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A new combination in Lotus glaucus complex (Fabaceae, Loteae) from Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago)

Authors:
Silva Lusitana 19(1): 111 - 125, 2011
©UISPF, L-INIA, Oeiras. Portugal 111
Editores: jorge.capelo@inrb.pt; ana.almeida@inrb.pt
Notas do Herbário Florestal
do INRB (LISFA): Fasc. XXXII
!1. Novarum Flora Lusitana Commentarii
In memoriam A.R. Pinto da Silva
(1912 – 1992)
A new combination in Lotus glaucus
complex (Fabaceae, Loteae) from Porto
Santo (Madeira Archipelago)
Lotus glaucus Aiton (Fabaceae, Loteae,
section Pedrosia) from Madeira Island
was the first described species of the
Lotus glaucus complex (AITON, 1789).
LOWE (1856) proposed a new genus,
Pedrosia Lowe, to include the
Macaronesian Lotus species with a
distinct toothed style. In the same
publication Lowe described a new
species for Porto Santo Island, Pedrosia
florida Lowe, that he distinguishes from
P. glauca (Aiton) Lowe (L. glaucus), as
follows:
"in its more silky, hoary foliage,
lanceolate acute leaflets, larger, more
numerous flowers, often four or five in a
head, and larger, thicker, straighter, and
even, instead of strangulato-torulose,
pods".
Latter LOWE (1862, p.178), although
recognizing P. florida as a distinct taxon,
discusses its taxonomic status, clearly
dismissing a species rank.
MASFERRER (1881) transferred P. florida
to the genus Lotus as L. floridus and
BRAND (1898) combined L. floridus as a
variety of L. glaucus.
MENEZES (1914) considered P. florida
within Lotus glaucus simply as a form.
The subsequent Madeira flora authors do
not recognize any taxonomical rank for
P. florida (COSTA, 1946, 1948; PICKERING,
1962; HANSEN, 1969; HANSEN &
SUNDING, 1985, 1993; VIEIRA, 1992;
TURLAND, 1994; JARDIM & MENEZES DE
SEQUEIRA, 2008).
Recently SANDRAL et al. (2006)
studied the taxonomy of Lotus section
Pedrosia and they also do not recognize
taxonomically P. floridus (L. floridus),
although they have studied some Porto
Santo specimens they include P. florida as
a synonymy of Lotus glaucus and also
typified Pedrosia florida and P. florida var.
sulphurea Lowe.
Traditionally Lotus glaucus was also
recognized for all Canary Islands (e.g.
HANSEN, 1985), but SANDRAL et al.
(2006) refer to L. glaucus as an endemic
species for the Madeira Archipelago.
Distinguishing L. glaucus subsp. glaucus
for Madeira, Porto Santo and Desertas
and L. glaucus subsp. salvagensis
(R.P.Murry) Sandral & D.D.Sokoloff. for
Salvage Islands. Some specimens from
Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are
considered by the same authors as
uncertain, although others are included
in a different species.
The examination of collected material
and herbarium specimens (MADJ, MADS,
MADM, LISU and MA) and field
observations in Porto Santo, Madeira and
Desertas show that the Porto Santo
plants of Lotus glaucus agree with the
description given by Lowe for Pedrosia
florida (Figure 1). Table 1 summarizes the
diagnostic characters and compares them
with Lotus glaucus subsp. glaucus (Figure
2). The morphological resemblance of L.
glaucus with L. floridus and the restricted
distribution of the later to the Porto
Santo Island clearly suggest that a
112
subspecific rank should be applied,
accordingly a new status is proposed for
Lotus floridus:
Lotus glaucus Aiton subsp. floridus
(Lowe) R. Jardim & M. Seq., comb. nov.
" Pedrosia florida Lowe in Hooker's J. Bot.
Kew Gard. Misc. 8: 294 (1856) (bas.)
"Lotus floridus (Lowe) Masf. in Anales
Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 10:160. (1881)
" Lotus glaucus Aiton var. floridus (Lowe)
Brand in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 200 (1898)
= Pedrosia florida Lowe var. sulphurea
Lowe, Man. Fl. Madeira 1: 178 (1862)
Table 1 - Diagnostic characters of Lotus glaucus subsp. glaucus versus L. glaucus subsp. floridus
Lotus glaucus subsp. glaucus Lotus glaucus subsp. floridus
Indumentum Greyish pubescent Densely whitish pubescent or silky
Leaflets Obovate, spatulate, obtuse Elliptic-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate,
acute
Umbels 1-3(4) flowers 1-5(6) flowers
Calyx 5,0-7,35 mm 6,90-8,60 mm
Fruit 10-28 mm, usually with several
constrictions
10-49 mm, usually cylindrical or with
j
ust a
few constrictions
Figure 1 - Lotus glaucus subsp. floridus (A,
flowers and leaves; B, habit)
Figure 2 - Lotus glaucus subsp. glaucus
(Flowers, fruits, stems and leaves)
The original description of Pedrosia
florida is here transcribed:
"P. fruticulosa sericeo-albicans foliolosa,
foliolis confertis parvulis lanceolatis v. obovato-
lanceolatis acutis stipulisque conformibus omnino
sessilibus, umbellis 2-5-floris, leguminibus rectis
cylindricis glabris.
Var. a; fl. laete aurantiacis.
Notas do Herbário 113
Var. ß; fl. pallide sulphureo-stramineis.
HAB. In Portu Sancto".
Although some specimens with
flower color corresponding to the
description given by Lowe for Pedrosia
florida Lowe var. sulphurea were studied,
we agree with SANDRAL et al. (2006) in
not recognizing them at any taxonomical
rank.
Further studies should contribute to
clarify the taxonomic relations between
taxa included in the Lotus glaucus
complex in Macaronesia.
References
AITON, W., 1789. Hortus Kewensis Vol. 3: 92
London.
BRAND, A., 1898. Monographie der Gattung
Lotus. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik,
Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie.
25: 166-232.
COSTA, J.G., 1948. Lista Fitológica do Porto
Santo. Boletim do Museu Municipal do
Funchal 23(7): 55-65.
HANSEN, A., 1969. Checklist of the Vascular
Plants of the Archipelago of Madeira.
Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 24:
1-77.
HANSEN, A., SUNDING, P., 1985. Flora of
Macaronesia, Checklist of vascular plants,
3. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 1: 1-167.
HANSEN, A., SUNDING, P., 1993. Flora of
Macaronesia, Checklist of vascular plants,
4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
JARDIM, R., MENEZES DE SEQUEIRA, M., 2008.
The vascular plants (Pteridophyta and
Spermatophyta) of the Madeira and
Selvagens archipelagos. In: BORGES,
P.A.V., ABREU, C., AGUIAR, A.M.F.,
CARVALHO, P., JARDIM, R., MELO, I.,
OLIVEIRA, P., SÉRGIO, C., SERRANO, A.R.M.
& VIEIRA, P. (eds.). A list of the terrestrial
fungi, flora and fauna of Madeira and
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Direcção Regional do Ambiente da
Madeira and Universidade dos Açores,
Funchal and Angra do Heroísmo.
LOWE, R.T., 1856. Species plantarum
Maderensium quaedam novae, vel
hactenus ineditae, breviter descriptae.
Hooker's Journal of Botany and Kew Garden
Miscellany 8: 289-302.
LOWE, R.T., 1862. A Manual Flora of Madeira
and the Adjacent Islands of Porto Santo and
the Desertas. 1(2): 113-182. London, John
van Voorst.
MASFERRER Y ARQUIMBAU, R., 1880.
Recuerdos botánicos de Tenerife. Datos
para el estudio de la flora canaria. Anales
de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural
10: 139-230.
MENEZES, C.A., 1914. Flora do Archipelago da
Madeira (Phanerogamicas e Cryptogamicas
Vasculares). Funchal. Typ. Bazar do Povo.
PICKERING, C.H.C., 1962. A Check-List of the
Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Island
of Porto Santo (Archipelago of Madeira).
Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal
15(53): 33-60.
SANDRAL, G., REMIZOWA, M.V., SOKOLOFF,
D.D., 2006. A taxonomy survey of Lotus
section Pedrosia (Leguminosae, Loteae).
Wulfenia 13: 97-192.
TURLAND, N.J., 1994. Lotus L. In: Press, J.R. &
Short, M.J. (eds.) Flora of Madeira
pp.184-189. HMSO. London.
VIEIRA, R., 1992., Flora da Madeira. O Interesse
das Plantas Endémicas Macaronésicas.
Serviço Nacional de Parques, Reservas e
Conservação da Natureza. Lisboa.
Roberto Jardim, Centro de Ciências da
Vida, Universidade da Madeira, 9000 -
390 Funchal, Portugal,
rjardim@netmadeira.com; Miguel Menezes
de Sequeira, Centro de Ciências da Vida,
Universidade da Madeira, 9000 - 390
Funchal, Portugal, sequeira@uma.pt
... Two hundred eightysix plant species are non-endemic, but native or highly probable to be native (64%) and 103 further species are introduced or probably introduced (23%). Therefore, regarding the 343 native plant species, 57 are endemic to Macaronesia or parts of it (data counted from JARDIM & MENEZES DE SEQUEIRA 2008, 2011JONES et al. 2014). For many plant species in Macaronesia, insect pollination is essential for their reproductive success. ...
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Porto Santo (Madeira Archipelago) is a relatively old (11.1-14.3 Ma) and small volcanic island in the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the low altitudes of the mountains, the main part of the island is characterised by a semiarid climate and xeric vegetation; only a small part shows subhumid conditions. We were able to study the wild-bee fauna and the bee-plant network (with pan traps, hand-netting or observation) mainly during two stays in March 2012 and 2017. Currently, nine wild-bee species have been detected. Two species are endemic to Porto Santo, and two species and one subspecies to the Madeira Archipelago. An actualised and annotated checklist of the wild-bee species of Porto Santo will be presented. The colonisation history of the endemic species Andrena dourada and A. portosanctana will be discussed. The distribution patterns show a wide distribution of the endemic and native bee species in the xeric zone. Only Bombus terrestris lusitanicus is restricted to the subhumid area. We detected all in all about 300 bee-plant interactions. In contrast to mainland networks, e.g., in the warm-temperate zone, which are as a rule characterised by many more bee than plant species, the bee-plant network of Porto Santo shows many more plant than bee species and is highly asymmetric. Six wild-bee species used 27 different plant species. Bee and plant species were highly interconnected, showing that under difficult environmental conditions and resource limitations, alternative nectar and pollen resources were available. Especially the woody Echium species E. nervosum (endemic to Madeira Archipelago) and E. portosanctensis (endemic to Porto Santo) are, on the one hand, key species as resources for wild bees and, on the other hand, self-incompatible outbreeders that depend on insect pollination. Even in very dry periods (March 2012, with no precipitation in winter), Echium showed rich flower production and was intensively visited by wild bees. The same is true for Cakile maritima, which is an important resource for the endemic species Andrena portosanctana with priority use of Brassicaceae species. In the wet spring of 2017, there was a reduction of sampled or observed bee individuals compared to 2012 (but more detections without flower visits and fewer on flowers).
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A complete and up-to-date checklist of the vascular plants of Macaronesia (the Azores, the Madeira archipelago, the Salvage Islands, the Canary Islands, and the Cape Verde Islands) is given. 3.125 species belonging to 1.041 genera are listed, as are also a number of intraspecific taxa down to variety level. New combinations are proposed within the genera Cheilanthes, Pericallis and Pulicaria. A second section lists 2.250 synonyms and their presumed identity.
Lista Fitológica do Porto Santo
  • J G Costa
COSTA, J.G., 1948. Lista Fitológica do Porto Santo. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 23(7): 55-65.
Recuerdos botánicos de Tenerife. Datos para el estudio de la flora canaria
  • R Masferrer Y Arquimbau
MASFERRER Y ARQUIMBAU, R., 1880. Recuerdos botánicos de Tenerife. Datos para el estudio de la flora canaria. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 10: 139-230.
A Check-List of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Island of Porto Santo (Archipelago of Madeira)
  • C H C Pickering
PICKERING, C.H.C., 1962. A Check-List of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Island of Porto Santo (Archipelago of Madeira). Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 15(53): 33-60.
Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Archipelago of Madeira
  • A Hansen
HANSEN, A., 1969. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Archipelago of Madeira. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 24: 1-77.
A taxonomy survey of Lotus section Pedrosia (Leguminosae, Loteae)
  • G Sandral
  • M V Remizowa
  • D D Sokoloff
SANDRAL, G., REMIZOWA, M.V., SOKOLOFF, D.D., 2006. A taxonomy survey of Lotus section Pedrosia (Leguminosae, Loteae). Wulfenia 13: 97-192.
Species plantarum Maderensium quaedam novae, vel hactenus ineditae, breviter descriptae.
  • R.T. LOWE
Flora of Macaronesia
  • A Sunding
HANSEN, A., SUNDING, P., 1993. Flora of Macaronesia, Checklist of vascular plants, 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.