitat, but this suggests versatility in habitat and its potentials to maintain
itself under future odds. Versatility of habitat is further supported through presence of a
higher number of species (minimum 22, maximum 77) in a stand. Vegetative diversity
and cover are directly correlated with precipitation and hence high level of species
diversity is expected for this area, receiving moderate precipitation, yet vegetation
remains under stress as precipitation is mainly received during monsoons.
Pinus roxburghii has appeared as an indicator species for goral habitat. Species has
been previously associated with goral habitat in Pakistan by Roberts (1997) and in two
previous studies on vegetative analysis of goral habitat (Anwar, 1989; Pendharker, 1993).
Cover: All stands share a common character of having a good vegetative cover (53.52 -
97.04%). Herbs and grasses contribute 9.81-59.54% of cover and major part of this cover
is available for direct exploitation of goral during a sufficient part of year. This layer not
only contributes a part to goral food, but can also ensure availability of chemical nutrients
to other part of vegetative community through biogeochemical cycle. Shrubs layer,
providing 9.20-68.78% cover, ensures year long availability of food and shelter for this
human shy relatively small ungulate. Only other study which records absolute cover
present in grey goral habitat (Anwar, 1989) suggests a vegetative cover of 29.66% (tree
6.11%, shrubs 9.46%, herbs 14.09%) for Margalla Hills National Park, Pakistan, which
appears to fall short of that suggested by present study.
FAKHAR-I-ABBAS ET AL.,
680
Vegetative Communities: Vegetative communities under the present study have been
established on the basis of absolute/ relative vegetative cover, occupied by different plant
species. This is a slight deviation from generally followed technique of establishing plant
communities on importance value of species, giving equal importance to cover, density
and constancy of appearance (Curtis & McIntosh, 1950). Basing communities on
importance value is not very relevant, when phytosociological analysis of vegetative
habitat of an animal species is attempted. It is only the vegetative cover, contributed by
plants species, irrespective of density and constancy, which is exploited by animals for
meeting its two basic requirements, i.e., food and shelter. Cover has been previously used
in establishment of vegetative communities in studies on animal ecology (Goriup, 1983;
Collins, 1983; Mian, 2003).
Present report appears to be the only report attempting a detailed community analysis
based upon quantified data on distribution of cover, collected from 470 line transects in
the area, holding almost half of the present global population of the species. Communities
have been established through collection visual data on relative distribution of plants
species (Pendharker, 1993; Mishra, 1993) or on cover, relative cover and relative
frequencies of the plant species present in the goral habitat (Anwar, 1989; Anwar &
Chapman, 2000).
Present phytosociological analysis has identified 8 plant communities distributed in
habitat of Himalayan grey goral in Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. Two studies carried out
in protected areas of India have identified 9 (Pendharkar, 1993) and 7 (Mishra, 1993)
vegetative communities from goral habitat. Direct comparison of results of these studies
with present one is difficult, as per difference in methods adopted for establishment of
communities.
There is a pattern in distribution of different communities in area under present
study. Dodonaea viscosa–Pinus roxburghii–Myrsine africana community is most widely
distributed in central belt of goral range and persists in areas receiving moderate
precipitation. Dodonaea viscosa-Pinus roxburghii is other community which runs over a
fairly continuous area in western reaches of goral distribution. Two other communities
i.e., Acacia modesta-Dodonaea viscosa and Olea ferruginea-Acacia modesta, have
limited distribution in small patches present in extreme western parts. Pinus roxburghii-
Carissa opaca is present in two isolated localities, a smaller patch in central tract along
Dodonaea viscose-Pinus roxburghii-Myrsine africana community, while major part of
this community is present over a rather continuous tract in eastern parts. Three other
communities i.e., Stipa sibirica, Carissa opaca-Arthaxon prionodes and Pinus
roxburghii-Brachypodium sylvaticum-Poa araratica, are present in limited tracts in
extreme south-eastern parts of goral range.
Acknowledgment
Thank are due to Dr. M.M. Malik (Chief Conservator, Wildlife, NWFP), Mr. Yusaf
Qureshi (Conservator Frests, AJ&K) and staff of Provincial Wildlife Departments for their
whole hearted field support. Authors are also thankful to M A. Ghufran, S. Rehan, G. Sarwar,
B. Khanum, N. Yusaf, Syed E. Raza and Syed A. Hassan for help at different stages.
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... From different areas of Pakistan, many workers have presented quantitative phytosociological study (Shaukat et al., 2014;Shaheen et al., 2011;Abbas et al., 2009;Ahmad et al., 2009, etc.) carried out their phytosociological research in different regions of the country. Similarly, a series of studies on national parks of the country by many researchers using different techniques were carried out (Hameed et al., 2002;Ahmad and Ann, 2011;Ahmad et al., 2014;Hussain et al., 2013;Rasheed et al., 2005;Jabeen and Ahmad, 2009;Hussain et al., 2010;Khan et al., 2011a). ...
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... From different areas of Pakistan, many workers have presented quantitative phytosociological study (Shaukat et al., 2014;Shaheen et al., 2011;Abbas et al., 2009;Ahmad et al., 2009, etc.) carried out their phytosociological research in different regions of the country. Similarly, a series of studies on national parks of the country by many researchers using different techniques were carried out (Hameed et al., 2002;Ahmad and Ann, 2011;Ahmad et al., 2014;Hussain et al., 2013;Rasheed et al., 2005;Jabeen and Ahmad, 2009;Hussain et al., 2010;Khan et al., 2011a). ...
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