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Witnessing excellence in action: The 'other-praising' emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration

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Abstract

People are often profoundly moved by the virtue or skill of others, yet psychology has little to say about the 'other-praising' family of emotions. Here we demonstrate that emotions such as elevation, gratitude, and admiration differ from more commonly studied forms of positive affect (joy and amusement) in many ways, and from each other in a few ways. The results of studies using recall, video induction, event-contingent diary, and letter-writing methods to induce other-praising emotions suggest that: elevation (a response to moral excellence) motivates prosocial and affiliative behavior, gratitude motivates improved relationships with benefactors, and admiration motivates self-improvement. Mediation analyses highlight the role of conscious emotion between appraisals and motivations. Discussion focuses on implications for emotion research, interpersonal relationships, and morality.

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... Moral elevation (hereafter, elevation) is a positive emotion experienced after witnessing someone perform a virtuous or altruistic act [4,[16][17][18]. Elevation is further distinguished from other positive psychology constructs like admiration or gratitude by its emotional responses (feeling inspired, uplifted, moved), physical responses (tears in eyes, lump in throat) and subsequent motives to perform similar virtuous acts or engage in prosocial behavior [19][20][21][22][23]. ...
... A story that also includes a description of his path to recovery and engagement with treatment could also demonstrate significant perseverance and hope. In terms of practical steps for using such a story to elicit elevation, past work has demonstrated elevation can be induced in experimental designs with different approaches such as viewing videos that display virtuous acts [16,20,21,27], reading stories about virtuous behavior [25,28], or using a recall technique [29,30]. Yet few studies have directly examined the impact of induction method types to determine if there are significant differences in elevation responses between viewing videos versus reading written narratives, for example. ...
... Corrigan et al. [2] define the help stereotype as, "the provision of assistance to people with mental illness" and the pity stereotype as, "sympathy because people are overcome by their illness. " The fact that elevation was positively correlated with these two domains is consistent with the body of evidence that suggests elevation is linked with strong urges or motives to connect with and help others [16,33]. Additionally, researchers have demonstrated that elevation is an approach-oriented emotion [23], which is also consistent with the negative correlation for the avoidance stereotype described as, "stay away from people with mental illness" [2]. ...
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Background Using an experimental study, we examined the link between state moral elevation and stigmatic beliefs surrounding male veterans with military sexual trauma (MST). Methods Undergraduate students were presented with a video or written narrative of a male veteran self-disclosing how they struggled with and overcame MST ( n = 292). Participants completed measures regarding trait and demographic characteristics at baseline, then measures immediately after the disclosure stimulus to assess immediate elevation and stigma-related reactions. Results Results suggest state-level elevation in response to a veteran self-disclosing their experience with MST was negatively correlated with harmful stigmatic beliefs about MST. A greater predisposition to experience elevation and PTSD symptoms were linked with stronger elevation responses to the stimulus. Conclusion Findings support the need for further exploration of elevation and its potential to impact public stigma for male veterans with MST.
... First, moral elevation induces a distinct sensation of warmth and expansion in the chest, followed by feelings of love, admiration, and affection for the person who caused it. The research of Algoe and Haidt (2009) indicated that moral elevation encompasses both emotional and bodily sensations, such as emotions of motivation or elation and a lump in the throat or warmth in the chest. Second, witnessing moral behavior will change people's outlook on the world by making them view it more optimistically. ...
... The results of an experiment in which Haidt (2000) had some participants view uplifting video clips and a control group view other videos revealed that participants who viewed the uplifting video clips reported feeling more loving and inspired and had a greater desire to engage in pro-social and affiliative actions. Similarly, other researchers have demonstrated that moral beauty increases this main effect of moral elevation from different backgrounds, samples of different ages and ethnicities, and using a variety of manipulation types (e.g., Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Cox, 2010). Empirical research also supports the idea proposed by Haidt that people will induce moral elevation whenever they are exposed to positive moral behavior (e.g., Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Aquino et al., 2011). ...
... Similarly, other researchers have demonstrated that moral beauty increases this main effect of moral elevation from different backgrounds, samples of different ages and ethnicities, and using a variety of manipulation types (e.g., Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Cox, 2010). Empirical research also supports the idea proposed by Haidt that people will induce moral elevation whenever they are exposed to positive moral behavior (e.g., Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Aquino et al., 2011). The study's hypothesis is therefore proposed. ...
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Introduction: Tourists' environmental misconduct is the primary reason for the environmental destruction that tourist sites experience; nevertheless, their environmentally responsible behavior is also a major push for the improvement of the environment. The main goal of this study is to induce tourists to adopt proactive environmental responsibility behaviors. Methods: A total of 455 valid questionnaires were obtained from China and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results: The findings of this study indicate employees' environmentally responsible behavior (E-ERB) in tourist destinations has a positive impact on tourists' environmentally responsible behavior (T-ERB). In the mediating variable of moral elevation, the correlation between E-ERB and T-ERB is mediated by elevating emotions and views of humanity. And desire to be a better person did not play a mediating role in the relationship between E-ERB and T-ERB. Additionally, environmental knowledge moderates the transmission path of the impact of E-ERB and T-ERB via elevating emotions. With high environmental knowledge, the transmission path of the impact of employees' environmentally responsible behavior of the tourist destination on tourists' environmentally responsible behavior via elevating emotions will be enhanced. Discussion: We propose a new perspective to explain the transmission mechanism between employees' environmentally responsible behavior and tourists' environmentally responsible behavior in tourism destinations, which will help to expand our understanding of the relationship between employees' behavior and tourists' behavior. We expect our study to spark more exploration of the contagion of positive behavior in the field of environmental psychology.
... Admiration and respect are positive social emotions experienced when we recognize excellence in others [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Admiration focuses on outstanding or moral behaviors [1,12,13], while respect focuses on the person as a whole based on those behaviors [2]. ...
... Admiration and respect are positive social emotions experienced when we recognize excellence in others [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Admiration focuses on outstanding or moral behaviors [1,12,13], while respect focuses on the person as a whole based on those behaviors [2]. Although these emotions are similar, there are some differences between them. ...
... According to previous studies, admiration and respect play a significant role in enhancing motivation [1,2,9,14]. Admiration for virtue (also called elevation) enhances moral and prosocial behaviors, while admiration for superior 1 3 skills motivates social behaviors and self-improvement [1,14,15]. ...
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Introduction One experiences admiration and respect when acknowledging excellence in others. Admiration relates to the person’s superior abilities, whereas respect focuses on the person as a whole. Although previous studies suggest a link between admiration/respect and motivation, it is unclear as to whether these emotions enhance task performance. We investigated the relationship between admiration/respect and task performance. Method Forty-two Japanese participants completed an English exam, watched a video, and completed a second exam. In the video, an interviewer asked an English lecturer to provide tips for completing the exam. After the second exam, participants rated the amount of admiration and respect they had for the lecturer and interviewer. We examined whether experiencing admiration/respect enhanced exam scores. Results We found that experiencing admiration had no significant effect on exam scores. However, the participants who had stronger respect for the lecturer improved their score ( p < 0.001) whereas the score of the other participants did not differ between exams ( p = 0.504). Moreover, the analysis showed a positive correlation between score increment and the amount of awe, a subcategory of the Japanese concept of respect ( p = 0.014). Conclusion The results suggest that respect (particularly awe), rather than admiration, is involved in performance improvement.
... and Froh & Yurkewicz et al. (2009) have shown that after controlling for positive affect, gratitude in youth is positively correlated with good social relationships. Gratitude tends to make people want to repay or acknowledge others' actions which in turn enhances their relationship with others (Algoe & Haidt, 2009). Hence, gratitude is seen to create friendships and other relationships (R. Emmons & McCullough, 2003). ...
... Since, gratitude interventions help promoting positive cognitive states by promoting awareness, appreciation of positive things in life, and helping individuals remember positive memories (Alkozei et al., 2018;Fredrickson, 2001) these gratitude exercises enabled participants to focus on what went right instead of what went wrong. Drawing from previous research by Forster et al. (2017); Algoe and Haidt (2009) it can be said that these reflective exercises have allowed the participants to inculcate behavioral changes enabling them to become socially integrated during the COVID-19 lockdown in India. Hence, the feeling of gratitude, as well as the behaviors that it inspired likely helped youth in the current study to enhance social relationships, which is an integral part of an individual's well-being (Seligman, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose This investigation purports to study if gratitude interventions lead to an increase in overall wellbeing among Indian youth during the coronavirus lockdown. Second, to examine if a cumulative effect of two gratitude interventions on wellbeing is greater than a single gratitude intervention. Method Participants (N = 80) were randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups (n = 40 each). Result It was found that after administering a single gratitude intervention there was a significant increase in mental health, happiness, and gratitude and a decrease in depression, anxiety, and stress in the experimental group. Moreover, after administering two gratitude interventions together, a greater increase was seen in these variables as compared to the administration of a single gratitude intervention. There was no significant change in the control group in both cases. Conclusion In summary, online gratitude interventions lead to increase in happiness and mental health and decrease in depression, anxiety, and stress even during crises such as the coronavirus pandemic. Moreover, the cumulative effect of two gratitude interventions is more than a single gratitude intervention. It is suggested that these gratitude interventions should be included in providing mental health care even when clients are not able to meet counselors in physical settings.
... The aspiration to become a better person and the want to extend one's heart to others are both desires that are associated with the process of moral elevation [42,43]. It was also demonstrated by Algoe and Haidt that moral elevation involves one's own subjective feelings, such as a feeling of inspiration or elation, as well as one's own bodily sensations [44]. In addition to this, holding views that are better from a moral standpoint presents a favourable image of mankind [45,46]. ...
... Those who have reached a greater degree of moral development, for example, are more likely to assist others and to work toward life objectives that are more ethically oriented. Those who have not reached a higher level of moral development are less inclined to help others [44,50]. There is a link, as stated by Freeman et al., between exposing individuals to acts of moral goodness and increasing the quantity of charitable gifts they make [45]. ...
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The Movement Control Order (MCO) enacted during the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly altered the social life and behaviour of the Malaysian population. Because the society is facing huge social and economic challenges that need individuals to work together to solve, prosocial behaviour is regarded as one of the most important social determinants. Because it is related with individual and societal benefits, participating in prosocial activities may be a major protective factor during times of global crisis. Rather than focusing only on medical and psychiatric paradigms, perhaps all that is necessary to overcome the COVID-19 risks is for individuals to make personal sacrifices for the sake of others. In reality, a large number of initiatives proven to be beneficial in decreasing viral transmission include a trade-off between individual and collective interests. Given its crucial importance, the purpose of this concept paper is to provide some insight into prosocial behaviour during the COVID-19 period. Understanding prosocial behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial because it may assist in the establishment of a post-COVID society and provide useful strategies for coping with future crises.
... As for the underlying process, the authors suggested the interaction of an annihilation component that could reduce negative aspects of excessive self-focus and a relational component, linked to perceived social connection. Recent research has paid particular attention to a subcategory of emotions having the property of triggering self-transcendent states (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Haidt, 2003aHaidt, , 2003bHaidt & Morris, 2009;Van Cappellen & Rimé, 2014). ...
... STEs gather a subset of positive emotions --elevation, compassion, admiration, gratitude, love, and awe-which were found to transform temporarily those who experience them (Haidt, 2003a(Haidt, , 2003b). Participants exposed to STE eliciting-conditions shifted from self-absorption and selfish concerns to outwards concerns such as other peoples' interests, environmental concerns or group concerns (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Haidt, 2003aHaidt, , 2003bHaidt & Morris, 2009;Hanley & Garland, 2019;Stellar et al., 2017;Van Cappellen & Rimé, 2014). ...
Article
For Durkheim (1915), individuals’ survival and well-being rest on cultural resources and social belonging that must be revived periodically in collective assemblies. Durkheim’s concern was to clarify how these assemblies achieve this revitalization. An intensive examination of primitive religions led him to identify successive levels of engagement experienced by participants and to develop explanatory principles relevant to all types of collective gatherings. Durkheim’s conception is widely referred to nowadays. However, the question of its empirical status remains open. We extracted from his text his main statements and we translated them into research questions. We then examined each question in relation to current theories and findings. In particular, we relied on the plethora of recent cognitive and social psychology studies that document conditions of reduced self-other differentiation. Abundant data support that each successive moment of collective assemblies contributes to blurring this differentiation. Ample support also exists that as shared emotions are increasingly amplified in collective context, they can fuel high-intensity experiences. Moreover, recent studies of self-transcendent emotions can account for the self-transformative effects described by Durkheim at the climax of collective assemblies. In conclusion, this century-old model is remarkably supported by recent results, mostly collected in experimental settings.
... One way to understand this inconsistency is to consider the need to differentiate among discrete positive emotions (Shiota et al., 2017). Although research on attachment and positive emotions has typically relied on composite measures of multiple positive affective states (e.g., the Positive and Negative Activation Schedule [PANAS]; Watson et al., 1988Watson et al., , 1999, empirical evidence from the affective science literature has shown that discrete positive emotions can differ with respect to their functions, and behavioral or physiological responses (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Mortillaro et al., 2011;Shiota et al., 2011). Importantly, research has also shown that discrete positive emotions may also differ in their associations with individual differences such as attachment insecurity. ...
... For example, social relevance of an emotion could be referring to its cause (i.e., interpersonal experiences that trigger the emotion), consequence (i.e., interpersonal experiences that result from the emotion), or context (i.e., emotion occurring in the presence of others). Alternatively, it is possible that the low reliabilities of the emotion pairs simply attest to the different functions each emotion is theorized to serve (e.g., Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Shiota et al., 2004). Thus, another promising way to approach the question of what positive emotions insecure individuals lack will be to move away from considering an emotion as being social or not and examining what theoretical function it is considered to serve. ...
Article
Objective: Individual differences in attachment insecurity can have important implications for experiences of positive emotions. However, existing research on the link between attachment insecurity and positive emotional experiences has typically used a composite measure of positive emotions, overlooking the potential importance of differentiating discrete emotions. Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of ten cross-sectional samples (N = 3,215), examining how attachment insecurity is associated with self-reported frequency of experiencing positive emotions, with a distinction made between more social (i.e., love and gratitude) and less social (i.e., peace and awe or curiosity) positive emotions. Results: High (vs. low) levels of both attachment anxiety and avoidance were associated with less frequent experience of positive emotions regardless of their social relevance. When analyzing each emotion separately, we found that attachment anxiety showed negative relations to all emotions except gratitude. Attachment avoidance was negatively associated with all emotions, and the link was even stronger with love (vs. peace, awe, or curiosity). Additional analyses of daily diary data revealed that attachment anxiety and avoidance were also negatively associated with daily experiences of positive emotions, regardless of social relevance. Conclusion: Our results underscore the need to further investigate the mechanisms underlying insecure individuals' blunted positive emotional experiences.
... Additionally, numerous studies propose that STEs increase positive behaviors and attitudes toward different out-groups and foster social inclusion (see Van Cappellen and Saroglou, 2012;Yaden et al., 2017); hence, they may be related to higher levels of IWAH (de Rivera, 2018;McFarland et al., 2019). Various studies proved that individuals experience STEs, such as kama muta or 'being moved by love' (Van Cappellen et al., 2013;Seibt et al., 2017Seibt et al., , 2018Zickfeld et al., 2017;Schubert et al., 2018;Fiske et al., 2019) or moral elevation (Haidt, 2000(Haidt, , 2003Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Aquino et al., 2011;Diessner et al., 2013;Pohling and Diessner, 2016), while being exposed to touching or moving stimuli. In other words, the experiences that elicit these emotions are intrinsically social and have been described as involving issues of affiliation and social relationships, and evaluations of shared moral virtues, and they allow to elaborate a more complex understanding of others and increase proximity and overcoming obstacles (Shiota et al., 2007;Haidt and Morris, 2009;Rimé, 2009;Cova and Deonna, 2014;Menninghaus et al., 2015;Stellar et al., 2017). ...
... These results were explained by the fact that people in the gratitude and kindness condition showed significantly higher means of positive emotions than those in the control condition. Likewise, Algoe and Haidt (2009) show that STEs such as elevation, gratitude, and admiration differ from each other and, more importantly, are different from more commonly studied forms of positive affect such as joy and amusement. ...
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Recent studies suggest that identification with all humanity (IWAH), apart from being related to universalistic values, could also be related to self-transcendent emotions (STE). In this scenario, the general objective of this cross-cultural longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between identification with proximate categories (i.e., community and country) and superordinate one (all humanity), and their association with positive self-oriented and STEs during a traumatic global phenomenon such as COVID-19 pandemics. Additionally, we explore variations regarding the patterns of those associations in different cultural contexts (Chile and Spain) and examine whether they change among two different time points (T1–T2). The total sample was composed of 403 participants, of whom 224 were residents in Chile (M = 39.25, SD = 12.56; range 18–71 years; 49.6% women) and 179 were residents in Spain (M = 36.35, SD = 12.12; range 18–68 years; 59.8% women). Data collection was carried out in September (T1) and November (T2) 2020, through online surveys administered via Survey Monkey® platform. Overall, results show, as expected, greater identification with proximate categories rather than superordinate ones, and an association between STEs and IWAH, but also with national and community identification. IWAH, but not STEs decreased significantly (T1–T2) in both countries. Thereafter, these emotional and behavioral responses decline as a symptom of growing fatigue with the pandemic situation, and also reflect a shift from broader to more local concerns. Analysis regarding comparisons between countries indicated higher levels of identification with community and with all humanity in Spain and with country in Chile. The results are discussed in the context of new developments in studies on IWAH.
... For instance, emotional disgust and cleansing urges were linked to physical contaminants (Tybur et al., 2009) as well as interpersonal violations (Badour et al., 2013;Giner-Sorolla & Chapman, 2017). In contrast, witnessing virtuous acts like self-sacrifice elicits moral elevation, an emotion involving feeling uplifted, chest warmth, motivation to help others (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Erickson et al., 2018;Schnall et al., 2010), and spiritual transcendence (Van Cappellen et al., 2013). This implies that social acts might be experienced as morally or spiritually purifying versus contaminating the self, reminiscent of religious notions such as Jesus' statement that motivations of the heart, beyond physical rituals, make one clean or unclean (New Revised Standard Version Bible, 1989, Matt. ...
... First, those higher on virtue states might endorse elevation-proneness and lower disgust-proneness. Second, altruistic behavior is elevating (Algoe & Haidt, 2009), implying that high-virtue acts involve not only affiliation or closeness but especially altruistic, unselfish tendencies such as generosity, valuing service, and compassionate goals. Given elevation's links to self-transcendence and spirituality (Van Cappellen et al., 2013), virtue may predict valuing spirituality, felt closeness to God, and lower self-focused extrinsic values (money, popularity, and appearance) and self-image goals. ...
... There is sufficient empirical work on gratitude rooted in theology and philosophy (Algoe et al., 2008;Allport et al., 1948). Gratitude is recognized as a distinct positive concept and relates positively with other positive constructs, including positive affect, happiness, and hope, and correlates negatively with negative constructs, including negative affect, anxiety and depression (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Emmons & Shelton, 2002;Mccullogh et al., 2002;Weiner et al., 1979). These studies point to a positive quality and valence of gratitude. ...
... These studies provide good evidence for a constructive role of gratitude for employee outcomes during stressful bullying occurrences at work. In addition, gratitude compels the beneficiary to want to repay past kind acts over the long run (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Lambert et al., 2011). It may be argued that gratitude is likely to stifle the triggering of deviant acts in bullied employees so that bullied victims who experience higher gratitude will indulge in lesser organizational deviance. ...
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Two objectives guide this study: first, to examine whether organizational deviance is a consequence of workplace bullying, and second, to investigate a possible moderating effect of gratitude on the relationship between workplace bullying and organizational deviance. Variables were tapped using the Negative Acts Questionnaire, Organisational Deviance Measure, and Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6). This study uses a correlation-causal design; data were drawn from a sample of 215 workers employed in telecom organizations and higher education institutes and universities based in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Linear and hierarchical regression techniques were used to test the hypothesized direct and moderating effects. Results confirmed both hypotheses, implying that workplace bullying offsets organizational deviance in bullied employees and that gratitude moderates the relationship. Theoretically, the study contributes to the current literature by signifying that workplace bullying triggers deviance in employees and that gratitude is an important variable that lessens the undesirable triggering of workplace deviance in bullied employees. Managers should create awareness about bullying and deviant acts at work and assert gratitude within the organizational environment through training and workshops to lessen bullying incidents and offset unwanted bullying outcomes. They are also advised to minimize bullying and its subsequent effects by establishing clarity in work design.
... Kindness. Another study that demonstrated behavior contagion from witnessing acts of moral behavior was conducted by Algoe and Haidt (2009). They found participants were more motivated to perform acts of kindness after they witnessed acts of moral virtues (which created feelings of "elevation"), even though they themselves were not the beneficiary of the moral acts. ...
... Among the three groups, only the "elevation" group reported an increase in motivation to perform acts of kindness, and also exhibited the strongest motivations to become a better person. The admiration group aspired to achieve personal success while the amusement group had no discernable motivational outcomes (Algoe & Haidt, 2009). ...
Article
The vast majority of humans yearn for a better world. Underlying that desire is a hope that others will be better. We want politicians to act with integrity; social media CEOs to prioritize our mental health; energy executives to care for our planet; romantic partners to understand our needs; children to spend less time online. In short, we want people to live more virtuously. But how do go about achieving this? I believe Gandhi’s teachings provide the answer. He taught that we need not wait for others to change, instead, we can be the change that we are seeking. Gandhi believed humans are interconnected and that when one person changes, the collective also changes. To some, this might sound far-fetched, but scientific research is emerging that demystifies this wisdom. This paper underscores the benefits to the collective when individuals live with virtue. It begins with a review of Gandhi’s life, then highlights research related to sustainable behavior change, and culminates with an amalgamation of research that demonstrates behavior contagion from individuals to the collective. As we strive to create a better world for future generations, we'd be smart to be the change that we are seeking.
... As Coleen Macnamara (2011, 84) puts it, "when I feel gratitude when my friend does me a favor, admiration when my sister volunteers at a soup kitchen, or approval when I witness a stranger perform a small act of kindness, I am praising my friend, my sister, and the stranger." 13 Social psychologists, too, sometimes refer to these kinds of attitudes as "other-praising emotions" (Algoe & Haidt, 2009). On this view, or its Strawsonian variant, Bader praises Alicia in feeling grateful to her, and Cleo praises Alicia in feeling approbation toward her. ...
... Darwall, 2006;Macnamara, 2013;Shoemaker, 2015;Telech, 2021). That 'other-praising emotions' are characterized by relationship-building motivations (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Frederickson, 1998) perhaps bolsters the view that praise is both emotion-based and communicative. ...
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One way of being responsible for an action is being praiseworthy for it. But what is the “praise” of which the praiseworthy agent is worthy? This paper provides a survey of answers to this question, i.e. a survey of possible accounts of praise’s nature. It then presents an overview of candidate norms governing our responses of praise. By attending to praise’s nature and appropriateness conditions, we stand to acquire a richer conception of what it is to be, and to regard another as, a responsible agent.
... Definitions and determinants of these reactions are different, as well as their outcomes. For instance, gratitude, defined both as a trait (McCullough, Emmons, and Tsang, 2002) and as a state to respond with a grateful emotion towards a received benefit (Emmons and McCullough, 2003), is reported to be correlated with various well-being indicators (Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Emmons and McCullough, 2003;Froh, Yurkevicz, and Kashdan, 2009;McCullough, et al., 2002;McCullough, Tsang, and Emmons, 2004;Wood, Joseph, and Maltby, 2009), whereas indebtedness, defined as "a person's feelings of obligation to repay another" (Greenberg and Wescot, 1983), is reported to be related with negative emotions and outcomes (Fisher, Nadler, and Whitcher-Alagna, 1982; Goei and Boster, 2005; Oğuz-Duran, 2020). Similarly, guilt is defined as a negative evaluation of a single act of behaviour, whereas shame is defined as a condemnation of the whole self, and therefore has been reported to be a more painful emotion than guilt (Lewis, 1971;Tangney, 1990;Tangney, Stuewig and Mashek, 2007). ...
... Moral elevation is regarded as an emotional reaction to acts of moral beauty (e.g., acts of kindness, charity, or compassion; [37,40]) whereby elevation can be regarded as the opposite of disgust [41,42] because it transmits positive feelings to a person [43]. Moral elevation was found to activate moral behavior, as it lets people admire and emulate a role model they observed [44,45]. ...
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The reduction of individual carbon consumption could make an important contribution to the worldwide effort to limit global warming. Based on Bandura's theory of moral disengagement, we hypothesized that the propensity to morally disengage concerning high-carbon behaviors (e.g., eating meat or traveling by plane) is one important factor that prevents individuals from reducing their carbon footprint. To measure the propensity to morally disengage in high-carbon-related behavior contexts, a questionnaire (MD-HCB) was developed and psychometrically validated in an online study with a German sample (N = 220). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the final nine-item scale had a one-dimensional structure, as intended. The internal consistency of the scale was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.94) and the scale interpretation had predictive validity for both past low-carbon consumption behavior and the intention to engage in such behavior in the future. Correlational analyses with relevant existing instruments confirmed the construct validity of the interpretations that can be drawn from the MD-HCB, as its resulting score is related to, yet separable from, the general tendency to morally disengage and is meaningfully connected to related constructs. A pre-study with a student sample (N = 89) not only helped to identify limitations in the study design but also showed a weak predictive ability of moral competence concerning high-carbon consumption behavior and intention to change. Based on our findings, future media campaigns designed to increase people's intention to reduce high-carbon behavior could focus on the modification of common cognitive disengagement strategies.
... The emotion that sits in opposition to disgust is thought to be the emotion that has variously been called 'elevation,' 'kama muta, ' 'ecstasy,' and 'love,' among other terms (e.g., Haidt 2000), and which has been characterized as involving being 'moved by love,' feelings of upliftment, unity, inspiration and selftranscendence, and feelings of warmth in, and opening up of, the chest, among other things (see, e.g., Zickfeld et al. 2019;Algoe & Haidt 2009;Landis et al. 2009;Doran 2022a;Doran 2022b). In contrasting the disgusting and the 'elevating, ' Haidt (2000) notes that they can be understood as sitting on a vertical axis, with those things that seem to blur the human-animal distinction being regarded as disgusting, and giving rise to a desire to distance oneself from the object in question, and protect the boundaries of the self from it; and those things that seem to blur the human-god distinction being regarded as 'elevating,' and giving rise to a desire to open up to, or even merge with, the 'elevating' object. ...
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I offer the first sustained defence of the claim that ugliness is constituted by the disposition to disgust. I advance three main lines of argument in support of this thesis. First, ugliness and disgustingness tend to lie in the same kinds of things and properties (the argument from ostensions). Second, the thesis is better placed than all existing accounts to accommodate the following facts: ugliness is narrowly and systematically distributed in a heterogenous set of things, ugliness is sometimes enjoyed, and ugliness sits opposed to beauty across a neutral midpoint (the argument from proposed intensions). And third, ugliness and disgustingness function in the same way in both giving rise to representations of contamination (the argument from the law of contagion). In making these arguments, I show why prominent objections to the thesis do not succeed, cast light on some of the artistic functions of ugliness, and, in addition, demonstrate why a dispositional account of disgustingness is correct, and present a novel problem for warrant-based accounts of disgustingness (the ‘too many reasons’ problem).
... Practicing CSR also is beneficial for society in general, because it motivates consumers to activate pro-society responses, or commendable actions designed to benefit others, the environment, or society as a whole (Lichtenstein et al., 2004). When consumers witness or hear from a reliable source about CSR actions, they tend to develop emotions of gratitude, admiration, and elevation (Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Aquino et al., 2011;Castro-González et al., 2019), and they are inspired and motivated to engage in virtuous actions, such as donating money or volunteering for a cause (Romani and Grappi, 2014;Romani et al., 2016). ...
Article
Companies engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) in various domains. As the current research establishes, consumers respond to these various domains in distinct ways, depending on the congruence of each domain with the consumer's predominant or focal morality. Two experimental studies involving 1207 consumers—obtained from a single-country sample in Study 1 and a cross-national sample in Study 2—reveal that exposing autonomy-oriented consumers to ethics-based CSR, or purity-oriented consumers to environment-based CSR, leads to more favorable pro-company responses (i.e., attitudes toward the company) and pro-society responses (i.e., intentions to donate money and volunteer for the cause). However, the hypothesized congruence mechanism does not hold when community-oriented consumers are exposed to community-based CSR. These findings suggest that congruence between the CSR domain addressed by the company and the focal morality embraced by consumers can predict consumer responses to CSR. Furthermore, the findings provide practitioners with insights into how to communicate their CSR activities to different consumer targets, in ways that enhance both business returns and societal impacts.
... Direct gaze from a dominant leader, which can signal threat and coercion, is thus expected to result in greater physiological arousal (Mazur et al., 1980;Nichols & Champness, 1971) relative to gaze from a prestigious leader. In terms of emotions, submission in a dominance hierarchy is mediated by emotions of shame and fear, which contrasts with the emotions of respect, admiration, and awe among prestige subordinates (Algoe & Haidt, 2009;Cheng et al., 2010;Fessler, 1999;Henrich & Gil-White, 2001;Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008;Tracy et al., 2020). ...
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Illuminating the nature of leadership and followership requires insights into not only how leaders and followers behave, but also the different cognitions that underpin these social relationships. We argue that the roots of leader and follower roles and status asymmetries often lie in basic mental processes such as attention and visual perception. To understand not only how but also why leaders’ and followers’ behavioral patterns vary, we focus here on underpinning attentional processes that often drive rank-based behaviors. Methodologically, this focus on basic attentional and perceptual processes lessens the reliance on self-report and questionnaire-based data, and expands our scientific understanding to actual, real-world leadership dynamics. Here, we review the available evidence indicating that leaders and followers differ in whether and how they receive, direct, and pay visual attention. Our review brings together diverse empirical evidence from organization science, primatology, and social, developmental, and cognitive psychology on eye gaze, attention, and status in adults, children, and non-human primates. Based on this review of the cross-disciplinary literature, we propose future directions and research questions that this attention-based approach can generate for illuminating the puzzle of leadership and followership.
... In other words, an individual's state of moral elevation can be evoked by witnessing others' moral behaviors. As Algoe and Haidt (2009) pointed, experiencing moral elevation is often based on the positive appraisal of the displayers' virtuous actions, which can help witnesses generate a sense of being uplifted or moved, and further motivate them to emulate the displayers so as to become a better person. Many studies have indicated that as a positive moral emotion, elevation is consistently and positively related to witnesses' desire to emulate the exemplars and to exhibit prosocial behaviors such as pro-environmental behavior, prosocial behavior, donating, and mentoring (Moreton et al., 2019;Rullo et al., 2022;Thomson et al., 2014;Thomson & Siegel, 2017). ...
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Although extensive studies have emphasized the positive effects of ethical leadership on inspiring followers to be the moral self, its effects on facilitating followers to become the whole moral self remain underexplored. In this study, drawing upon social cognitive theory, we built a moderated mediation model to explore how and when ethical leadership may stimulate followers’ peer monitoring behavior and thus become the whole moral self. Using a cross-sectional design to collect data from 366 employees in China, we tested the proposed model and hypotheses. The results showed that ethical leadership was positively related to followers’ peer monitoring behavior, and moral elevation partially mediated the above relationship. Furthermore, the results also revealed that followers perceived leaders’ intrinsic moral motivation not only amplified the positive effect of ethical leadership on followers’ moral elevation, but also strengthened the positive indirect effect of ethical leadership on followers’ peer monitoring behavior via moral elevation, while followers perceived leaders’ extrinsic moral motivation had the opposite moderating effects. These findings enrich our understanding of ethical leadership by elaborating on the moral elevation process in its impact on followers’ behavior, and provide new insights into how to motivate mutual monitoring among members through managerial practices for organizations.
... In addition, moral elevation can boost people's prosocial motivations and behaviors (Ding et al., 2018;Rullo et al., 2022). Algoe and Haidt (2009) discovered that participants who were aroused to a high level of moral elevation after watching a role model video reported: motivation to emulate the role model's behavior; prosocial motivation; the possibility of acting on these motivations. Another study found that participants were more eager to take part in further unpaid research and invest time and energy to help researchers with additional tasks when they were inspired by a high level of moral elevation due to watching videos of others' positive ethical behavior (Schnall et al., 2010). ...
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Existing research has identified the importance of role models in the imitation of cooperative behaviors. This Pre-Study attempted to explore the contagion effects of cooperative models. Drawing on goal contagion theory, we proposed that encountering cooperative models could catalyze participants’ cooperation when participants joined new groups without role models, and that moral elevation and calling would play a chain-mediating role in this process. To test the hypothesis, we designed a four-person public goods game consisting of two phases in which participants were formed into teams with different people in each phase. We randomly assigned 108 participants to either a consistent contributor (CC) or control condition. The only difference was that participants in the CC condition encountered a cooperative role model (i.e., CC) in the first phase, while those in the control group did not. The results moderately supported all hypotheses. Briefly, our findings provide empirical evidence supporting the two processes of goal contagion theory: when individuals encounter a CC, they first make inferences about the CC’s goal, as reflected by moral elevation, and then adopt the model’s prosocial goals (i.e., calling), resulting in increased cooperative behaviors in new groups. These findings could extend our understanding of the contagion effect of cooperative modeling, but require high-powered replication studies before such conclusions can be drawn.
... The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al. 1988) contains 10 items that measure positive affect (e.g., "interested", "determined") and 10 items measuring negative affect (e.g., "upset", "irritable"). The PANAS was modified to include the following expansive emotions: elevation, admiration, awe, compassion, and gratitude (Algoe and Haidt 2009;Stellar et al. 2017), and participants were asked to respond with how they were currently feeling. Responses ranged from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (extremely). ...
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We tested whether manipulating construal level would change the experience of gratitude or other expansive emotions (gratitude, awe, compassion) and negative emotions. We also examined whether construal level was correlated with the type of gratitude benefactor that participants spontaneously listed, focusing especially on God and non-theistic intangible benefactors compared to tangible human benefactors. We manipulated construal level in 265 U.S.-based CloudResearch participants to test preregistered hypotheses that high-level construals would elicit more examples of gratitude toward intangible benefactors and increase expansive emotions. We conducted additional exploratory analyses, investigating whether attitude accessibility of God as a benefactor was correlated with increases in expansive emotions. High construal level manipulation was associated with more frequently listing non-theistic intangible benefactors. Further, trait construal level predicted expansive emotions. Additionally, attitude accessibility of God as a benefactor was positively related to expansive emotions. We discuss future research possibilities to differentiate between gratitude toward tangible and intangible benefactors and the use of attitude accessibility as an implicit measure of benefactor importance.
... As positive other-related emotions, the literature identifies gratitude, elevation, admiration, and awe (Algoe & Haidt, 2009). Gratitude is defined as "a positive emotion that typically flows from the perception that one has benefited from the costly, intentional, voluntary action of another person" (McCullough et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
Advertising aims to attract attention, evoke emotions, and convey information. However, consumers have a limited ability to remember and for selective retention. This phenomenon has been exacerbated with the advent of the internet. Consequently, the implementation of shocking images by companies has been considered a valid means to attract consumers’ attention. Although the literature has explored consumers’ reactions to shockvertising, few studies have focused on moral emotions. Hence, the research objective of this work is to understand which moral emotions are evoked by shockvertising and what the object of such emotions is. Because of the increased environmental impact of businesses and human activities, this study explores consumers’ reactions and moral emotions evoked by the use of shocking images to communicate issues related to plastic waste. Our findings show that shocking images arouse, for the most part, negative emotions and, in particular, contempt and anger. The use of shocking images can thus attract users’ attention, generate a discussion on the plastic issue, and enhance consumer awareness.
... Freeman et al. (2009) showed that the experience of moral elevation led people to donate more money to charitable organizations. Other studies also indicated that individuals who have experienced moral elevation are more likely to offer help and develop more life goals related to morality (Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Van de Vyver and Abrams, 2015). Thus, we propose the following hypotheses: ...
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The relationship between exposure to prosocial media content and prosocial behavior has been extensively explored. However, previous studies mainly explore the effect of prosocial media content exposure by comparing an individual’s exposure to the different types of content (i.e., prosocial content, or neutral content), and generally focus on traditional media and video games, with less attention given to the increasingly popular new media platforms. In this study, we explored new dimensions by considering individuals’ exposure to different consequences of the same prosocial behavior (i.e., reward, punishment, or no consequences) in the context of short videos. Drawing upon social cognitive theory and the general learning model, this experimental study identified the effect of such exposure on subsequent prosocial behavior among adolescents. We found that compared to the no consequences group, exposure to the reward consequence did not significantly predict moral elevation and subsequent prosocial behavior. Meanwhile, exposure to the punishment consequence had a significantly negative effect on subsequent prosocial behavior via moral elevation. Furthermore, the results revealed that empathy moderated the relationship between moral elevation and prosocial behavior, and moral elevation only positively predicted prosocial behavior among those with low empathy. Theoretically, this study deepens our understanding of the impact of exposure to different consequences of prosocial behavior on adolescents’ subsequent prosocial behavior, and highlights the importance of moral elevation and empathy to understand the underlying mechanism. The study also provides some practical implications for parents and practitioners to nurture prosocial behavior among adolescents.
... We take as a starting point that the exercise of skill in productive activities together with others is beneficial for one's self-esteem and the perception of being valuable to society (Sandel, 2020). People also tend to admire and think highly of others who are skilful and display craftsmanship, expertise, or excellence (Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Gomberg, 2016). Skills may also be a source of power in the workplace, thus contributing to why occupations that require a higher degree of knowledge, training, or talent tend to be more prestigious (Treiman, 1977). ...
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There has recently been an upswing in research on the sources of social status inequality in capitalist democracies. In sociology it has long been argued that the occupational structure is a central hub of status inequality, yet there is a shortage of multivariate studies on the significance of occupations for the social status of individuals. The main purpose of this chapter is to examine the relationship between occupational skills and subjective social status in advanced knowledge economies. We study individuals' subjective social status across 25 countries, using multilevel modelling and data from the European Social Survey. Results show that (i) a substantial share of the variation in subjective social status is between occupations within countries; (ii) the occupational gradient in status is tightly positively linked to the level of educational requirements in jobs; and (iii) individuals in non-manual work have additional status benefits as compared to those in manual work.
... /fpsyg. . admiration, gratitude, love, and awe (Haidt, 2003a,b;Algoe and Haidt, 2009;Haidt and Morris, 2009;Van Cappellen and Rimé, 2014). These emotions decrease the salience of the individual self and promote union with other people and social groups (Haidt, 2003b;Van Cappellen and Rimé, 2014;Stellar et al., 2017). ...
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In this article, we review the conceptions of Collective Effervescence (CE) –a state of intense shared emotional activation and sense of unison that emerges during instances of collective behavior, like demonstrations, rituals, ceremonies, celebrations, and others– and empirical approaches oriented at measuring it. The first section starts examining Émile Durkheim's classical conception on CE, and then, the integrative one proposed by the sociologist Randall Collins, leading to a multi-faceted experience of synchronization (e.g., Páez and colleagues, 2015). Then, we analyze the construct as a process emerging in collective encounters when individuals contact with social ideal and values, referring to the classical work of Serge Moscovici as well as those more recent empirical approaches (e.g., Shira Grabriel and colleagues, 2017). Third, we consider CE as a set of intense positive emotions linked to processes of group identification, as proposed by authors of the Social Identity Theory tradition (e.g., Nick Hopkins and colleagues, 2016). Finally, we describe CE from the perspective of self-transcendence (e.g., emotions, experiences; Scott Draper, 2014), and propose a unified description of this construct. The second section shows the results of a meta-analytical integration (k = 50, N = 182738) aimed at analyzing CE’s proximal effects or construct validity (i.e.,Individual Emotions and Communal Sharing) as well as its association with more distal variables, such as Collective Emotions, Social Integration, Social Values and Beliefs and Empowerment. Results indicate that CE strongly associates with Individual Emotions –in particular, Self- Transcendent Emotions– and Communal Sharing constructs (e.g., Group Identity, Fusion of Identity), providing construct validity. Among the distal effects of CE, it is associated with Collective Positive Emotions, long-term Social Integration (e.g., Ingroup Commitment), Social Values and Beliefs and Empowerment-related variables (e.g., Well-Being, Collective Efficacy, Collective Self-Esteem). Among the moderation analyses carried out (e.g., study design, CE scale, type of collective gathering), the effects of CE in demonstrations are noticeable, where this variable is a factor that favors other variables that make collective action possible, such as Group Identity (rpooled = .52), Collective Efficacy (rpooled = .37), Negative and Self-Transcendent Emotions (rpooled = .14 and .58), and Morality-related beliefs (rpooled = .43).
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This research adopts Critical Discourse Analysis as a perspective to explore how kindness was expressed and promoted in university communities and city communities from January to March in 2020 when the Covid pandemic broke out in the UK and provide a window on British culture in which kindness was expressed and promoted through discourse. It combines a qualitative method with a corpus-based quantitative method. It is found that kindness was meant for providing support and showing compassion and inclusion to community members and that strategies in lexis, syntax and metaphor can reproduce or resist the expression and promotion of kindness in communities. During the pandemic, the intentional kindness expressed by community authorities was respect of diversity rather than inclusion of different values or ethnicity and no substantial support was provided to vulnerable members even though authorities were trying to impress the public by claiming that they were making constant efforts to support the community. Case studies revealed that we should caution against the use of passivation and the pronouns like they.
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The testimonies of celebrities affect the lives of their many followers who pay attention to what they say. This gives celebrities a high degree of epistemic power, which has come under scrutiny during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the duties that arise from this power. We argue that celebrities have a negative duty of testimonial justice not to undermine trust in authoritative sources by spreading misinformation or directing attention to untrustworthy sources. Moreover, celebrities have a general imperfect duty to try to correct for an unjust distribution of attention by redirecting it to those who deserve it. During a pandemic this may become a perfect one, due to the harm that could be prevented if people follow the advice of experts. Relatedly, we argue that celebrities have an imperfect duty to promote behavior that will reduce the spread of a pandemic. We outline three ways they might do so: they might take on the position of a role model, they may act as a salience magnet or they can direct people’s attention towards others who have taken on these roles.
Book
EMBRACING THE PRESENT Twenty-One Lessons to Cultivate Mindfulness In the face of adversities, most often we are defeated by stress, anxiety, uncertainties, tensions, despair, and sadness. We do label these as unacceptable feelings or ―bad to be and we tend to avoid and keeping them away. Well, my friend, the truth is no one is exempted; no one has a golden ticket not to experience them. It is upon us on how we are going to deal with them, or - befriend them. This self-help book centers on a very fascinating and unlooked-for phenomenon: the connection of how various mediocre techniques which relate with the practice of the East for many centuries, but notably unknown to many, the mindfulness. Mindfulness belongs to the distant past which has a broadening significance to our lives, but it is not too old to try. It has an inseparable tie that awakens and should live in congruity with oneself and the world we live in. Jon Kabat-Zinn, a therapy magnate practitioner defined it as the awareness through regular attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment. It has to do with inspecting what our identity is, with scrutinizing our perspective in the world and our place in it, and with developing some gratefulness for the wholeness of every minute we breathe.
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Previous studies have shown that personal factors serve as mediators in the link between self-compassion and subjective well-being (SWB). However, these studies have neglected the possibility that online prosocial behavior (OPB) may serve as a mediator in the link between self-compassion and SWB. Based on the PERMA theory of well-being and the protective-protective model, the current study examined whether OPB would mediate the association between self-compassion and individual SWB, and whether gratitude would moderate the association between self-compassion and OPB. A valid sample of 1488 college students (Mage = 19.84; SD = 1.61) filled out questionnaires regarding demographics, self-compassion, OPB, gratitude, and SWB. Results showed that, after controlling for gender, age, daily online time, and social desirability, OPB mediated the association between self-compassion and individual SWB, and gratitude strengthened the positive association between self-compassion and OPB. These findings reveal that high self-compassionate and grateful people can enhance their subjective well-being through behaving prosocially online. Practitioner points • Self-compassionate college students have higher level of subjective well-being. • College students can improve their subjective well-being through engaging in more online prosocial behavior. • The level of gratitude significantly strenghens the association between self-compassion and online prosocial behavior.
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We conducted three studies to validate the Polish version of the GrAw-7. Our objectives are as follows: first, to explore the dimensional structure of the scale and to determine the internal consistency (study 1: N = 635); second, to verify the stability of the GraW-7 (study 2: N = 27); and third, to determine the validity of the GrAw-7 (study 3: N = 385). To explore the dimensional structure of the scale, we tested a one-factor model proposed by Büssing (2018). To determine the validity of the GrAw-7, we analysed correlations among Awe/Gratitude and gratitude as an affective trait, resilience, health behaviours, transcendence and openness to spirituality. Based upon the presented data, it can be concluded that the Polish version of GrAw-7 has good psychometric qualities that are similar to those of the original version. The CFA results confirmed that the univariate solution is well adjusted to the data. The internal compatibility assessment is good. The absolute stability (test-retest) was estimated to be high. Based upon the results obtained, the questionnaire was demonstrated to be convergently valid as the overall GrAw-7 scores correlated positively with dispositional gratitude, resilience, transcendence proper, spiritual openness, and health-related behaviours.
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Hurricanes, wildfires, pandemics, and other disasters have taken millions of lives in the past few years and caused substantial economic losses. To tackle these extraordinary circumstances, governments, organizations, and companies seek assistance from both humans and high‐technology machines such as robots. This research report documents how highlighting robots’ (vs. humans’) helping behaviors in disaster response can affect consumers’ prosociality, explores driving mechanisms, and tests solutions. Study 1 found that consumers donated fewer items of clothing after watching news highlighting robots’ (vs. humans’) assistance in a mudslide disaster. Featuring the COVID‐19 pandemic, Study 2 further showed that this decrease in prosociality occurred because reading about robots’ assistance felt less encouraging/inspiring to consumers. Studies 3A‐3C (and a supplemental study) explored multiple mechanisms and identified a key driver for the backfire effect—a lower perception of courage in disaster response robots. Accordingly, Study 4 tested three theory‐driven solutions to raise the perceived courage in robots to increase consumer prosociality.
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Moral emotions are critically important in understanding people’s behavioral responses to justice events. There are conflicting predictions about positive and negative moral emotions’ functions in activating retaliation and prosocial tendency from the broaden-and-build perspective and the asymmetric perspective, and few studies have elucidated how justice perception impacts moral emotions on the part of first-person party and third-person party. A sample of 275 undergraduates were recruited to voluntarily participate the experiment to test the mediation effect of moral emotions and the moderation effect of first- and third-person perspectives in the association between justice perception and retaliation, prosocial motivation. The results showed only negative other-focused moral emotions including anger, disgust, contempt, compassion mediated the effect of justice perception on retaliation and prosocial motivation, and first- and third-person perspectives mainly moderated the effect of justice perception on negative other-focused moral emotions. Compared to actors, observers experienced higher level of anger, disgust, contempt and compassion in injustice context. These findings support the asymmetric perspective of moral emotions, rather than the broaden-and-build perspective. They also well account for why people roar at the sight of injustice, and contribute the growing literature concerning behavioral decisions of the third-party observers.
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In this article, I explore sensemaking processes associated with the overview effect—a cognitive shift experienced by astronauts who see Earth from space. Analysis of publicly available interviews ( n = 51) with astronauts revealed a common sequence of sensemaking: First, astronauts reported experiencing speechlessness triggered by beauty and awe (a phenomenon I label, awe-mute). Second, during and after missions, most reported attempting to make sense of the experience with others, often resulting in a deepening of their previously-existing worldviews, a process I term sensedeepening. Third, sensedeepening often resulted in astronauts’ (a) admissions of inadequacy to give sense to their experience for others, and despite this, (b) development of messages to communicate their experiences, and (c) engagement in social activism. These patterns were corroborated by additional interviews with astronauts ( n = 5) and an interview with a prolific interviewer of astronauts. Implications for sensemaking theory and organizational change conclude the article.
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IntroductionRomania shares the longest UE border with Ukraine, and since the Russian invasion of Ukraine began, many have been involved in helping the refugees. Consequently, children and adolescents might be directly and indirectly exposed to war-related trauma. In the present exploratory research, we investigated Romanian adolescents’ potential risk and protective factors related to the psychological outcomes of war exposure. Our cross-sectional study was conducted shortly after February 24th (i.e., the first invasion day).Methods The sample included 90 Romanian adolescents aged 11 to 15 (M = 12.90, SD = 1.17), residents in Iași, Romania (i.e., 205,7 km from the Ukrainian border). Participants completed self-reported measures of peritraumatic dissociative experiences, knowledge about the conflict in Ukraine, personal, school, and family implications in volunteering/helping behavior, discussions about the conflict, threat perception (self and perceived parental threat), anxiety, social media engagement, resilience, and moral elevation.ResultsThe main findings suggested that participants involved in helping behaviors toward Ukrainian refugees present higher peritraumatic dissociative experiences, anxiety symptoms, and higher moral elevation than boys and participants not involved in these behaviors. Moreover, anxiety symptoms were positively associated with threat perception, peritraumatic dissociation, and social media engagement and negatively related to resilience.DiscussionsFinally, we discuss the implications of our findings concerning their practical utility in managing peritraumatic exposure to war by using interventions designed to increase adolescents’ resilience during difficult times.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
Chapter
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empirical work on schadenfreude from psychological, philosophical and other scientific perspectives. The chapters explore justice as an underlying motive for schadenfreude, and the role played by social comparison processes and envy in evoking pleasure at the misfortunes of others in interpersonal relations. Schadenfreude is also described as a common phenomenon in intergroup relations. This is a compelling volume on a fascinating subject matter that aims to increase our understanding of the nature of this emotion and the role it plays in social relations.
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The goal of this study is to offer an overview of the trends that characterize the current research on prosocial media effects. To this end, we conducted a systematic literature review. The period reviewed was from 2017 to 2021. It found four general trends: The first one is related to research on prosocial children´s media. The second deals with the examination of the effects of mixing prosocial and violent content and practices in the same media text. The third reflects the importance of exploring what happens during media use in relation to user behaviors above all in multiplayer video games social dynamics. Finally, the fourth trend found is related to the exploration of the possibilities opened up by immersive media.
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Przedmiotem artykułu jest egzemplarystyczna teoria etyczna Lindy Zagzebski (2017). To nowa i ciekawa propozycja ufundowania teorii etycznej na emocji podziwu moralnego. W pierw­szej części prezentuję główne założenia egzemplaryzmu — wyjaśniam, kim są osobowe wzory moralne, jaką rolę w teorii Zagzebski odgrywa admiracja oraz na czym polega swoistość egzemp­laryzmu Lindy Zagzebski. W drugiej, krytycznej części wskazuję walory egzem­pla­rystycznej teo­rii etycznej. Powołuję się na liczne dane empiryczne potwierdzające wagę modelowania w moral­nej edukacji oraz funkcję pozytywnych emocji w doskonaleniu moralnym. Podkreślam ważny, praktyczny wymiar teorii Lindy Zagzebski. W trzeciej części wskazuję na trudności egzempla­ryzmu, powiązane z przypisywaniem admiracji fundamentalnej roli w formułowaniu teo­rii etycz­nej, takie jak kłopoty z definiowaniem emocji podziwu, jej ambiwalentny charakter oraz wtór­ność admiracji wobec wartości jej przedmiotu. Nadto wykazuję, że teoria Lindy Zagzebski nie spełnia jednej z najważniejszych funkcji teorii etycznej, jaką jest rozwiązywanie problemów etycznych.
Article
Self‐transcendent emotions are positive emotions that arise out of other‐focused appraisals. These emotions shift attention from the self to the needs and concerns of others. Limited work, however, focuses on self‐transcendent emotions and the underlying cognitive and behavioural mechanisms by which they benefit organizations. We review the disparate streams of research on self‐transcendent emotions and detail the thought‐action repertoires of four self‐transcendent emotions (compassion, gratitude, inspiration, and awe), explaining how each contributes to effective organizational functioning. Central to achieving this aim is the broaden‐and‐build theory. We show how the four self‐transcendent emotions broaden cognitive processes and build the necessary resources leading to specific positive organizational outcomes. We conclude our review with four themes: (a) the importance of delineating levels of analysis in self‐transcendent emotion research, (b) acknowledging contextual and cross‐cultural differences shaping the experience of self‐transcendent emotions, (c) addressing measurement concerns, and (d) the examination of other self‐transcendent emotions. In effect, we synthesize the positive psychology and organizational behaviour literature, generating a framework that prompts theoretical and practical considerations for the role of self‐transcendent emotions in organizations.
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In response to high‐profile calls, and the apparent demand from consumers, brands in a wide variety of categories have sought to define, articulate, communicate, and act according to their “brand purpose.” But what is brand purpose? Human purpose is seen as a long‐term commitment to act consistently with one’s values, leading to productive engagement with the world that transcends the self. However, the use of the term purpose as applied to brands raises a number of questions. In what ways is brand purpose similar to, and different from, human purpose? How do consumers react to brand purpose? How might a brand’s purpose impact consumers? In this review, we explore the concept of brand purpose and its potential impact on consumer behavior, drawing upon the literature on human purpose. Additionally, we propose that engagement with, and connections with, authentically purposeful brands may contribute to consumers’ own purposeful lives, ultimately helping consumers achieve their own eudaimonic well‐being. We develop a framework highlighting the relationship between brand purpose and consumer eudaimonic well‐being to guide future research in this domain.
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Research on automatic behavior demonstrates the ability of stereotypes to elicit stereotype-consistent behavior. Social judgment research proposes that whereas traits and stereotypes elicit assimilation, priming of exemplars can elicit judgmental contrast by evoking social comparisons. This research extends these findings by showing that priming exemplars can elicit behavioral contrast by evoking a social comparison. In Study 1, priming professor or supermodel stereotypes led, respectively, to more and fewer correct answers on a knowledge test (behavioral assimilation), but priming exemplars of these categories led to the reverse pattern (behavioral contrast). In Study 2, participants walked away faster after being primed with an elderly exemplar. In Study 3, the proposition that contrast effects reflect comparisons of the self with the exemplar was supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed, the evolution of which the model can explain: (1) behavior involved in cleaning symbioses; (2) warning cries in birds; and (3) human reciprocal altruism. Regarding human reciprocal altruism, it is shown that the details of the psychological system that regulates this altruism can be explained by the model. Specifically, friendship, dislike, moralistic aggression, gratitude, sympathy, trust, suspicion, trustworthiness, aspects of guilt, and some forms of dishonesty and hypocrisy can be explained as important adaptations to regulate the altruistic system. Each individual human is seen as possessing altruistic and cheating tendencies, the expression of which is sensitive to developmental variables that were selected to set the tendencies at a balance ap...
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This paper advances an "information goods" theory that explains prestige processes as an emergent product of psychological adaptations that evolved to improve the quality of information acquired via cultural transmission. Natural selection favored social learners who could evaluate potential models and copy the most successful among them. In order to improve the fidelity and comprehensiveness of such ranked-biased copying, social learners further evolved dispositions to sycophantically ingratiate themselves with their chosen models, so as to gain close proximity to, and prolonged interaction with, these models. Once common, these dispositions created, at the group level, distributions of deference that new entrants may adaptively exploit to decide who to begin copying. This generated a preference for models who seem generally "popular." Building on social exchange theories, we argue that a wider range of phenomena associated with prestige processes can more plausibly be explained by this simple theory than by others, and we test its predictions with data from throughout the social sciences. In addition, we distinguish carefully between dominance (force or force threat) and prestige (freely conferred deference).
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It is proposed that goals can be activated outside of awareness and then operate nonconsciously to guide self-regulation effectively (J. A. Bargh, 1990). Five experiments are reported in which the goal either to perform well or to cooperate was activated, without the awareness of participants, through a priming manipulation. In Experiment 1 priming of the goal to perform well caused participants to perform comparatively better on an intellectual task. In Experiment 2 priming of the goal to cooperate caused participants to replenish a commonly held resource more readily. Experiment 3 used a dissociation paradigm to rule out perceptual-construal alternative explanations. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that action guided by nonconsciously activated goals manifests two classic content-free features of the pursuit of consciously held goals. Nonconsciously activated goals effectively guide action, enabling adaptation to ongoing situational demands.
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A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.
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Three studies involving 3 participant samples (Ns = 39, 55, and 53) tested the hypothesis that people retrieve episodic emotion knowledge when reporting on their emotions over short (e.g., last few hours) time frames, but that they retrieve semantic emotion knowledge when reporting on their emotions over long (e.g., last few months) time frames. Support for 2 distinct judgment strategies was based on judgment latencies (Studies 1 and 2) and priming paradigms (Studies 2 and 3). The authors suggest that self-reports of emotion over short versus long time frames assess qualitatively different sources of self-knowledge.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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Inspiration has received little theoretical or empirical attention within psychology. Inspiration is conceptualized herein as a general construct characterized by evocation, motivation, and transcendence. In Studies 1a and 1b, a trait measure of inspiration was developed and was found to have strong psychometric properties. Studies 2a-2c documented a nomological network consistent with the present conceptualization. Study 3 related inspiration to the holding of U.S. patents. Study 4 linked trait inspiration to daily experiences of inspiration, extended the nomological network to the state level, documented antecedents and consequences, and established incremental validity. This research provides a foundation for further study of inspiration, both as a general construct and in specific content domains (e.g., religion, creativity, interpersonal relations).
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The authors examined the core characteristics, component processes, antecedents, and function of state inspiration. In Studies 1 and 2, inspiration was contrasted with baseline experience and activated positive affect (PA) using a vivid recall methodology. Results supported the tripartite conceptualization of inspiration. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that inspiration may be decomposed into separate processes related to being inspired "by" and being inspired "to." Study 3 found that daily inspiration is triggered by illumination among individuals high in receptive engagement, whereas activated PA is triggered by reward salience among individuals high in approach temperament. Approach temperament was also implicated in being inspired "to." Inspiration and activated PA appear to serve different functions: transmission and acquisition, respectively.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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The accessibility of people's highest hopes and achievements can affect their reactions to upward comparisons. Three studies showed that, under normal circumstances, individuals were inspired by an outstanding role model; their motivation and self-evaluations were enhanced. However, when their most positive self-views were temporarily or chronically activated, inspiration was undermined, and individuals' motivation and self-evaluations tended to decrease. Another study found that role models inspired participants to generate more spectacular hopes and achievements than they would have generated otherwise. It appears that increasing the accessibility of one's best serves undercuts inspiration because it constrains the positivity of the future serves one may imagine and prevents one from generating the more spectacular future serves that the role model normally inspires.
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1. Introduction The study of emotion Types of evidence for theories of emotion Some goals for a cognitive theory of emotion 2. Structure of the theory The organisation of emotion types Basic emotions Some implications of the emotions-as-valenced-reactions claim 3. The cognitive psychology of appraisal The appraisal structure Central intensity variables 4. The intensity of emotions Global variables Local variables Variable-values, variable-weights, and emotion thresholds 5. Reactions to events: I. The well-being emotions Loss emotions and fine-grained analyses The fortunes-of-others emotions Self-pity and related states 6. Reactions to events: II. The prospect-based emotions Shock and pleasant surprise Some interrelationships between prospect-based emotions Suspense, resignation, hopelessness, and other related states 7. Reactions to agents The attribution emotions Gratitude, anger, and some other compound emotions 8. Reactions to objects The attraction emotions Fine-grained analyses and emotion sequences 9. The boundaries of the theory Emotion words and cross-cultural issues Emotion experiences and unconscious emotions Coping and the function of emotions Computational tractability.
Chapter
This chapter examines the feeling of being grateful. It suggests feeling grateful is similar to other positive emotions that help build a person's enduring personal resources and broaden an individual's thinking. It describes various ways by which gratitude can transform individuals, organizations, and communities in positive and sustaining ways. It discusses the specific benefits of gratitude including personal and social development, community strength and individual health and well-being.
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The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively rind unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another' s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
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We used multiple methods to examine two questions about emotion and culture: (1) Which facial expressions are recognised cross-culturally; and (2) does the “forced-choice” method lead to spurious findings of universality? Forty participants in the US and 40 in India were shown 14 facial expressions and asked to say what had happened to cause the person to make the face. Analyses of the social situations given and of the affect words spontaneously used showed high levels of recognition for most of the expressions. A subsequent forced-choice task using the same faces confirmed these findings. Analysis of the pattern of magnitude, discreteness, and similarity of responses across cultures and expressions led to the conclusion that there is no neat distinction between cross-culturally recognisable and nonrecognisable expressions. Results are better described as a gradient of recognition.
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During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects. If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10–20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. These effects last from 1 to several weeks after the last injection. After repeated oxytocin treatment weight gain may be promoted and the healing rate of wounds increased. Most behavioral and physiological effects induced by oxytocin can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists. In contrast, the antistress effects can not, suggesting that unidentified oxytocin receptors may exist. The prolonged latency in the tail-flick test can be temporarily reversed by administration of naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioid activity has been increased by the oxytocin injections. In contrast, the long-term lowering of blood pressure and of cortisol levels as well as the sedative effects of oxytocin have been found to be related to an increased activity of central α2-adrenoceptors. Positive social interactions have been related to health-promoting effects. Oxytocin released in response to social stimuli may be part of a neuroendocrine substrate which underlies the benefits of positive social experiences. Such processes may in addition explain the health-promoting effects of certain alternative therapies. Because of the special properties of oxytocin, including the fact that it can become conditioned to psychological state or imagery, oxytocin may also mediate the benefits attributed to therapies such as hypnosis or meditation. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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This study investigated the effects of deindividuation, modeling, and private self-consciousness on antisocial and prosocial responses. Groups of four participants (N = 72) were exposed to factorial combinations of situational cues (deindividuating vs. individuating) and modeling prosocial vs. no model vs. antisocial) and subsequently were given the choice to behave either aggressively or altruistically toward another person. Subjects receiving deindividuating cues produced higher levels of aggression and dispensed greater sums of money compared with individuated participants. Subjects exposed to a prosocial model administered more money than did subjects exposed to the no-model or aggressive model. Although an expected main effect of models on aggression approached significance, a predicted Situational Cues x Model interaction did not. This investigation suggests that subjective deindividuation is a neutral condition. When antisocial environmental cues are present, deindividuated persons are likely to engage in aggressive actions, whereas prosocial cues influence deindividuated group members to behave altruistically. Although deindividuated group members are affected by stimuli such as models, they are not influenced to a greater degree than are individuated people. Finally, these results suggest that when the situational manipulations designed to reduce private self-awareness are salient and powerful, they may affect behavior more than do dispositional levels of private self-consciousness.
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Communal relationships, in which the giving of a benefit in response to a need for the benefit is appropriate, are distinguished from exchange relationships, in which the giving of a benefit in response to the receipt of a benefit is appropriate. Based on this distinction, it was hypothesized that the receipt of a benefit after the person has been benefited leads to greater attraction when an exchange relationship is preferred and decreases attraction when a communal relationship is desired. These hypotheses were supported in Exp I, which used 96 male undergraduates. Exp II, which used a different manipulation of exchange vs communal relationships with 80 female undergraduates, supported the hypotheses that (a) a request for a benefit after the S is aided by the other leads to greater attraction when an exchange relationship is expected and decreases attraction when a communal relationship is expected, and (b) a request for a benefit in the absence of prior aid from the other decreases attraction when an exchange relationship is expected. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies investigated how one form of interpersonal behavior—cooperation/competition—is affected by social information conveyed in ordinary news reports about remote events. 91 male undergraduates and 108 junior high school-aged males were exposed to 1 of 4 pretested "news" broadcasts and were then asked to play one round of a nonzero sum game. In both studies, 2 of the broadcasts contained social information informing listeners about intentional human acts which caused a loss or a saving of lives. The 2nd 2 broadcasts contained nonsocial information inasmuch as they reported events of objectively equivalent consequence involving either loss or saving of lives due to natural phenomena. In both experiments an interaction effect was evident: The frequency of cooperation and competition was more greatly affected by good and bad news containing social information than it was by good and bad news containing nonsocial information. Additional data support the view that cognitive rather than affective processes are mediating this behavior. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the personality and situational effects that influence prosocial behavior. 112 safety- and esteem-oriented (as measured by a sentence-completion test) undergraduates were exposed to an emergency situation wherein the experimenter was ostensibly injured by an "explosion." Results indicate that there were significant situational and personality determinants of helping and imitative behavior. Overall, there was more help when Ss were interacting with an active vs a passive model. Esteem-oriented Ss were more likely to initiate helping behavior and were more strongly influenced by high-competence models. In contrast, safety-oriented Ss helped less overall and were more influenced by high-status models. Results are discussed in terms of a Person × Situation paradigm of prosocial behaviors. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant. Relevant stars provoked self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seemed attainable in that participants either still had enough time to achieve comparable success or believed their own abilities could improve over time. Open-ended responses provided rich evidence of inspiration in these circumstances. Relevant stars provoked, if anything, self-deflation when their success seemed unattainable in that participants either had already missed the chance to achieve comparable success or viewed their abilities as fixed and so unlikely to improve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Most theories of affective influences on judgement and choice take a valence-based approach, contrasting the effects of positive versus negative feeling states. These approaches have not specified if and when distinct emotions of the same valence have different effects on judgement. In this article, we propose a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice. We posit that each emotion is defined by a tendency to perceive new events and objects in ways that are consistent with the original cognitive-appraisal dimensions of the emotion. To pit the valence and appraisal-tendency approaches against one another, we present a study that addresses whether two emotions of the same valence but differing appraisals—anger and fear—relate in different ways to risk perception. Consistent with the appraisal-tendency hypothesis, fearful people made pessimistic judgements of future events whereas angry people made optimistic judgements. In the Discussion we expand the proposed model and review evidence supporting two social moderators of appraisal-tendency processes.
Article
Emotions are viewed as having evolved through their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life-tasks. Each emotion has unique features: signal, physiology, and antecedent events. Each emotion also has characteristics in common with other emotions: rapid onset, short duration, unbidden occurrence, automatic appraisal, and coherence among responses. These shared and unique characteristics are the product of our evolution, and distinguish emotions from other affective phenomena.
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This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
Article
PREDICTED THAT FEELINGS OF GRATITUDE ARE A FUNCTION OF THE RECIPIENT'S PERCEPTIONS OF THE INTENTION OF THE BENEFACTOR, THE COST TO THE BENEFACTOR IN PROVIDING THE BENEFIT, AND THE VALUE OF THE BENEFIT. 126 MALE STUDENTS READ VARIANTS OF EACH OF 3 STORY THEMES AND INDICATED THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF THE ABOVE 3 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES AND ALSO HOW GRATEFUL THEY FELT TOWARD THE BENEFACTOR. EACH OF THE 3 PREDICTED FACTORS WAS SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO FELT GRATITUDE. NO INTERACTIONS WERE FOUND. MULTIPLE REGRESSION WAS PERFORMED FOR EACH THEME. VALIDATION ON A HOLD-OUT GROUP WAS .73, .82, AND .71 FOR THE 3 THEMES.
Article
Previous research has shown that trait concepts and stereotype become active automatically in the presence of relevant behavior or stereotyped-group features. Through the use of the same priming procedures as in previous impression formation research, Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli. In Experiment 2, participants for whom an elderly stereotype was primed walked more slowly down the hallway when leaving the experiment than did control participants, consistent with the content of that stereotype. In Experiment 3, participants for whom the African American stereotype was primed subliminally reacted with more hostility to a vexatious request of the experimenter. Implications of this automatic behavior priming effect for self-fulfilling prophecies are discussed, as is whether social behavior is necessarily mediated by conscious choice processes.
Article
During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects. If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10-20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. These effects last from 1 to several weeks after the last injection. After repeated oxytocin treatment weight gain may be promoted and the healing rate of wounds increased. Most behavioral and physiological effects induced by oxytocin can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists. In contrast, the antistress effects can not, suggesting that unidentified oxytocin receptors may exist. The prolonged latency in the tail-flick test can be temporarily reversed by administration of naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioid activity has been increased by the oxytocin injections. In contrast, the long-term lowering of blood pressure and of cortisol levels as well as the sedative effects of oxytocin have been found to be related to an increased activity of central alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Positive social interactions have been related to health-promoting effects. Oxytocin released in response to social stimuli may be part of a neuroendocrine substrate which underlies the benefits of positive social experiences. Such processes may in addition explain the health-promoting effects of certain alternative therapies. Because of the special properties of oxytocin, including the fact that it can become conditioned to psychological state or imagery, oxytocin may also mediate the benefits attributed to therapies such as hypnosis or meditation.
Article
The accessibility of people's highest hopes and achievements can affect their reactions to upward comparisons. Three studies showed that, under normal circumstances, individuals were inspired by an outstanding role model; their motivation and self-evaluations were enhanced. However, when their most positive self-views were temporarily or chronically activated, inspiration was undermined, and individuals' motivation and self-evaluations tended to decrease. Another study found that role models inspired participants to generate more spectacular hopes and achievements than they would have generated otherwise. It appears that increasing the accessibility of one's best selves undercuts inspiration because it constrains the positivity of the future selves one may imagine and prevents one from generating the more spectacular future selves that the role model normally inspires.
Article
The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another's behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself. Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
Article
Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing.