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Depredación del jaguar (Panthera onca) sobre el ganado en los llanos orientales de Colombia

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Depredación del jaguar (Panthera onca) sobre el ganado en los llanos orientales de Colombia

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... Sin embargo, existen vastas superficies dedicadas a la ganadería, donde los jaguares conviven en proximidad con el ganado, y donde se producen episodios de depredación. Como consecuencia, el ganadero tiene la política de perseguir y eliminar los jaguares que se encuentren dentro de los límites de su propiedad (Garrote 2012), lo que convierte el conflicto con los ganaderos posiblemente en la principal amenaza del jaguar en el Vichada. Dado este nivel de conflicto, esta especie fue priorizada en el 2008 con otras en un plan de manejo de especies amenazadas en la Reserva de Biosfera El Tuparro (Trujillo et al. 2008). ...
... A pesar de ello, la mortalidad de ganado como consecuencia de los ataques de jaguar, es tan sólo del 1,5% del total de la cabaña ganadera, y es la segunda causa de pérdida de ganado causando el 20% de todas las pérdidas anuales. Los resultados obtenidos en relación a las causas de la pérdida del ganado en las producciones ganaderas estudiadas coinciden con otros trabajos (Hoogesteijn y Hoogesteijn 2011, Garrote 2012, Castaño et al. 2015, Hoogesteijn et al. 2015, que identificaron como la principal causa de pérdida de animales de ganado doméstico a la falta de implementación de manejo, que ocasiona eventos de muertes en el preparto. ...
... Las medidas antidepredatorias propuestas incluirían: Sin embargo, no son los ataques al ganado el único factor en juego a la hora de acabar con la vida de un jaguar. Las motivaciones para matar jaguares incluyen no sólo las tradiciones y el reconocimiento social que aporta acabar con un jaguar, sino también el miedo y conceptos erróneos de la amenaza que plantean los jaguares a los humanos (Garrote 2012, Marchini capítulo 19 de este volumen). Estas ideas deben conducir hacia otros enfoques para reducir la persecución que a su vez depende de los cambios graduales en los valores, actitudes y las normas sociales relativas a los jaguares y su persecución. ...
... Los grandes mamíferos carnívoros son especies que resienten más esta competencia ya que son sensibles a los cambios en el ecosistema, uno de los principales hoy en día es la deforestación (Hoogesteijn 2003). Esta genera un aumento de la frontera agrícola o la disminución de hábitat que es uno de los factores que desencadena la depredación de ganado (bovino: Bos sp.; caprino: Capra sp.; ovino: Ovis orientalis aries; porcino: Sus crofa domestica; equinos: Equus sp.), uno de los principales JVUÅPJ[VZ LU[YL LS OVTIYL ` SVZ NYHUKLZ THTxMLYVZ JHYUx]VYVZ /VVNLZ[LPQU Teniendo como resultado la persecución y eliminación de los grandes carnívoros por los dueños de ganado (Hoogesteijn 2003;Garrote 2012 [LNPKHZ 5V^LSS ` 1HJRZVU 1996). ...
... En Centro América las pérdidas Material y Métodos en Costa Rica son cercanas a los USD 60,000 (Moreno y Olmos 2008;Saenz et al. 2002). En Colombia las pérdidas son reportadas de manera general como bajas (Garrote 2012). Para Guatemala las pérdidas reportadas ascienden a USD 14,736 (Soto-Shoender y Giuliano 2011). ...
... Para Guatemala las pérdidas reportadas ascienden a USD 14,736 (Soto-Shoender y Giuliano 2011). Todo lo anterior, tiene un común denominador: la persecución y eliminación del jaguar por los dueños del mismo (Garrote 2012 Conde et al. 2011) y otros carnívoros (oso negro, puma, coyote, gato montés y zorra gris), ya que en ocasiones el jaguar es culpado por los daños causados por otros carnívoros y en consecuencia eliminado. En esta zona, el jaguar ha sido poco estudiado, sólo existe un trabajo publicado y aborda la distribución y estado de conservación del jaguar (Rosas-Rosas y López-Soto 2002), L_JS\`LUKV SH YLSHJP}U KL SH LZWLJPL ` SHZ WVISHJPVULZ O\THUHZ ,S ÄU ‚S[PTV KLS trabajo es aportar elementos que permitan contribuir a la formulación e implementación de estrategias de mitigación y prevención de la depredación de ganado por jaguar por las propias comunidades. ...
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The principal factors that contribute to the conservation of large carnivorous mammals are, the increase in human density, the amount of remnant natural habitat, land use change and hunting (of the species and their natural preys). In order to take effective conservation actions is necessary to understand all the dimensions of the human-carnivore conflict. One alternative is to assess the economic damage caused by carnivores on cattle a herd which is a major cause of their persecution and elimination. Damage assessed by jaguar in southern of Nuevo Leon. At the same time, we evaluated the economic damage of black bear, coyote, cougar, bobcat and gray fox in order to compare the economic value of damages to livestock. Eighty people were surveyed in 60 rural communities. Economic damages in livestock (in USD) were 134,253 in 1992-2010. By species these were: black bear 43,077; jaguar 39,016; cougar 17,057; coyote 28,492; bob cat 4,095 and gray fox 2,514. Knowing the damage that the jaguar and other carnivores have on the economy of peasant’s families is essential for the design of mitigation strategies that lead to conflict and that conduce to achieving the conservation of the jaguar.
... Jaguar prey species have been historically hunted at both sites and hunting still occurs for subsistence and commercial reasons [35]. Killing of jaguars is rare at Site-I [36] while more frequent at Site-II, although no exact data is available [37], there has been an estimate based on historical records of killings of 1 individual every 250 km 2 per year [38]. Widespread extensive cattle ranching at Site-II favours the occurrence of jaguar predation on livestock and consequent persecution from ranchers [21,39]. ...
... Lower jaguar numbers in the llanos could also be due to retaliatory killing following livestock predation. Incidents of jaguar predation on livestock do occur [37,73] however, currently there is a paucity of data regarding human persecution of jaguar. Past systematic hunting of jaguars for the spotted pelt trade could also explain low population numbers [74] but again, that would assume little to no recovery. ...
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Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca) are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies. Our study provides the first jaguar density estimates of Colombia in agricultural regions which included cattle ranching, the main land use in the country, and oil palm cultivation, an increasing land use across the Neotropics. We used camera trapping across two agricultural landscapes located in the Magdalena River valley and in the Colombian llanos (47–53 stations respectively; >2000 trap nights at both sites) and classic and spatially explicit capture-recapture models with the sex of individuals as a covariate. Density estimates were 2.52±0.46–3.15±1.08 adults/100 km2 in the Magdalena valley, whereas 1.12±0.13–2.19±0.99 adults/100 km2 in the Colombian llanos, depending on analysis used. We suggest that jaguars are able to live across unprotected human-use areas and co-exist with agricultural landscapes including oil-palm plantations if natural areas and riparian habitats persist in the landscape and hunting of both jaguar and prey is limited. In the face of an expanding agriculture across the tropics we recommend land-use planning, adequate incentives, regulations, and good agricultural practices for range-wide jaguar connectivity and survival.
... When communities obtain tangible economic returns, they assume their role as partners in conservation and become effective environmental managers. Consequently, their decisions on management practices for their lands are of great relevance (Garrote, 2012). According to Peña (2015), cattle predation is caused by poor human practices, including cattle management. ...
... 3) Wooded grass (scattered trees in the grass patch). Source: our own elaboration with information from several sources (Morillo, 1994;Méndez et al., 2002;INEGI, 2004;Manjarrez et al., 2007;Moreno and Olmos, 2008;Romero, 2008;Soto et al., 2008;Chávez Tovar and Zarza Villanueva, 2009;Quinto et al., 2009;Góngora and Hernández, 2010;Denogean et al., 2012;Garrote, 2012;Arias et al., 2013;Peña and Castillo, 2013;Zarco et al., 2013;Molina et al., 2016). ...
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Our objective was to identify suitable areas for ecological cattle production and conservation areas for jaguar and puma populations. We conducted the superpositioning of raster and vector maps and the reclassification from the combination of spatial and alphanumeric data integrated into an analytical geographic information system. The levels of aptitude were classified, taking into consideration of horizontal and vertical dissection of the relief, altitude, slope, productive potential per taxonomic unit of soil, temperature, precipitation, access to water sources, vegetation and land use, the National Cattle Registry, and distances to roads and human settlements. The results indicated that approximately 469 ha showed high potential, 206,386 ha showed medium potential, and 1,794,357 showed low potential for cattle farming. The potential areas identified for jaguar conservation were 2,713 km2, and those for puma conservation were 2,446 km2. In Mexico, primarily in the State of Guerrero, forests and scrublands fulfill the summer pasture (agostadero) role in ejidos for extensive cattle production, and the introduction of improved grasses displaces native vegetation without serving as forage for wild ungulates, affecting felines, which turn to cattle for food. Ecological farming is an alternative that promotes biodiversity, respecting the role and functions of the soil.
... En épocas de estiaje es más probable que el ganado se aleje de la granja -o cualquier tipo de infraestructura en la unidad de producción-y comparta las fuentes de agua con los depredadores. Aunado a esto, es conocido que los grandes felinos prefieren áreas con cobertura vegetal densa asociada a ríos o fuentes de agua para cazar y consumir a sus presas (Rosas-Rosas et al., 2010;Garrote, 2012;Valderrama et al., 2016;Olarte, 2017). Por tanto, si no se procura el abasto de agua para el rumiante -en cantidad, calidad, número y ubicación de las fuentes de agua-se le estará induciendo a que busque este recurso, volviéndose presa fácil para los felinos silvestres. ...
... Una vez que las hembras quedan preñadas y están próximas a parir se deben colocar en áreas de maternidad totalmente cercadas y lejos de áreas boscosas. Esta estrategia ayudaría a concentrar los nacimientos, dándole atención intensiva a los recién nacidos -altamente vulnerables a la depredación-durante por lo menos tres meses (Hoogesteijn y Hoogesteijn, 2010;Garrote, 2012). ...
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Los felinos silvestres desempeñan una función ecológica importante dentro de los ecosistemas, por lo que su conservación es prioritaria. Sin embargo, entre pequeños y medianos ganaderos de distintas áreas rurales, la percepción de la presencia de los grandes felinos es mayormente negativa. Las personas que cuentan con unidades de producción cerca de los hábitats de estos animales los consideran como los principales depredadores de diversas especies pecuarias. Esta animadversión genera represalias de diversa índole, siendo la más común perseguir y matar al felino, poniendo en peligro la conservación de las especies silvestres. Sin embargo, poco se reflexiona respecto de las prácticas inadecuadas de manejo del ganado que los vulneran frente a estos depredadores. Tal es el caso de la carencia de cercos funcionales, la falta de corrales de resguardo e instalaciones, la escasez de alimento en temporadas críticas, la nutrición deficiente, la falta de agua y bebederos en potreros, los descuidos en la sanidad y confort del ganado, así como el pastoreo en zonas boscosas. Con ciertas medidas de prevención se puede mitigar la depredación por los grandes felinos en los hatos ganaderos, situación que igualmente disminuye el conflicto humano-jaguar.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wild felines play an important role within ecosystems, and their conservation is a priority. However, among small and medium farmers in rural areas, the perception of the presence of large felids is mostly negative. Farmers whose production overlaps or borders the habitats of big cats consider them a key main predators of various livestock species. This animosity generates retaliation of various kinds, but the most common retaliation results in the chasing and killing the feline, endangering the success of conservation endeavors. Efforts to prevent conflict are weak, and inadequate practices of livestock management such as lack of functional fences, lack of shelter pens and facilities, shortages of food in critical seasons, poor nutrition, and the lack of water sources in paddocks leave livestock vulnerable to predation. Grazing in forested areas is also a practice that favors conditions for felines to stalk and prey on cattle. The depredation of cattle by big cats can be mitigated by applying specific prevention measures, ultimately decreasing human-jaguar conflict.
... En épocas de estiaje es más probable que el ganado se aleje de la granja -o cualquier tipo de infraestructura en la unidad de producción-y comparta las fuentes de agua con los depredadores. Aunado a esto, es conocido que los grandes felinos prefieren áreas con cobertura vegetal densa asociada a ríos o fuentes de agua para cazar y consumir a sus presas Garrote, 2012;Valderrama et al., 2016;Olarte, 2017). Por tanto, si no se procura el abasto de agua para el rumiante -en cantidad, calidad, número y ubicación de las fuentes de agua-se le estará induciendo a que busque este recurso, volviéndose presa fácil para los felinos silvestres. ...
... Una vez que las hembras quedan preñadas y están próximas a parir se deben colocar en áreas de maternidad totalmente cercadas y lejos de áreas boscosas. Esta estrategia ayudaría a concentrar los nacimientos, dándole atención intensiva a los recién nacidos -altamente vulnerables a la depredación-durante por lo menos tres meses (Hoogesteijn y Hoogesteijn, 2010;Garrote, 2012). ...
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El jaguar es una especie clave en todos los ecosistemas del continente americano donde habita, no obstante, su rango de distribución se ha visto disminuido, incluso siendo extirpado de algunos países. Su conservación adquiere una mayor relevancia cuando se pone en contexto con el panorama mundial, donde actualmente existe una pérdida de la biodiversidad a una velocidad insostenible. Es por esto que hoy más que nunca es ineludible nuestra responsabilidad para proteger y hacer uso razonable de los recursos naturales con los que aún contamos. La Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Abra Tanchipa es hogar de una población residente de jaguares, la cual subsiste en unos de los últimos relictos de vegetación Neotropical en el noreste de México. Esta reserva, al igual que muchas otras, enfrenta constantemente amenazas que ponen en vilo su delicado equilibrio ecológico, como fragmentación del hábitat, expansión de la frontera agropecuaria e incendios forestales. Este volumen es el resultado de la compilación de poco más de una década de esfuerzos de investigación, manejo y conservación en torno al tercer felino más grande del mundo y depredador ápice de las selvas de América.
... We found that several mammal species are persecuted due to the damage they cause on livestock or crops. For instance, ranchers perceived pumas and jaguars as a threat to their production and economy due to felid predation on livestock; pursuing and killing the felids is often the ranchers' main solution to this problem in many areas of South America (e.g., Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia, Colombia) Palmeira et al. 2008;Carvalho and Pezzuti 2010;Garrote 2012;Guerisoli et al. 2017;Gáspero et al. 2018;Villalva and Palomares 2019;Nanni et al. 2020). Of concern, in some geographical areas (e.g., Argentina), provincial governments even promote lethal strategies (e.g., trapping or hunting with firearms) to control predators such as pumas and foxes (Llanos et al. 2014 Aximoff et al. 2020;Bickley et al. 2020). ...
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Human-wildlife interactions can be negative when the needs and behavior of wildlife negatively influence human goals, or vice-versa, and management of these interactions may lead to conflict. Here, we review information on negative interactions between humans and wildlife in South America contained in 136 scientific publications, focusing on terrestrial mammalian predators and raptors. We found that most studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Colombia. The methodology most commonly used to investigate negative interactions was interviews with rural inhabitants. Studies were performed mainly on interactions involving large felids such as Panthera onca and Puma concolor, and-to a lesser extent-on other mammalian predators and raptors such as eagles or scavenger birds. The main drivers of negative interactions involved perceived or actual impacts on human economy (material) (e.g., livestock or crop losses) or were based on non-material (intangible) aspects (e.g., fear, myths, and religious beliefs). The studies showed that negative attitudes and perceptions toward terrestrial mammalian predators and raptors are widespread in South America. Although non-lethal strategies for mitigation of negative interactions have been proposed, most are not widely used and lethal controls are still very common. A multidisciplinary approach is required, based on multiple actions (e.g., improving livestock practices, running educational programs, increasing stakeholder involvement, providing farmers with solutions), which would minimize negative interactions and promote coexistence between humans and wildlife. This is key to maintaining threatened species, ecological interactions and healthy environments in the anthropized landscapes of biodiverse South America. Desentrañando las interacciones negativas entre humanos, mamíferos carnívoros y rapaces en América del Sur. Las interacciones entre el ser humano y la fauna silvestre pueden ser negativas cuando las necesidades y el comportamiento de la fauna silvestre influyen negativamente en las metas de las personas, o viceversa, y manejar estas interacciones puede generar conflictos. En este artículo revisamos la información científica sobre este tipo de interacciones en 136 publicaciones realizadas en Sudamérica. Nos centramos en los mamíferos depredadores terrestres y en las aves rapaces. Encontramos que la mayoría de los estudios se realizaron en Brasil, Argentina, Chile y Colombia. La metodología más utilizada fueron las entrevistas a habitantes de zonas rurales. Los estudios se realizaron principalmente sobre interacciones con grandes félidos como Panthera onca y Puma concolor, yen menor medida-sobre otros mamíferos depredadores y aves rapaces como las águilas o las aves carroñeras. Los impulsores principales de estas interacciones fueron los impactos-percibidos o reales-sobre la economía (materiales) (e.g., pérdidas de ganado o cultivos) o aspectos no materiales (intangibles) (e.g., miedo, mitos y creencias religiosas). Los estudios mostraron que las actitudes y percepciones negativas hacia los mamíferos depredadores y las aves rapaces están muy extendidas en Sudamérica. Aunque se propusieron estrategias no letales para mitigar las interacciones negativas, la mayoría no se utiliza ampliamente y los controles letales siguen siendo muy comunes. Se requiere un enfoque multidisciplinario, basado en diversas acciones (e.g., mejorar las prácticas ganaderas, realizar programas educativos, aumentar la participación de las partes interesadas, proporcionar soluciones a los agricultores) que minimicen las interacciones negativas y promuevan la coexistencia entre los seres humanos y la fauna silvestre. Esto es clave para conservar las especies amenazadas, fomentar las interacciones ecológicas y mantener entornos saludables en los paisajes antropizados de la biodiversa Sudamérica.
... Human-carnivore conflicts that lead to direct persecution causing increased mortality and the risk of extinction (Woodroffe and Ginsberg 1998) are one of the best-known stumbling blocks in the conservation of certain carnivore species (Treves and Karanth 2003). Wild felids are no exception since many readily kill livestock when opportunities arise, thereby provoking reprisals from the people most affected (Polisar et al. 2003;Andrén et al. 2006;Garrote 2012). For instance, anthropogenic action as a response to livestock attacks has been found to be the prime cause of mortality in some felid populations of species such as cheetah (Acynonix jubatus) (Marker et al. 2003), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) (Oli et al. 1994), and tiger (Panthera tigris) (Miquelle et al. 2005). ...
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Most studies on felid depredation of livestock have focused on big cats, and little attention has been paid to this type of conflict in smaller species. The medium-sized Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is not thought to be affected by conflict with humans. However, parallel to an increase in the range of the Iberian lynx in Andújar-Cardeña, an increased incidence of Iberian lynx attacks on livestock has been recorded. A 6-year overview of Iberian lynx predation on livestock in this population shows a total of 40 attacks involving 716 kills (31 attacks on poultry and nine on sheep). Although the majority of these attacks (78 %) were carried out against poultry, sheep depredation resulted in higher economic losses, mainly in extensive flocks (4.6 times more than semi-intensive flocks). An effective compensation program has been implemented in order to mitigate the consequences of the human–lynx conflict in this area. Given that this sort of conflict could become an acute impediment to future conservation of the most endangered felid, managers should anticipate and prevent the potential conflicts that could arise as Iberian lynx colonizes more developed areas.
... Existen trabajos enfocados en la dieta y conflicto felinos-humanos por depredación de animales domésticos [11,26,170,181,195,196,197,198,199], estimaciones de densidades poblacionales ...
... Existen trabajos enfocados en la dieta y conflicto felinos-humanos por depredación de animales domésticos [11,26,170,181,195,196,197,198,199], estimaciones de densidades poblacionales [169], manejo ex situ y veterinario [200,201], así como algunos estudios sobre la presencia en diferentes coberturas y amenazas potenciales en diferentes regiones [4,170,181,199,202] y modelamiento de su área de distribución [194,203,204]. Finalmente, la especie es mencionada en varios documentos relacionados con planes de conservación a nivel regional [25,205,206]. ...
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El orden Carnivora constituye uno de los grupos de fauna que más ha llamado la atención del hombre. A través de la historia, las comunidades humanas se han beneficiado de estos mamíferos en varios sentidos. Muchas especies han sido cazadas con fines medicinales, de consumo, de vestido, o para ser mantenidas como mascotas. Ecológicamente, los carnívoros ocupan los niveles más altos de las cadenas tróficas y juegan un papel importante en el control de poblaciones de vertebrados. Además, al ser considerados especies carismáticas, los carnívoros juegan un papel importante como objetivo central de programas de conservación de vida silvestre. Sin embargo, a pesar de su gran importancia económica, ecológica y cultural, y a que ocupan todos los ecosistemas del país, el conocimiento sobre la ecología y taxonomía de este grupo de fauna es escaso y en algunos casos no confiable o verificable. Adicionalmente, en muchas ocasiones el acceso a la información es limitado o se presenta en un lenguaje complejo para la comunidad en general. Esta situación dificulta la integración de datos que favorezcan la implementación de planes de manejo y conservación en proyectos de investigación y consultoría. Ante esta problemática, uno de los primeros pasos consiste en recopilar información que permita sentar bases para el diseño de investigaciones, planes de manejo o programas educativos pertinentes con las necesidades del campo y el manejo de la biodiversidad. La guía “Los carnívoros terrestres y semiacuáticos continentales de Colombia” quiere postularse como una herramienta que pueda ser utilizada por todos aquellos involucrados en el uso, el manejo y la conservación de estos mamíferos. A través de un formato de fichas técnicas, la publicación incluye información sobre las características morfológicas, ecológicas y de distribución para 28 especies del orden registradas en el país. Además, se sintetizan algunos datos de los ejemplares depositados en la colección de mastozoología del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN), un patrimonio científico de incalculable valor para el entendimiento de la diversidad biológica y cultural nacional. Este ejercicio de investigación y divulgación contó con el apoyo de la Dirección de Bienestar Universitario de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la cual incentiva la realización de proyectos que promuevan la difusión de actividades estudiantiles de carácter social, académico y cultural. Cada día se incrementa el número de personas que se vinculan al mundo de la mastozoología a través de investigaciones, actividades de consultoría, espacios académicos o por interés personal. En este sentido, la guía constituye una herramienta no solo para los mastozoólogos del país, sino para todos aquellos involucrados en el uso, el manejo y la conservación de este grupo de fauna en el Neotrópico. Esperamos que este trabajo sirva de ejemplo no solo sobre la importancia de las colecciones biológicas como fuente de información, sino también como puente entre la academia, los grupos estudiantiles y los actores involucrados en el uso y manejo de nuestra biodiversidad. Andrés Felipe Suárez Cástro Editor
... Concretamente los Llanos Orientales colombianos son considerados área prioritaria para el estudio y conservación del Jaguar dado el escaso conocimiento sobre su presencia local y estado poblacional (Sanderson et al. 1999). Los trabajos sobre el Jaguar realizados en los Llanos Orientales son muy escasos, centrándose casi con exclusividad en el conflicto ganadero (Garrote 2012, Payan 2005. ...
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La información disponible sobre los felinos de Colombia es muy escasa, lo que dificulta la toma de decisiones sobre su conservación (Arias-Alzate et al. 2013). El Jaguar (Panthera onca) está catalogado como Casi Amenazado a nivel mundial (Caso et al. 2008) y Vulnerable para Colombia (Rodríguez-Mahecha et al. 2006). A pesar de ser una de las especies de felino más estudiadas en Colombia (Pinilla-Buitrago et al. 2015), existe una gran carencia de información básica (e.g. presas potenciales) para la Orinoquia colombiana, tanto en áreas protegidas como en áreas no protegidas (Garrote 2008). Concretamente los Llanos Orientales colombianos son considerados área prioritaria para el estudio y conservación del Jaguar dado el escaso conocimiento sobre su presencia local y estado poblacional (Sanderson et al. 1999). Los trabajos sobre el Jaguar realizados en los Llanos Orientales son muy escasos, centrándose casi con exclusividad en el conflicto ganadero (Garrote 2012, Payan 2005).
... Data from Polisar et al. (2003) show that jaguars prefer to kill cattle less than 1 year of age weighing less than 120 kg (D = 0.60) and avoid adult cattle (D = −0.78). Garrote (2012) showed that jaguars preferred pigs (D = 0.91) over horses (D = 0.38) and avoided cattle (D = −0.98). These results serve to reinforce our prey preference results, but also suggest that the predator naiveté that livestock have evolved through the domestication process allows predators to kill larger individuals than is possible with wild prey. ...
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Documenting the impacts of the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions on predator-prey interactions are challenging to study because of the incomplete fossil record and depauperate extant community structure. We used a comparative ecological approach to investigate whether the existing prey preference patterns of jaguars Panthera onca were potentially affected by the Pleistocene extinctions in the Americas compared to large felids in Africa and Asia. We reviewed the literature and found 25 studies reporting 3214 jaguar kills from throughout the species’ distribution. We found that jaguars significantly preferred capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris and giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla, and avoided agoutis, carnivorans, primates, black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis and tapirs. Generalised linear models showed that jaguars select prey primarily based on socio-ecological and behavioural traits (abundance and herd size), rather than morphological characteristics (body size). Nonetheless, the jaguars’ accessible weight range was 6-60 kg, preferred prey weight range was 45-85 kg, and mean mass of significantly preferred prey was 32 ± 13 kg leading to a predator to prey body mass ratio of 1:0.53, which is much smaller than other solitary felids. Compared to other large, solitary felids, jaguars have an unusual predator to prey body mass ratio, show limited effect of prey morphology as a driver of prey selection, lack evidence of optimal foraging beyond their preferred prey, and an absence of preferentially hunting on Cetartiodactyla herbivores. These patterns, coupled with the reduction in jaguar body mass since the Pleistocene, suggest that the loss of larger potential prey items within the preferred and accessible weight ranges at the end-Pleistocene still affects jaguar predatory behaviour. It may be that jaguars survived this mass extinction event by preferentially preying on relatively small species.
... En Colombia sólo existe un par de estudios publicados de depredación de jaguares , uno para el departamento del Vichada en la Orinoquia (Garrote, 2012; Payán et al., 2013a), y otro para los departamentos de Guajira y César (González et al., 2013). Sin embargo, la depredación de ganado afecta todos los departamentos del país en los que hay jaguares. ...
... Livestock predation by jaguars and pumas has been extensively characterized in South American countries, particularly in Brazil [8,12,22], Argentina [23][24][25], Chile [26,27], Venezuela [11], Colombia [28], and Bolivia [10], but very few research studies have been carried out in Mesoamerica. Despite lacking extensive research regarding conflicts between large carnivores and livestock, the region harbors both predators and diverse indigenous communities. ...
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Livestock predation is a global problem and constitutes the main source of conflict between large carnivores and human interests. In Latin America, both jaguar and puma are known to prey on livestock, yet studies in Mesoamerica have been scattered and few have been carried out in Honduras. We interviewed ranchers in a biosphere reserve where jaguars and pumas are present. Local indigenous communities reported livestock predation (average annual loss of 7% from 2010–2019), with preventive and retaliatory killing as their main actions against predation by the jaguar and puma. Other sources of cattle loss included diseases and theft. The extensive management system (free grazing) lets cattle access forests where predators are more common. We found that livestock predation is not random, but rather, related to landscape variables and human influence. Sites farther from human influence and closer to forest cover were more susceptible to predation. Jaguar and puma persistence in the biosphere reserve will require measures that facilitate human–carnivore coexistence and comply with Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2 and 15 (zero hunger and biodiversity conservation). We propose management practices to mitigate livestock predation in the presence of large carnivores based on examples of proven human–carnivore coexistence in Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, and Nicaragua, such as improving the spatial arrangement of livestock (maintaining a distance from forest areas) and the incorporation of confinement pens for young calves (at least the first three months of life) and their mothers. If the pens are built close to the property’s house and have constant surveillance and/or dogs, the results are likely to be more effective. Deploying these proven tools may help change the current negative perception of ranchers towards large carnivores that is essential to conservation under the aims of SDG 15. We recommend government policies and support aimed to strengthen livestock health to increase productivity and to reduce their vulnerability to predation. Finally, this study represents a baseline to understand the magnitude of the human–carnivore conflict over cattle in one of the largest biosphere reserves in Mesoamerica.
... Aunque no existe información previa a la conquista española del territorio nacional, la presencia e iconografía del jaguar a lo largo de la mayoría de culturas prehispánicas del país revela la presencia e importancia cultural fundamental de la especie en el imaginario y cotidianidad de los primeros habitantes colombianos (Castaño-Uribe et al. 2011). A partir de la llegada de los españoles al territorio nacional, se aceleran los procesos de cambio y alteración de los ecosistemas naturales, ampliando enormemente la frontera productiva e iniciando con los fuertes procesos de fragmentación de las coberturas naturales, con su conducente eliminación y fragmentación de los hábitats de muchas especies (Academia Colombianade Ciencias Exactas 1982, Hernández Camacho et al. 1992Actualmente el jaguar se distribuye en las cinco regiones del país (Caribe, Pacífico, Andes, Orinoquía y Amazonía (Arias-Alzate 2012), aunque existe poca información sistemática sobre sus poblaciones y en general su estado de conservación (PayánGarrido et al., 2013González-Maya et al. 2013a, González-Maya et al. 2013d, González-Maya et al. 2013c), Antioquia (Arias-Alzate et al. 2009, Arias-Alzate et al. 2011, Arias-Alzate et al. 2012, Arias-Alzate et al. 2013) y sobre conflictos y evaluaciones preliminares en Amazonas y Orinoquía (Garrote 2012, Payán Garrido et al. 2013).CODECHOCÓ y UTCH 2009) y más recientemente el registro fotográfico de un individuo adulto, mediante una trampa cámara en inmediaciones de Quibdó, capital del departamento del Chocó (Palacios-Mosquera 2014).de herramientas de gestión para el posicionamiento de la biodiversidad como fuente de bienestar social y ambiental en el Chocó, occidente colombiano», la Corporación Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chocó, en asocio con la Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó en Quibdó, Colombia, y la comunidad local, vienen desarrollando acciones en pro de la declaratoria de un área protegida del orden regional, en la zona centro del Chocó, donde se realizó el registro fotográfico del jaguar (Palacios-Mosquera et al. 2014). ...
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Objective: To assess the conservation needs and importance of the Chocó in the context of jaguar conservation at national and global scales a proposed an action plan for the conservation of the species in the region. Methods: We explore the importance of the region in the national and continental context and evaluate the main threats and potential impact in the region; finally, we propose research and action priorities as the basis for a Regional Program for Jaguar conservation in the Colombian Chocó. Results: We found that Chocó represents a critical stronghold for jaguar conservation at national and continental scales, and that in recent years more evidences are arising regarding conflicts and jaguar hunting in the region, risking one of the most important areas for jaguar conservation globally. Based on previous conservation plans, we propose four research dimensions divided in thematic topics, including social, economic, ecological and political dimensions; also, we propose four main action topics on which to focus for the short term, in order to mitigate growing threats for jaguars in the Chocó. Conclusions: Despite the low information existing for the species in the region, its importance is clear, and we expect our proposal will promote jaguar conservation research and action, in order to ensure its population in the long term, considering is one of the most critical areas for both jaguar and biodiversity in general in the country and the continent.
... Adicionalmente, los ecosistemas acuáticos se ven afectados por el ingreso del ganado, lo cual altera la calidad física, química y biológica del agua (Zuluaga et al. 2011). En cuanto al conflicto, estas prácticas favorecen la proximidad entre los animales domésticos y los grandes felinos (jaguares y pumas), donde el cuidado del ganado vulnerable e indefenso es muy complicado y costoso (Garrote 2012). ...
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Este documento fue realizado en el marco del proyecto "Divulgación de técnicas antidepredación para el conflicto humano-felino en la jurisdicción de Cormacarena", dentro del convenio de asociación No. PE GDE 1.4.8.1.17.014, financiado por la Corporación para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Área de Manejo Especial de la Macarena - Cormacarena.
... Los grandes depredadores pueden servir como especies focales en programas de conservación regionales, por su papel en la dinámica de los ecosistemas, sus amplios rangos de acción, su susceptibilidad a los cambios del paisaje, entre otros (Noss et al. 1996, Castaño-Uribe et al. 2013, de manera que el registro de puma en este paisaje antropogénico debe ser un incentivo para mejorar el manejo de estas áreas, no solo con el fin de mantener sus funciones ecosistémicas, sino para resaltar el valor intrínseco de esta especie y la convivencia con la naturaleza. Estos reportes deben ser manejados adecuadamente con el fin de evitar la persecusión hacia esta especie por parte de los habitantes locales, quienes suelen temer a estos grandes carnívoros debido a algunos eventos de depredación sobre especies domésticas (Garrote 2012, situación que parece no presentarse aún en San Carlos. ...
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Inadequate livestock husbandry practices threaten the maintenance of global biodiversity and provoke conflicts between people and wildlife, and large carnivorous mammals are among the most affected. The jaguar Panthera onca is one of the most threatened species in the Americas, being targeted by livestock producers who suffer economic losses as a result of predation. The way in which rural producers in countries such as Mexico conduct husbandry practices may influence levels of predation by jaguars. Our objective was to understand how such practices are conducted in the Selva Lacandona in south-eastern Mexico, to identify their influence on the vulnerability of livestock to predation by jaguars. We characterized local husbandry practices through participant observation, interviews and surveys. Our results show that the most important practices that make livestock vulnerable to predation include the location of grazing lands close to forested areas and water sources, the absence of practices for the proper disposal of carcasses, and poor control of calving and care of calves. Our recommendations include monitoring of livestock movements and synchronization of calving. Economic investment and behavioural change can be accomplished through capacity building and providing people with the means to monitor and manage their livestock. Small actions can reduce livestock losses and improve the economic circumstances of rural people, and thus increase their tolerance and respect towards jaguars.
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El Mapache Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier 1798) es un carnívoro mediano de la familia Procyonidae que se distribuye desde el sur de Costa Rica hasta el Norte de Argentina. Aunque es una especie con amplia distribución en el país, son escasos los registros confirmados de esta especie a escala local y regional. Aquí se reporta el primer registro de P. cancrivorus para la microcuenca Campoalegrito, municipio de Santa Rosa de Cabal, departamento de Risaralda. Agregando así un nuevo registro local de la especie para Colombia.
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A pesar de estas acciones y el gran número de casos reportados en el país, el conocimiento que se tiene sobre esta problemática en Colombia es mínimo y en muchos de los casos los ataques no se encuentran documentados en gran parte por los trámites ineficientes de las entidades competentes. Adicionalmente, los pocos estudios publicados están consolidados dentro de literatura gris, o son de difícil acceso o no tienen impacto sobre planificación o manejo de la amenaza. De esta manera, conocer el panorama actual y los vacíos de información se vuelve una pieza clave para iniciar acciones que promuevan el manejo preventivo y correctivo del conflicto.
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Livestock depredation by the snow leopard, Uncia uncia, and the wolf, Canis lupus, has resulted in a human-wildlife conflict that hinders the conservation of these globally-threatened species throughout their range. This paper analyses the alleged economic loss due to livestock depredation by these carnivores, and the retaliatory responses of an agro-pastoral community around Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary in the Indian trans-Himalaya. The three villages studied (80 households) attributed a total of 189 livestock deaths (18% of the livestock holding) over a period of 18 months to wild predators, and this would amount to a loss per household equivalent to half the average annual per capita income. The financial compensation received by the villagers from the Government amounted to 3% of the perceived annual loss. Recent intensification of the conflict seems related to a 37.7% increase in livestock holding in the last decade. Villagers have been killing the wolf, though apparently not the snow leopard. A self-financed compensation scheme, and modification of existing livestock pens are suggested as area-specific short-term measures to reduce the conflict. The need to address the problem of increasing livestock holding in the long run is emphasized.
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Across its range in Latin America the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and through conflict with people. In the Pantanal of Brazil, where large areas of land are devoted to cattle ranching, jaguars often attack livestock and are persecuted by ranchers. However, the extent to which livestock predation and/or other socio-economic factors affect ranchers' tolerance of jaguars is unclear. This study examined ranchers' atti-tudes towards jaguars and conservation in the northern Pantanal in order to identify ways of resolving jaguar-rancher conflict. The results suggest that most respon-dents supported the conservation of the Pantanal but that attitudes towards jaguars were mixed and difficult to predict on the basis of socio-economic factors. Attitudes towards jaguars were more closely related to respon-dents' age and relative wealth than to jaguar-related ben-efits through tourism or costs through cattle predation. Whilst efforts to reduce cattle losses are needed, it may be equally as important for conservation initiatives to focus on the inherent appreciation of the natural value of the Pantanal within this ranching community.
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In this study, data on cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) were recorded for six years (1998–2003) in a cattle ranch in central-western Brazil. Depredation represented 18.9% of the overall cattle mortality, being predominant on calves. In biomass, kills represented 0.4% (63.8 kg/km2) of the ranch’s annual stock. In economic loss, kills represented 0.3% of the cattle stock value. Depredation was mainly associated with cattle’s age class and location along with the time of birth of calves. The proportion of pastures next to forest with depredation (n = 33, 48.5%) was not distinguished to the proportion of pastures not bordering forest with depredation (n = 35, 51.5%). However, the proportion of pastures next to forest with depredation represented 54% (n = 33) of the 61 total pastures that were at least partially surrounded by forest patches or riparian forests that comprised eight continuum blocks of forest fragments of different sizes in the ranch and adjacent areas. No kills occurred in the central portion (main house) of the farm, close to the headquarters where the pastures not bordering forest. The distances of the kills in relation to areas of native forest was 1317.48 ± 941.03 m. In order to reduce depredation, calves should be kept as far as possible from forest areas and concentrated cattle breeding and calving seasons should be encouraged.
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Theory predicts that small populations may be driven to extinction by random fluctuations in demography and loss of genetic diversity through drift. However, population size is a poor predictor of extinction in large carnivores inhabiting protected areas. Conflict with people on reserve borders is the major cause of mortality in such populations, so that border areas represent population sinks. The species most likely to disappear from small reserves are those that range widely-and are therefore most exposed to threats on reserve borders-irrespective of population size. Conservation efforts that combat only stochastic processes are therefore unlikely to avert extinction.
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The success of conserving biological resources in any Biosphere Reserve or protected area depends on the extent of support and positive attitudes and perceptions of local people have towards such establishments. Ignoring the dependence of the local people for their subsistence needs on resources of such areas leads to conflicts between protected area managers and the local inhabitants. Crop yield losses and livestock depredation were serious problems observed in most buffer zone villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. In the present study 10 villages situated in the buffer zone of Nanada Devi Biosphere Reserve (1612 km2 area) in Chamoli district of Uttaranchal, India were studied during 1996-97 using a questionnaire survey of each household (419 = households; 2253 = total population in 1991; 273 ha = cultivated area). Estimates of crop yield losses were made using paired plots technique in four representative villages for each crop species. The magnitude of crop yield losses varied significantly with the distance of agricultural field from forest boundary. The total crop yield losses were high for wheat and potato in all the villages. The spatial distribution of total crop yield losses in any village indicated that they were highest in the area near to forest and least in the area near to village for all crops. Losses from areas near to forest contributed to more than 50% of total losses for each crop in all villages. However, in Lata, Peng and Tolma villages, the losses are high for kidney bean and chemmi (local variety of kidney bean) which varied between 18.5% to 30% of total losses in those villages. Potato alone represents 43.6% of total crop yield loss due to wildlife in Dronagiri village in monetary terms. Among the crops, the monetary value of yield losses are least for amaranth and highest for kidney bean. The projected total value of crop yield losses due to wildlife damage for buffer zone villages located in Garhwal Himalaya is about Rs. 538,620 (US$ 15,389). Besides food grains, horticultural crops i.e. apple, also suffered maximum damage. Major wildlife agents responsible for crop damage were wild boar, bear, porcupine, monkey, musk deer and partridge (chokor). Monkey and wild boar alone accounted for about 50% to 60% of total crop damage in the study villages. Goat and sheep are the major livestock killed by leopard. The total value of livestock losses at prevailing market rates is about Rs. 1,024,520 (US$ 29,272) in the study villages. Due to existing conservation policies and laxity in implementation of preventive measures, the problems for local inhabitants are increasing. Potential solutions discussed emphasize the need to undertake suitable and appropriate protective measures to minimize the crop losses. Change in cropping and crop composition, particularly cultivation of medicinal plants (high value low volume crops), were also suggested. Besides, fair and quick disbursement of compensation for crop loss and livestock killing need to be adopted. Local people of the buffer zone area already have a negative attitude towards park/reserve establishment due to socio-political changes inducing major economic losses and this attitude may lead to clashes and confrontations if proper ameliorative measures are not taken immediately.
Article
Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations. Depletion of wild prey by poaching and competition from livestock also poses an indirect threat to the region's carnivores. Conservationists working in these underdeveloped areas that face serious economic damage from livestock losses have turned to incentive programs to motivate local communities to protect carnivores. We describe a pilot incentive program in India that aims to offset losses due to livestock predation and to enhance wild prey density by creating livestock-free areas on common land. We also describe how income generation from handicrafts in Mongolia is helping curtail poaching and retaliatory killing of snow leopards. However, initiatives to offset the costs of living with carnivores and to make conservation beneficial to affected people have thus far been small, isolated, and heavily subsidized. Making these initiatives more comprehensive, expanding their coverage, and internalizing their costs are future challenges for the conservation of large carnivores such as the snow leopard.
Article
Predation by jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) is often a Source of conflict with cattle ranching in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Because jaguars are endangered in Mexico, Such conflicts have biological, social, and economic consequences. We documented the extent of predation by jaguars and pumas on cattle in 1999-2004 in northeastern Sonora, where the northernmost breeding population of jaguars exists in North America. Jaguars and pumas killed only calves < 12 mo old, and calves Constituted 58% of prey biomass consumed by jaguars and 9% by pumas. Annual cause-specific mortality rates of confirmed jaguar predation (<= 0.018), confirmed and suspected jaguar predation (<= 0.018), and all confirmed and suspected large felid predation (<= 0.018) were low and cattle Calf Survival x-vas high (0.89-0.98 annually). If calves reported as missing but for which no evidence of mortality could be found were classed as large felid predation, annual cause-specific rates increased to 0.006-0.038. Collectively, confirmed jaguar and puma predation accounted for < 14% (57/408) of total cattle losses, with jaguars responsible for 14% of all calf losses; this Could increase to a maximum of 36% (146/408) if missing calves were included ill the totals. While jaguar and puma predation may have an impact on some small cattle operations, it is generally tuition compared to losses from other causes in northeastern Sonora. Moreover, 91% of all confirmed calf kills were associated with three individual jaguars in our study. Targeting problem cats rather than broad-scale predator control may therefore be a viable alternative to address chronic predation problems. Because most (83%) instances of jaguar predation occurred during the dry season along thick riparian habitats, modified cattle husbandry operations, Such as establishment of permanent water sources in uplands and away from dense vegetative cover, could ameliorate many cases of predation by jaguars oil cattle.
Article
Large carnivores have declined worldwide, largely through conflict with people. Here, we quantify the impact of lethal control, associated with livestock depredation, on a population of African lions (Panthera leo) living outside protected areas. Farmers shot lions only in response to livestock attacks. Nevertheless, adult mortality was high and a simple model predicted that the population was marginally stable or slowly declining. Mortality was four times higher among lions radio-collared in association with attacks on livestock, than among lions with no known history of stock killing, suggesting that some animals were habitual stock killers. Known stock killers also experienced lower reproductive success; hence there was strong artificial selection against stock-killing behaviour. In addition, mortality was higher among lions whose home ranges overlapped a property where non-traditional livestock husbandry was associated with chronic depredation by lions. This 180 km 2 ranch acted as a sink that directly affected lions over more than 2000 km 2 and may have undermined the viability of the study population. Our results suggest that sustainable coexistence of lions and people demands livestock husbandry that effectively deters predators from acquiring stock-killing behaviour, but that lethal control may play an important role in avoiding the spread of such behaviours through the population.
Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Fauna & Flora International
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