Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides

Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 07/2005; 13(12):4629-37. DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.004629
Source: PubMed


We report the observation of four-wave mixing phenomenon in a simple silicon wire waveguide at the optical powers normally employed in communications systems. The maximum conversion efficiency is about -35 dB in the case of a 1.58-cm-long silicon wire waveguide. The nonlinear refractive index coefficient is found to be 9x10-18 m2/W. This value is not negligible for dense wavelength division multiplexing components, because it predicts the possibility of large crosstalk. On the other hand, with longer waveguide lengths with smaller propagation loss, it would be possible to utilize just a simple silicon wire for practical wavelength conversion. We demonstrate the wavelength conversion for data rate of 10-Gbps using a 5.8-cm-long silicon wire. These characteristics are attributed to the extremely small core of silicon wire waveguides.

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Available from: Koji Yamada, Dec 24, 2014
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    • "Indeed, the first-idler generation relies on a FWM process that involves two pump photons, whereas the second-idler generation originates from a FWM process that involves only one pump photon. However, it should be noted that the conversion efficiencies simulated for both idlers lie much closer together than the efficiencies observed for second-idler generation with small pump-signal frequency detunings [1], [32], [33]. The first-idler power evolution P i also displays the distinct gain and loss regions that are characteristic for QPM by PMS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient nonlinear four-wave-mixing (FWM) interactions can be realized by either phase-matching or quasi-phase-matching (QPM) the optical waves involved. Conventionally, this is only achieved for a limited set of FWM processes. In this paper, we develop a method to simultaneously realize QPM of two arbitrary FWM processes. This double QPM method combines two QPM techniques, namely QPM by phase-mismatch switching for one process, and QPM by dispersion compensation for the other. To our knowledge, this scheme is the first one that can realize efficient interactions for two arbitrary FWM processes in essentially any type of waveguide medium that is characterized by a single zero-dispersion point in the wavelength domain of interest. We apply the proposed scheme to design two devices that can be operated at larger pump-signal frequency differences than previously possible, namely a wavelength converter switch and a one-to-two Raman wavelength converter. Hence, the double-QPM method allows optical waves to interact through a larger number of nonlinear optical processes, and enables novel FWM-based applications.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Lightwave Technology
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    • "The above motivations led to considerable research efforts on nonlinear silicon photonics in recent years [26] [27] [28] [29] [30]. Nonlinear effects such as SRS [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83], self-and cross-phase modulation (SPM and XPM) [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91], fourwave mixing (FWM) [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] [101] [102], and supercontinuum generation [60, 61, 103–108] are actively investigated. The main focus is on the near-IR wavelength range, around the telecom window. "
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    ABSTRACT: Group IV photonics hold great potential for nonlinear applications in the near- and mid-infrared (IR) wavelength ranges, exhibiting strong nonlinearities in bulk materials, high index contrast, CMOS compatibility, and cost-effectiveness. In this paper, we review our recent numerical work on various types of silicon and germanium waveguides for octave-spanning ultrafast nonlinear applications. We discuss the material properties of silicon, silicon nitride, silicon nano-crystals, silica, germanium, and chalcogenide glasses including arsenic sulfide and arsenic selenide to use them for waveguide core, cladding and slot layer. The waveguides are analyzed and improved for four spectrum ranges from visible, near-IR to mid-IR, with material dispersion given by Sellmeier equations and wavelength-dependent nonlinear Kerr index taken into account. Broadband dispersion engineering is emphasized as a critical approach to achieving on-chip octavespanning nonlinear functions. These include octave-wide supercontinuum generation, ultrashort pulse compression to sub-cycle level, and mode-locked Kerr frequency comb generation based on few-cycle cavity solitons, which are potentially useful for next-generation optical communications, signal processing, imaging and sensing applications.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Nanophotonics
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    • "Recently, although many papers have been published on FWM in silicon waveguides for both near-infrared (near-IR) [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] and mid-IR [10] [11] and in chalcogenide waveguides for near-IR [12] [13] [14], the parametric conversion by FWM for mid-IR in chalcogenide waveguides has not been demonstrated yet. In addition, the applications silicon waveguides cannot be utilized over 2.5 μm wavelength region due to the strong absorption from the substrate material, silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Optics and Photonics Journal
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