Pala V, Krogh V, Berrino F, Sieri S, Grioni S, Tjønneland A et al.. Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 602-612

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 07/2009; 90(3):602-12. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27173
Source: PubMed


A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk.
We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Between 1992 and 2003, information on diet was collected from 319,826 women. Disease hazard ratios were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.
Breast cancer cases (n = 7119) were observed during 8.8 y (median) of follow-up. No consistent association was found between breast cancer risk and the consumption of any of the food groups under study, when analyzed by both categorical and continuous exposure variable models. High processed meat consumption was associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk in the categorical model (hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.07). Subgroup analyses suggested an association with butter consumption, limited to premenopausal women (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.53; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.21). Between-country heterogeneity was found for red meat (Q statistic = 18.03; P = 0.05) and was significantly explained (P = 0.023) by the proportion of meat cooked at high temperature.
We have not consistently identified intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors for breast cancer. Future studies should investigate the possible role of high-temperature cooking in the relation of red meat intake with breast cancer risk.

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    • "especially diet, in cancer causation is the lack of accuracy of the method used to obtain information on possible risk factors of cancer (Pasanisi et al., 2002). However, the relationships between diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and cancer as an outcome are usually assessed by the questionnaires (Zhang et al., 2007; Pala et al., 2009; Peters et al., 2009; Beasley et al., 2010; Eliassen et al., 2010; Luo et al., 2011a; 2011b). A questionnaire to be used assessing the relationships between lifestyle risk factors and breast cancer was validated in the feasibility part of breast cancer casecontrol study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity and external reliability of a questionnaire on risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods. Women with breast cancer diagnosis (the cases) (N=40) and matched individuals without cancer (the controls) (N=40) were asked to fill in a questionnaire twice: on a day of admission to hospital (Q1) and on a day before discharge (Q2), with a time interval of 4-6 days. The questionnaire included questions (N=150) on demographic and socioeconomic factors, diseases in the past, family history of cancer, woman's health, smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and work environment. Criterion validity of the questionnaire Q2 relative to reference questionnaire Q1 was assessed with the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC); external reliability of the questionnaire was measured in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results. The responses to most of the questions on socioeconomic factors, family history on cancer, female health, lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) correlated substantially in both the cases and the controls with SCC and ICC>0.7 (p<0.01). Statistically non significant relationships defined only between the responses on amount of beer the cases drank at the ages up to 25 years and 26-35 years as well as time of use of estrogen and estrogens-progestin during menopause by the cases. Moderate and substantial SCC and ICC were determined for different food items. Only the response of the cases on veal consumption did not correlate significantly. Conclusions. The questionnaire on breast cancer risk factors is valid and reliable for most of the questions included.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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    • "Some studies report that dietary protein, and particularly consumption of animal protein, is linked to increased risk of breast cancer [4,5]. However, recent large-scale evaluations have failed to identify intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors [6]. Conversely, epidemiological studies have reported protective effects of dietary protein on breast cancer incidence [7] and mortality [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively) or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively) for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 +/- 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 +/- 1.3%/wk). At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 +/- 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 +/- 23.4 pmol/L), while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055). There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Nutrition & Metabolism

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