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Estrategia para apoyar la recuperación de peces nativos en el Lago de Pátzcuaro a través del manejo de especies exóticas: propuestas para el manejo de la carpa común Cyprinus carpio

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... Observations from artificial ponds (Roberts et al. 1995;Zambrano et al. 1999;Parkos et al. 2006), large mesocosms (Wolfe et al. 2009), and cages in littoral areas of large lakes (Miller and Crowl 2006) have linked high water turbidity to high density of carp. Increases in water turbidity, alteration of submerged vegetation associations including the disappearance of Potamogeton foliosus (Potamogetonaceae), declines in endemic salamander Ambystoma dumerilii and invertebrate populations, and potential resource competition with native fishes attributed to carp have all been speculated in Lake Patzcuaro (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2014). ...
... In Mexico, they are considered one of the greatest threats to biodiversity in shallow lakes (Zambrano et al. 2001). Carp are a known threat to native fish fauna in Lake Patzcuaro (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2014), and significant federal and state monetary efforts are being directed to control their population in the lake. Our analyses have shed light into how native fish communities might respond to these efforts. ...
... At least two strategies had been implemented to control carp in the lake, the provision of fishing gear specific to this species and failed attempts to subsidize its marketing (Arroyo-Quiroz et al. 2014). Unfortunately, for more than 10 years there was no interaction between fishers and federal agencies responsible for the regulation of fishing, and such strategies did not work (Huerto pers. ...
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Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.
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Objetivo: analizar el efecto de las políticas públicas en la configuración de las formas organizativas de la pesca en el lago de Pátzcuaro de 1930 a 2020. Metodología: investigación histórica mediante revisión documental de fuentes primarias, cotejadas con información estadística, y entrevistas estructuradas a los actores sociales clave. Resultados: la intervención sostenida del Estado mexicano ha derivado en una fragmentación social, expresada en diversas formas de organización de los pescadores que hoy proyectan ruptura, pero también reivindicación comunitaria. Valor: el trabajo subraya la importancia de una aproximación de análisis histórico a escala regional en materia de gestión pesquera. Limitaciones: la investigación requiere un enfoque participativo para el análisis de las formas organizativas vigentes. Conclusiones: para la gestión colaborativa de la pesca, es necesario considerar la heterogeneidad del grupo de los pescadores, además del análisis de la interacción entre fuerzas exógenas y endógenas a las localidades pesqueras.
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The ecology of the future passes for a phase in which the creation of new scientific paradigms is crucial to understand where wants to go the humanity and where we want to carry our planet. This revision will utilize 10 cases of study of the ecology of Mexican cambarids to illustrate the most important points of the science emerging, integral ecology. The treated themes bring each one two cases of study, with which will be touched at the same time, what is known on the most important aspects of the ecology of the cambarids, like its reproductive phenology, population dynamics, individual growth rates, aspects of the ecophysiology, bioenergetics and molecular biology applied of crayfish to gather information the develop conservation plans of their populations, ecological models and its application in the management of crayfish habitats and fishery. As every revision of a particular topic, at the end of the text an extensive present literature of each topic is presented: since the theoretical aspects to the practical; and above all, how has been applied each field of the knowledge to resolve punctual problems of the ecology, evolutionary biology and preservation of the Mexican cambarids.
Thesis
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ake of Pátzcuaro is located over the Neovolcanic Transmexican Belt to 60 km of distance from Morelia Michoacan. The lake has a rich biodiversity and settlement of the purepecha society, which is one the most important pre-Colombian culture of America. Fishing has an important nutritional, cultural identity and economic complementary for the communities surrounding the lake. In lake Pátzcuaro fishing is handicraft and none specialized it has been practiced since several centuries. The first collapsed hazardous of the fisheries appeared 70 years ago and the capture decreased 95% since 1989 to 2001. What is behind all this? The present thesis tries to answer: How is the status of the fishery? What is the relationship between the fishery’s status, and the functioning of the institutional arrangements? The investigation indicates that four out of five species obtain profit per fishermen. The production curve indicates that three of the five species of nutritional and commercial importance are overexploited those are charal, pez blanco y tilapia, while the carpa and the acumara have potential advantage. The actual fishery status could be in part attributing to the fishery policy and the institutional functioning evaluating the role of governmental agencies. Then, the investigation concludes that there is a low coordination between them for the application of the political fishery. It also compares the principles of design and the hazardous of institutions that administer common and sustainable resources with the institutional functioning that role the fishery activity in the lake Patzcuaro. From the deficient functioning of the institutions, derive an indication of fishery unsustainability from the low law execution to the absence of coordination and cooperation between users and government agencies. Finally, based on the Schaefer’s and Clark’s production curves model were design scenarios, which contribute with elements to be consider in the political management fishery. The thesis is focused only in specific aspects of fishery; however, it is necessary an environmental management in the basin of the lake Patzcuaro to the recovery of the fishery.