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An analysis of the digital literacy of people with disabilities in Korea: Verification of a moderating effect of gender, education and age

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Abstract

This study compares the digital literacy of people with and without disabilities in Korea, using data from the 2011 Information Divide Index Data of the National Information Society Agency (NIA). We extracted Internet and smart device users from the NIA samples and examined the main effects of disability, gender and age, as well as their interaction effects on Internet and smart device use and production literacy. Of the 1500 public individuals examined, 1190 (79.3%) were Internet users and 535 (35.7%) were smart device users. Of the 5300 with disabilities, 2110 (63.9%) were Internet users and 324 (8.8%) were smart device users. Generalized linear modelling showed significant main effects of disability, gender, age and education on Internet use and production literacy. The disability × age and disability × education interaction effects on Internet use literacy were statistically significant. We also observed a significant disability × age interaction effect on Internet production literacy. However, the main and interaction effects of disability, gender and education on smart device use and production literacy were not significant.

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... The digital gap observed for PwD is known as the "disability divide" [5]. Although the digital environment does provide PwD with a means to overcome their disabilities and integrate in society, the likelihood of them becoming alienated and victims of unequal circumstances is very high [6]. By making PwD information literate, it is possible to bring about a positive paradigm shift in their day-to-day living conditions in ways that broaden their experiences despite their biological or functional impairments. ...
... Meanwhile, brain lesions were positively associated with SNS and social participation. Along these lines, the results of this study suggest that digital information may benefit PwD with physical disabilities [6,26]. Unlike the results of the PC environment, all disabilities except for physical disabilities (Lower) were negatively associated with smart device competence and Internet use/behavior. ...
... Previous research stated that the use of different ICT varies across the types of disability [6]. However, the evidence regarding smart devices is still insufficient. ...
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This study aimed to understand the digital divide in Korea by analyzing the digital competence and Internet use/behavior of persons with disabilities (PwD) in the context of PC and smart device use. Data from the 2018 Information Divide Index compiled by the South Korean National Information Society Agency were analyzed. The sample included both PwD and non-disabled populations. The disabled group was further divided by type of disability. We identified the domains that defined competence and Internet use/behavior. Access rates for both PCs and smart devices were also analyzed. Competence and Internet use/behavior varied among PwD. The results showed that the use of smart devices aggravates the information divide among PwD, and its effect varies by type of disability. When controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, lower-limb physical disabilities did not negatively affect competency or Internet use/behavior. These findings have implications for further research as well as policy and practice. Strategies to reduce the information divide for PwD should be responsive to the type of disability and environment of PwD.
... Dünya da ve ülkemizde; BİT'ne varsıllık ve kullanma becerileri kıstasında kadın ve erkeğin arasında derin bir eşitsizlik olduğu, konu hakkında yapılan çalışma ve araştırmalarında (Hilbert 2010;Dixon, Correa, Straubhaar, Covarrubias,, Graber, Spence ve Rojas 2014;;İTU News Magazine,2016;Nam ve Park 2014;Saha ve Zaman, 2017;BTYKA, 2000;Öztürk,2005:115;Telekominasyon Kurumu,2002;TUİK,2017aTUİK, , 2017bAşıcı,2009;Yıldız,2011) somutladığı üzere ortadadır. Türkiye'de "cinsiyetin" kadınlar aleyhine önemli bir dijital uçurum değişkeni olmasında, eğitim, sosyo-ekonomik düzeydeki sorunlar ve daha da önemlisi bu iki nedeni pekiştiren ataerkil ideolojinin olumsuz işlevleri rol oynamaktadır. ...
... ; Dixon, Correa, Straubhaar, Covarrubias,, Graber, Spence ve Rojas 2014;Nam ve Park 2014; Saha ve Zaman, 2017) cinsiyet değişkeninin dijital uçurum/bölünme de anlamlı farklar yaratan bir değişken olduğunu gösterir niteliktedir. Bu çalışmalarda ki ortak vurgu ise; BİT kullanım, erişim ve okuryazarlığı konusunda -ki bunlar dijital uçurumun göstergeleridircinsiyete dayalı anlamlı bir fark olduğudur.İnernational Telecommunication Union (İTU)'e ait: İTU News Magazin serbest dijital dergisinin "How Can We Close The Digital Gender Gap?/ Cinsiyete Dayalı Dijital Uçurum Nasıl Kapatılır?" ...
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... Of course, the advantages of social media can only be achieved when sufficient measures have been put in place to overcome user impairments, thus bridging the digital divide that may otherwise be exacerbated by the impairment (Kim and Doh, 2006;Ellis and Kent, 2011). Previous studies (Nam, 2011;Park and Nam, 2014) showed no difference in digital literacy between people with and without disabilities when other socio-demographic variables were controlled. Further, people with disabilities in Korea actively utilize assistive devices to overcome their physical limitations, and inaccessibility to online services due to physical barriers has been largely overcome (Jin, 2013). ...
... As a preliminary analysis, the differences in descriptive statistics among consumers without disabilities, consumers with mild disabilities, and consumers with severe disabilities were analyzed using an ANOVA with a Scheffé post-hoc test. The moderated mediation model was analyzed with control variables, including gender, education, income, and digital familiarity, based on previous research (Diener and Seligman, 2004;Gidengil and O'Neill, 2006;Park and Nam, 2014). Hayes's PROCESS macro (v. ...
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This study investigated the moderating effect of disability on the relationship between middle‐aged consumers' well‐being and their social media use, through the mediating effect of social capital. The study used data from the South Korean National Information Society Agency's “2018 Information Divide Index Dataset.” The results showed consumers with disabilities to be less active on social media, implying that they are likely to experience restrictions on social media use, regardless of degree of disability. Degree of disability had significant moderating effects on the relationship between social media use and subjective well‐being, mediated by bonding social capital. Although bonding social capital mediated the relationship between social media use and well‐being for all consumers, the effect was stronger for consumers with severe disabilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... However, as the population of users in developed countries progressively increased from 29.4% in 2001 to 46.3% in 200446.3% in (ITU, 2019, the main research focus has been moving toward "digital skills and usage" issues. These include "Internet use" within healthcare sectors (Bauer et al., 2018;Chung et al., 2018;Duplaga and Szulc, 2019;Hanauer et al., 2004;Renahy and Chauvin, 2006), psychological well-being and social involvement (Jackson et al., 2004;Quintana et al., 2018;Tang et al., 2020), learning and education (Camerini et al., 2018;Choi et al., 2018;Jackson et al., 2006;Selwyn, 2006;Zhang, 2015), e-government and digital government (Kim, 2015;Nam and Sayogo, 2011;Parkhurst et al., 2015;Reddick and Jaramillo, 2014), "social media use" (Koiranen et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2017;Li et al., 2018;Martin et al., 2018;Meshi et al., 2019), "digital literacy" (Caverly et al., 2019;List, 2019;Ozerbas and Ocal, 2019;Park and Nam, 2014;Porat et al., 2018;Vrana, 2016), and "mobile use" (Lee and Kim, 2014;Marler, 2018;McGregor et al., 2014;Seifert and Schelling, 2015). ...
... Sixth, young people are more motivated and have positive attitudes toward using digital technology. Several studies (Barrantes and Vargas, 2019;Park and Nam, 2014;Quintana et al., 2018;Singh, 2004;Tarhini et al., 2014) have demonstrated that age is the main factor in the digital divide. Singh (2004) found that individuals aged 15-34 and 35-54 years old are positively associated with Internet access. ...
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Digital technology has become one of the most important tools for the dissemination of policy information, particularly for implementing short-term transportation policy (STTP). This study investigated the mediating role of the digital divide in the associations between socioeconomic factors and outcomes of STTP through a case study of the first-car buyer policy in Thailand. A structural equation modeling approach was employed to generate a model using a dataset from 77 provinces in Thailand in 2012. The results showed that population density, income per capita, urbanization, and populations of individuals aged 30 to 34 have negative effects on the digital divide, while the digital divide is negatively associated with the beneficiaries of STTP. Meanwhile, economic activity, urbanization, and a population of individuals aged 30 to 34 have indirectly positive links with the beneficiaries of STTP. These findings suggest the significance of the mediating role of the digital divide in the STTP of developing countries.
... They concluded that with the right supports, students with disabilities can be just as digitally literate as students without disabilities (Seale et al., 2010). In another study, Park and Nam (2014) compared the digital literacy skills of people with and without disabilities in South Korea; they concluded that "people with disabilities are just as capable as anyone else to become digitally literate when technical barriers are overcome" (p. 410). ...
Chapter
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Digital literacy is essential for individuals entering college and the workplace. Students with disabilities experience a greater challenge in acquiring the skills necessary to succeed. This chapter explores the disability digital divide, success factors for acquiring digital skills, and the implications of a digital literacy curriculum developed for special education classrooms in Idaho. It demonstrates how leveraging human performance improvement (HPI) models, incorporating universal design for learning (UDL) principles, and supporting classroom teachers resulted in a curriculum to help young people with disabilities to acquire the digital skills they need to be prepared for college and the workplace.
... They concluded that with the right supports, students with disabilities can be just as digitally literate as students without disabilities (Seale et al., 2010). In another study, Park and Nam (2014) compared the digital literacy skills of people with and without disabilities in South Korea; they concluded that "people with disabilities are just as capable as anyone else to become digitally literate when technical barriers are overcome" (p. 410). ...
Chapter
Digital literacy is essential for individuals entering college and the workplace. Students with disabilities experience a greater challenge in acquiring the skills necessary to succeed. This chapter explores the disability digital divide, success factors for acquiring digital skills, and the implications of a digital literacy curriculum developed for special education classrooms in Idaho. It demonstrates how leveraging human performance improvement (HPI) models, incorporating universal design for learning (UDL) principles, and supporting classroom teachers resulted in a curriculum to help young people with disabilities to acquire the digital skills they need to be prepared for college and the workplace.
... Although individuals with disabilities are reportedly a vulnerable group within an information society, the digital environment serves as means for these individuals to better integrate into society. However, it also has the possibility of making people with disabilities more isolated and degraded to unequal situation (Park & Nam, 2014). In this context, it seems important to indicate how the impact of disability, as it relates to the digital divide, is reflected in life satisfaction. ...
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Rehabilitation aims to make necessary changes to help individuals achieve maximum life satisfaction. This study focused on Internet competence and use as factors related to life satisfaction for individuals with physical disabilities. Data from the 2016 Information Divide Index of the National Information Society Agency were analyzed. Regression analyses indicated a negative correlation between Internet use related to life services and life satisfaction; however, findings also suggested Internet use has positive effects on life satisfaction for individuals with physical disabilities. Internet use can help improve the life satisfaction of individuals with physical disabilities, and measures to increase competence and use are necessary.
... R48 tends to get the news when discussing and chatting with colleagues. Activeness is of course very dependent on the ability to use media, according to the research results of Park and Nam (2014) that age has quite an influence on the use of digital media [21]. Although this influence can vary at different ages in digital literacy [22]. ...
... Despite the positive roles and effects of informatization, PWD, in particular, have long been classified as an information-vulnerable group. They are vulnerable in terms of access to information and communication technology and capability of using it, and are relatively less able to take advantage of the intelligent information society [13]. In other words, PWD may face information inequality and a gap depending on the accessibility of information, the quality of utilization, and the speed of access [14]. ...
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The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led our society to lead a life different than before. People, including those with disabilities, have come to rely on information from the Internet. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on the impact of the pandemic on the Internet usage of people with disabilities. To address this gap, this study analyzed data from the 2020 Digital Divide Survey, which comprised data on 7000 non-disabled people and 2200 people with disabilities. This was used to compare the changes in usage of Internet services, and awareness and experience of COVID-19-related non-face-to-face services among non-disabled people and people with physical disabilities, brain lesions, visual impairments, hearing impairments, and language impairments. People with and without disabilities reported increased internet usage, but the increase was significantly higher in the non-disabled population than in people with disabilities (p < 0.05), except for people with language impairments. Specific changes to service usage, experience, and usefulness were different according to the type of disability. The non-disabled population showed a significantly greater increase in the use of social participation services than people with physical disabilities (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that digital services need to be developed flexibly to address the unique needs of people with different types of disabilities.
... Most information today is sourced from the Internet, which has raised consumer dependency on the Internet (Peterson & Merino, 2003). However, because people have different degrees of ability to use online information, the quality of information acquired and used by information-vulnerable consumers may be poorer, which may lower the quality of their information consumption (Park & Nam, 2014). Meanwhile, a new wave of information technology development, such as mobile internet use by means of smart devices, has already penetrated our daily lives. ...
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The continuing transition of the Internet from wired to mobile has facilitated changes in Internet use. By focusing on older consumers as a potentially disadvantaged group, this study examines whether smart environments have the potential to bridge the digital divide. Data were derived from an analysis of the 2013 South Korean Information Divide data set (n=2386 for those 60 years and older; n=5841 for those under 60 years). The existence of a digital divide in the smart environment was verified by comparing younger and older South Koreans; this showed that continuing consumer education is needed to enhance older people's experience and skills regarding information and in its use of communication technology. The digital divide was measured based on three aspects: accessibility, competence, and usage. In smart environments, gaps in accessibility and competence between the age groups increased whereas the gap in information usage decreased. Compared with the personal computer (PC)-based environment, members of both groups in the smart environment exhibited increased usage levels with regard to social relationship services, while the gap between the groups with regard to use of convenience services was reduced. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Individuals with disabilities might experience poverty for a variety of reasons that include economic, social and environmental factors, and they may have difficulty in accessing information because of their physical or mental disabilities (Park & Nam, 2014). In addition, their real income may be lower than that of Park & Nam the general population because of additional needed expenditure, such as medical expenses. ...
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History has demonstrated that the marketplace alone is not enough to ensure that telecommunications equipment and services are accessible and usable by people with disabilities. Public policy changes and legislative mandates are needed to make sure that the telephone system of today and the information superhighway of tomorrow is usable by all Americans.A survey of public policy and legislation shows that, over the years, responsibility for telecommunications access has moved from the disabled individual to the public at large to the manufacturers of equipment and, finally, to the providers of telecommunications services. The access solution has moved away from requiring the individual to purchase additional adaptive equipment to designing in equipment and network access from the beginning (universal design).The key to equal access will be the incorporation of universal design requirements for telecommunications equipment and services into legislation.
Book
The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society explains why the digital divide is still widening and, in advanced high-tech societies, deepening. Taken from an international perspective, the book offers full coverage of the literature and research and a theoretical framework from which to analyze and approach the issue. Where most books on the digital divide only describe and analyze the issue, Jan van Dijk presents 26 policy perspectives and instruments designed to close the divide itself.
Article
In this 'new media age' the screen has replaced the book as the dominant medium of communication. This dramatic change has made image, rather than writing, the centre of communication. In this groundbreaking book, Gunther Kress considers the effects of a revolution that has radically altered the relationship between writing and the book. Taking into account social, economic, communication and technological factors, Kress explores how these changes will affect the future of literacy. Kress considers the likely larger-level social and cultural effects of that future, arguing that the effects of the move to the screen as the dominant medium of communication will produce far-reaching shifts in terms of power - and not just in the sphere of communication. The democratic potentials and effects of the new information and communication technologies will, Kress contends, have the widest imaginable consequences. Literacy in the New Media Age is suitable for anyone fascinated by literacy and its wider political and cultural implications. It will be of particular interest to those studying education, communication studies, media studies or linguistics.
Article
This article presents a theoretical examination of the digital divide, tracing its origins in the centre–Left social inclusion policy agenda of the 1980s and 1990s to its current status of political ‘hot topic’. It then moves on to outline four conceptual limitations to conventional dichotomous notions of the digital divide and individuals’ ‘access’ to information and communications technology (ICT): what is meant by ICT; what is meant by ‘access’; the relationship between ‘access to ICT’ and ‘use of ICT’; and a lack of consideration of the consequences of engagement with ICT. The article outlines a more sophisticated, hierarchical model of the digital divide based around these conceptual ‘stages’ while recognizing the mediating role of economic, cultural and social forms of capital in shaping individuals’ engagements with ICT. It concludes by developing a set of research themes and questions for future examination of inequalities in individuals’ use of ICT.
Article
Reports on a study designed to formulate a literature-based model describing what teacher-librarians do as they help students involved in information search and use (ISU). Whether teacher-librarians work with students in all phases of the ISU process and the extent to which their intermediary activities can be related to other models are considered. (Contains 37 references.) (KRN)
Article
Government visions of a digital future show little indication of how disabled people, reliant on access technology, will participate. Access technology has the potential to offer independent use of the Internet but many disabled people already face barriers that prevent them having equitable digital experiences. Multiple obstacles include high set‐up costs, inadequate technical support and exclusive design practices. Due to the high levels of personalisation required, many disabled people are restricted to using computers at home. As a result their problems with access often remain unacknowledged and hidden behind closed doors. As online governance of welfare gathers pace, so greater awareness of the diversity of ways in which disabled people interact with digital environments is called for. Without this, government expansion into digital‐only welfare risks isolating even further those who have the most to gain.
Article
Improving consumers’ health literacy addresses many of the rising problems in healthcare. We empirically support a reconceptualization of health literacy as a social and cultural practice through which adults leverage a range of skills as well as social networks to meet their needs. Pierre Bourdieu's “theory of practice” guides this reconceptualization and facilitates articulation of the array of strategies used in the complex healthcare marketplace. We focus on the low literate consumers’ alternative forms of capital and the providers’ recognition and support. The findings, from an emergent research design consisting of depth interviews with low literate consumers and healthcare providers, suggest a critical, reflective approach that enhances health literacy, empowers consumers to become partners in their own healthcare programs, and improves health outcomes.
Article
An information intermediary is a human or a nonhuman party designed to assist consumers in information processing. The current study identifies factors determining the likelihood of using human information intermediaries and the effects of using information intermediaries on the amount and the pattern of overall information search. The proposed model is built based on a value-intention framework and tested in the context of financial investment decisions. The results indicate that a low level of perceived expertise in financial management, a large amount of total financial assets, and a high opportunity cost of time enhance the perceived value of information intermediaries, thus increasing the likelihood of using information intermediaries. We also find that the use of information intermediaries is positively associated with the overall extent of information search and influences the likelihood of using other information sources.
Article
This study explicates the concept of financial literacy, which has blossomed in use this century. Scholars, policy officials, financial experts and consumer advocates have used the phrase loosely to describe the knowledge, skills, confidence and motivation necessary to effectively manage money. As a result, financial literacy has varying conceptual definitions in existing research, as well as diverse operational definitions and values. This study dissects the differing financial literacy definitions and measures, urging researchers toward common ground. A clearer definition should improve future research, in turn helping consumers better understand and adapt to changing life events and an increasingly complex economy.
Article
Financial literacy (or financial knowledge) is typically an input to model the need for financial education and explain variation in financial outcomes. Defining and appropriately measuring financial literacy is essential to understand educational impact as well as barriers to effective financial choice. This article summarizes the broad range of financial literacy measures used in research over the last decade. An overview of the meaning and measurement of financial literacy is presented to highlight current limitations and assist researchers in establishing standardized, commonly accepted financial literacy instruments.
Article
There is no question that the Internet has, and will continue to have, a major impact on consumer information search behavior. However, under what conditions, and how, that impact will be felt is not clear. This article offers 14 propositions to stimulate and guide investigations of consumer information search behavior in the context of the Internet. A major conclusion is that broad generalizations regarding the impact of the Internet on consumer information search behavior are not warranted and that, if the propositions possess any truth value, the Internet is not likely to be an information panacea for consumers. Because of the complexities of the Internet and information search behavior (individually and even more so when considered conjunctively), investigations of consumer information search behavior in the context of the Internet should especially focus on moderators of that behavior and interactions among the various antecedents of the behavior. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This paper examines the empirical evidence to determine whether Asian countries, despite having captured a disproportionately high share of global production of ICT goods, have as a group been laggard in the adoption of ICT in comparison to non-Asian countries. Using regression analysis, it is shown that as a group Asian countries have indeed had generally lower rates of ICT adoption relative to their levels of potential as predicted on the basis of their current level of development (GDP/capita) and competitiveness (world competitiveness index). In addition, disparities in ICT diffusion are found to be significantly higher among Asian countries than among non-Asian countries. In particular, a significant ‘digital divide’ is found to exist between the five more advanced countries of the region (Japan and the four Asian NIEs) and the other seven developing Asian countries. Policy implications of the findings for the Asian countries are highlighted.
Article
In this chapter, the authors explore the relationship of technology to disability, and how technology can be both a source of liberation and an agent of exclusion for disabled people. The impact of the ‘digital divide’ on people with specific access needs, is examined and discussed, while the physical, cognitive and environmental factors that can contribute to exclusion as a result of technology design and implementation are examined in some depth. Demographic, moral and economic reasons as to why all those involved in the development of technology should take accessibility seriously are presented, while drivers for inclusive design—legislative, technical and economic—are discussed. A review of accessible and inclusive design practice, and the kinds of support that are available from a wide variety of sources for inclusive design is presented—showing that there are ways to minimize exclusion and to promote access. Finally, in looking towards a world where the true potential of technology to enhance the lives of disabled people can be fully reached, an overview is provided of research and development in supporting inclusive design, along with those challenges that remain to be overcome.
Article
Despite significant improvements in nominal levels, severe gaps of digital inclusion still exist in the American economy. This paper argues that, for certain groups, migration towards mobile computing and digital inclusion may transpire from 2G voice centric mobile telecommunications to data centric mobile computing devices. Accordingly, this analysis employs a large data set to investigate what socio-economic factors are determinant for the diffusion of mobile telecommunications; how these findings can be extended to help close the digital divide; and how these findings can inform policy making concerning the digital divide.
Article
Results from a national representative telephone survey of Americans in 2000 show that Internet and mobile phone usage was very similar, and that several digital divides exist with respect to both Internet and mobile phone usage. The study identifies and analyzes three kinds of digital divides for both the Internet and mobile phones—users/nonuser, veteran/recent, and continuing/dropout—and similarities and differences among those digital divides based on demographic variables. The gap between Internet users and nonusers is associated with income and age, but no longer with gender and race, once other variables are controlled. The gap between mobile phone users and nonusers is associated with income, work status, and marital status. The veteran/recent Internet gap is predicted by income, age, education, phone user, membership in community religious organizations, having children, and gender; for mobile phones, age, work status and marital status are predictors. The gap between continuing and dropout users is predicted by education for Internet usage and income for mobile phone usage. Finally, cross-categorization of Internet and mobile phone usage/nonusage is distinguished (significantly though weakly) primarily by income and education. Thus, there are several digital divides, each predicted by somewhat different variables; and while Internet and mobile phone usage levels in 2000 were about the same, their users overlap but do not constitute completely equivalent populations.
Conference Paper
In the last two decades, the disability situation has undergone substantial change globally due to international initiatives supporting the UN declared World Decade of Disabled Persons. However, these progressive steps are yet to reach millions of disabled persons in rural Bangladesh. Around 13 million people in Bangladesh are physically handicapped of which 3 million are children. Disability is increasing with population growth and ageing. Disability on this scale represents not only a major health issue but also a prime cause of poverty and underdevelopment. Information and Communication Technology (ICT), opens up great opportunities to improve the quality of life of disabled people failing which will further the digital divide. This paper proposes to discuss the importance of ICT development and accessibility for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh and elaborate on how ICT has been utilized thus far and how we can further these initiatives towards development.
Article
A survey was conducted to examine the usage of broadband in British households. The findings suggest that there is a correlation between the rate of internet use and consumers' age and broadband adoption. The paper also suggests that broadband consumers differ to narrowband ones in terms of the variety of internet use. Results obtained from discriminate analysis suggest that overall, the discriminate function successfully predicted the outcome for 68.5% of the cases, with accurate predictions being made for 66.3% of the narrowband consumers and 69.5% of the broadband consumers.
Article
This article examines whether Section 255 of the 1996 Telecommunications Act achieves accessibility for people with disabilities. Taking the interest group approach, it shows that the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) implemented Section 255 in a way that is favorable to the telecommunications industry and not to people with disabilities. The FCC's regulations only encourage the telecommunication industry to consider accessibility issues for people with disabilities. This proindustry regulatory bias is in keeping with the established pattern of policymaking in other areas concerning people with disabilities. The paper argues that if the FCC continues to rely on the voluntary efforts of the industry, people with disabilities will not enjoy benefits of access to telecommunications systems.
Article
In Japan, the mobile phone has become an increasingly popular medium of accessing the Internet and e-mail, especially among those who may not have affordable access to a computer. The lower startup costs and the easier overall accessibility of mobile phones relative to personal computers suggest that the mobile phone may be a possible alternative for overcoming unequal access to information communication technology in Japan and elsewhere. Using microdata from 2001, we compare and contrast the determinants of mobile versus computer-based Internet in Japan. Our findings show that mobile Internet access, as compared to computer access, is determined less by demographics, socioeconomic status, and technological readiness, suggesting that barriers to Internet access are lower for mobile phones than is the case for computers.
Article
This article argues that an enlightened, inclusive vision of universal service is possible by learning lessons from disability. Telecommunications policy has historically built in norms that needlessly exclude people who are regarded as having a disability and therefore being outside of the mainstream. Accordingly, universal service policies focus on availability and affordability of telecommunications services, rather than on their accessibility and functionality. The article shows how rethinking universal service through disability can lead to inclusive policies that benefit everybody.
Article
The near universal deployment in the United States of a wide variety of information and communications technologies, both wired and wireless, creates potential barriers to use for several key populations, including the poor, people with disabilities, and the aging. Equal access to wireless technologies and services can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including legislation and regulations, market-based solutions, and awareness and outreach-based approaches. This article discusses the results of policy research conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wireless Technologies (Wireless RERC) using policy Delphi polling methodology to probe stakeholders' opinions on key access barrier issues and to explore potential policy responses. Participants included disability advocates, disability/wireless technology policy makers, and product developers/manufacturers. Respondent input informed subsequent development of potential policy initiatives to increase access to these technologies. The findings from the Delphi suggest that awareness issues remain most important, especially manufacturer awareness of user needs and availability of consumer information for selecting the most appropriate wireless devices and services. Other key issues included the ability of people with disabilities to afford technologies and inadequacies in legislation and policy making for ensuring their general accessibility, as well as usefulness in emergencies. Technical issues, including interoperability, speech-to-text conversion, and hearing aid compatibility, were also identified by participating stakeholders as important. To address all these issues, Delphi respondents favored goals and options congruent with voluntary market-driven solutions where possible but also supported federal involvement, where necessary, to aid this process.
Article
Distance education is based on providing learning "anytime, anywhere." The design of many distance education courses, however, may actually erect barriers to the full participation of some students with disabilities, particularly those with hearing impairments. Without careful consideration, distance education could become learning anytime, anywhere, but not for anybody. It is not only unethical, but also illegal to ignore the special needs of these learners. The specific impact of such legislation on distance education for those students with hearing impairments will be addressed. Students with disabilities are often faced with a double digital divide that must be bridged. Universal design uses an excellent proactive approach to closing this digital divide caused by inaccessible courses. Each medium of transmission in distance education poses unique access barriers. Even within the same medium, what is best for one student or class may not be the most ideal accommodation in another situation. Individualized accommodation methods will be examined, and specific technologies and software will be discussed.
Article
The article examines differences in the use of the Internet by gender, with a consideration of access to the web, use of communication facilities related to email and chat rooms, frequency of use, and types of websites used. The study considers the impact of socioeconomic status and social, geographic, racial, and ethnic variables for explaining variations in the use of the web by men and women, and how these factors are mediated by knowledge of how to use the web. Copyright (c) 2005 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.
Social Inequality Russell Sage Foundation OECD (2013) Empowering and protecting consumers in the Internet economy, OECD Digital Economy Papers
  • K M Neckerman
Neckerman, K.M. (2004) Social Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation, New York. OECD (2013) Empowering and protecting consumers in the Internet economy, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 216, OECD Publish-ing. [WWW document]. URL http://dx.doi.org.10.1787/ 5k4c6tbcvvq2-en (accessed on 15 July 2013).
Beyond technology: rethinking in the age of digital culture
  • D Buckingham
Buckingham, D. (2009) Beyond technology: rethinking in the age of digital culture. Youth, Media, Democracy, 36, 36-42.
Shift of the paradigm of digital divide and utilization of Information
  • D J Choi
  • J H Kim
Choi, D.J. & Kim, J.H. (2004) Shift of the paradigm of digital divide and utilization of Information. Issues Report on the Digital Opportunity, 1, 1-387.