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The term Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data providers over the last three years, leading to the creation of a global data space containing billions of assertions-the Web of Data. In this article we present the concept and technical principles of Linked Data, and situate these within the broader context of related technological developments. We describe progress to date in publishing Linked Data on the Web, review applications that have been developed to exploit the Web of Data, and map out a research agenda for the Linked Data community as it moves forward.
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Linked Data - The Story So Far
Christian Bizer, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany
Tom Heath, Talis Information Ltd, United Kingdom
Tim Berners-Lee, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
This is a preprint of a paper to appear in: Heath, T., Hepp, M., and Bizer, C. (eds.). Special
Issue on Linked Data, International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems
The term Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing and connecting
structured data on the Web. These best practices have been adopted by an increasing
number of data providers over the last three years, leading to the creation of a global data
space containing billions of assertions - the Web of Data. In this article we present the
concept and technical principles of Linked Data, and situate these within the broader context
of related technological developments. We describe progress to date in publishing Linked
Data on the Web, review applications that have been developed to exploit the Web of Data,
and map out a research agenda for the Linked Data community as it moves forward.
Keywords: Linked Data, Web of Data, Semantic Web, Data Sharing, Data Exploration
1. Introduction
The World Wide Web has radically altered the way we share knowledge by lowering the
barrier to publishing and accessing documents as part of a global information space.
Hypertext links allow users to traverse this information space using Web browsers, while
search engines index the documents and analyse the structure of links between them to
infer potential relevance to users' search queries (Brin & Page, 1998). This functionality has
been enabled by the generic, open and extensible nature of the Web (Jacobs & Walsh,
2004), which is also seen as a key feature in the Web's unconstrained growth.
Despite the inarguable benefits the Web provides, until recently the same principles that
enabled the Web of documents to flourish have not been applied to data. Traditionally, data
published on the Web has been made available as raw dumps in formats such as CSV or
XML, or marked up as HTML tables, sacrificing much of its structure and semantics. In the
conventional hypertext Web, the nature of the relationship between two linked documents is
implicit, as the data format, i.e. HTML, is not sufficiently expressive to enable individual
entities described in a particular document to be connected by typed links to related
However, in recent years the Web has evolved from a global information space of linked
documents to one where both documents and data are linked. Underpinning this evolution is
a set of best practices for publishing and connecting structured data on the Web known as
Linked Data. The adoption of the Linked Data best practices has lead to the extension of the
Web with a global data space connecting data from diverse domains such as people,
companies, books, scientific publications, films, music, television and radio programmes,
genes, proteins, drugs and clinical trials, online communities, statistical and scientific data,
and reviews. This Web of Data enables new types of applications. There are generic Linked
Data browsers which allow users to start browsing in one data source and then navigate
along links into related data sources. There are Linked Data search engines that crawl the
Web of Data by following links between data sources and provide expressive query
capabilities over aggregated data, similar to how a local database is queried today. The Web
of Data also opens up new possibilities for domain-specific applications. Unlike Web 2.0
mashups which work against a fixed set of data sources, Linked Data applications operate
on top of an unbound, global data space. This enables them to deliver more complete
answers as new data sources appear on the Web.
The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. In Section 2 we provide an overview
of the key features of Linked Data. Section 3 describes the activities and outputs of the
Linking Open Data project, a community effort to apply the Linked Data principles to data
published under open licenses. The state of the art in publishing Linked Data is reviewed in
Section 4, while section 5 gives an overview of Linked Data applications. Section 6
compares Linked Data to other technologies for publishing structured data on the Web,
before we discuss ongoing research challenges in Section 7.
2. What is Linked Data?
In summary, Linked Data is simply about using the Web to create typed links between data
from different sources. These may be as diverse as databases maintained by two
organisations in different geographical locations, or simply heterogeneous systems within
one organisation that, historically, have not easily interoperated at the data level.
Technically, Linked Data refers to data published on the Web in such a way that it is
machine-readable, its meaning is explicitly defined, it is linked to other external data sets,
and can in turn be linked to from external data sets.
While the primary units of the hypertext Web are HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
documents connected by untyped hyperlinks, Linked Data relies on documents containing
data in RDF (Resource Description Framework) format (Klyne and Carroll, 2004). However,
rather than simply connecting these documents, Linked Data uses RDF to make typed
statements that link arbitrary things in the world. The result, which we will refer to as the
Web of Data, may more accurately be described as a web of things in the world, described
by data on the Web.
Berners-Lee (2006) outlined a set of 'rules' for publishing data on the Web in a way that all
published data becomes part of a single global data space:
1. Use URIs as names for things
2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names
3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards
4. Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things
These have become known as the 'Linked Data principles', and provide a basic recipe for
publishing and connecting data using the infrastructure of the Web while adhering to its
architecture and standards.
The Linked Data Technology Stack
Linked Data relies on two technologies that are fundamental to the Web: Uniform Resource
Identifiers (URIs) (Berners-Lee et al., 2005) and the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
(Fielding et al., 1999). While Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) have become familiar as
addresses for documents and other entities that can be located on the Web, Uniform
Resource Identifiers provide a more generic means to identify any entity that exists in the
Where entities are identified by URIs that use the http:// scheme, these entities can be
looked up simply by dereferencing the URI over the HTTP protocol. In this way, the HTTP
protocol provides a simple yet universal mechanism for retrieving resources that can be
serialised as a stream of bytes (such as a photograph of a dog), or retrieving descriptions of
entities that cannot themselves be sent across the network in this way (such as the dog
URIs and HTTP are supplemented by a technology that is critical to the Web of Data – RDF,
introduced above. Whilst HTML provides a means to structure and link documents on the
Web, RDF provides a generic, graph-based data model with which to structure and link data
that describes things in the world.
The RDF model encodes data in the form of subject, predicate, object triples. The subject
and object of a triple are both URIs that each identify a resource, or a URI and a string
literal respectively. The predicate specifies how the subject and object are related, and is
also represented by a URI.
For example, an RDF triple can state that two people, A and B, each identified by a URI, are
related by the fact that A knows B. Similarly an RDF triple may relate a person C to a
scientific article D in a bibliographic database by stating that C is the author of D. Two
resources linked in this fashion can be drawn from different data sets on the Web, allowing
data in one data source to be linked to that in another, thereby creating a Web of Data.
Consequently it is possible to think of RDF triples that link items in different data sets as
analogous to the hypertext links that tie together the Web of documents.
RDF links (Bizer & Cyganiak & Heath, 2007) take the form of RDF triples, where the subject
of the triple is a URI reference in the namespace of one data set, while the object of the
triple is a URI reference in the other. Figure 1 shows two example RDF links. The first link
states that a resource identified by the URI
is member of another resource called When the subject
URI is dereferenced over the HTTP protocol, the server answers with a RDF
description of the identified resource, in this case the MIT Decentralized Information Group.
When the object URI is dereferenced the W3C server provides an RDF graph describing Tim
Berners-Lee. Dereferencing the predicate URI yields a
definition of the link type member, described in RDF using the RDF Vocabulary Definition
Language (RDFS), introduced below. The second RDF link connects the description of the
film Pulp Fiction in the Linked Movie Database with the description of the film provided by
DBpedia, by stating that the URI and the URI refer to the same real-world entity -
the film Pulp Fiction.
Figure 1. Example RDF links
The RDF Vocabulary Definition Language (RDFS) (Brickley & Guha, 2004) and the Web
Ontology Language (OWL) (McGuinness & van Harmelen, 2004) provide a basis for creating
vocabularies that can be used to describe entities in the world and how they are related.
Vocabularies are collections of classes and properties. Vocabularies are themselves
expressed in RDF, using terms from RDFS and OWL, which provide varying degrees of
expressivity in modelling domains of interest. Anyone is free to publish vocabularies to the
Web of Data (Berrueta & Phipps, 2008), which in turn can be connected by RDF triples that
link classes and properties in one vocabulary to those in another, thereby defining mappings
between related vocabularies.
By employing HTTP URIs to identify resources, the HTTP protocol as retrieval mechanism,
and the RDF data model to represent resource descriptions, Linked Data directly builds on
the general architecture of the Web (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). The Web of Data can therefore
be seen as an additional layer that is tightly interwoven with the classic document Web and
has many of the same properties:
The Web of Data is generic and can contain any type of data.
Anyone can publish data to the Web of Data.
Data publishers are not constrained in choice of vocabularies with which to
represent data.
Entities are connected by RDF links, creating a global data graph that spans data
sources and enables the discovery of new data sources.
From an application development perspective the Web of Data has the following
Data is strictly separated from formatting and presentational aspects.
Data is self-describing. If an application consuming Linked Data encounters data
described with an unfamiliar vocabulary, the application can dereference the URIs
that identify vocabulary terms in order to find their definition.
The use of HTTP as a standardized data access mechanism and RDF as a
standardized data model simplifies data access compared to Web APIs, which rely
on heterogeneous data models and access interfaces.
The Web of Data is open, meaning that applications do not have to be implemented
against a fixed set of data sources, but can discover new data sources at run-time
by following RDF links.
3. The Linking Open Data Project
The most visible example of adoption and application of the Linked Data principles has been
the Linking Open Data project [Endnote:
CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData], a grassroots community effort founded in January
2007 and supported by the W3C Semantic Web Education and Outreach Group [Endnote:]. The original and ongoing aim of the project is to
bootstrap the Web of Data by identifying existing data sets that are available under open
licenses, converting these to RDF according to the Linked Data principles, and publishing
them on the Web.
Participants in the early stages of the project were primarily researchers and developers in
university research labs and small companies. Since that time the project has grown
considerably, to include significant involvement from large organisations such as the BBC,
Thomson Reuters and the Library of Congress. This growth is enabled by the open nature of
the project, where anyone can participate simply by publishing a data set according to the
Linked Data principles and interlinking it with existing data sets. An indication of the range
and scale of the Web of Data originating from the Linking Open Data project is provided in
Figure 2. Each node in this cloud diagram represents a distinct data set published as Linked
Data, as of March 2009.
Figure 2. Linking Open Data cloud diagram giving an overview of published data sets and
their interlinkage relationships.
The arcs in Figure 2 indicate that links exist between items in the two connected data sets.
Heavier arcs roughly correspond to a greater number of links between two data sets, while
bidirectional arcs indicate the outward links to the other exist in each data set.
The content of the cloud is diverse in nature, comprising data about geographic locations,
people, companies, books (Bizer & Cyganiak & Gauss, 2007), scientific publications (Van de
Sompel et al., 2009), films (Hassanzadeh & Consens, 2009), music, television and radio
programmes (Kobilarov et al, 2009), genes, proteins, drugs and clinical trials (Belleau et al.,
2008, Jentzsch et al., 2009), online communities, statistical data, census results, and
reviews (Heath & Motta, 2008).
Calculating the exact size of the Web of Data is challenging due to the fact that much of the
data is being generated by wrappers around existing relational databases or APIs and
therefore first need to be crawled before it can be counted or analyzed (Hausenblas et al.,
2008). Alternatively, the size of the Web of Data can be estimated based on the data set
statistics that are collected by the LOD community in the ESW wiki. According to these
statistics, the Web of Data currently consists of 4.7 billion RDF triples, which are interlinked
by around 142 million RDF links (May 2009). [Endnote:
TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData/DataSets/LinkStatistics and
As Figure 2 shows, certain data sets serve as linking hubs in the Web of Data. For example,
the DBpedia data set (Auer et al., 2007) consists of RDF triples extracted from the
"infoboxes" commonly seen on the right hand side of Wikipedia articles, while Geonames
[Endnote:] provides RDF descriptions of millions of
geographical locations worldwide. As these two data sets provide URIs and RDF descriptions
for many common entities or concepts, they are frequently referenced in other more
specialised data sets and have therefore developed into hubs to which an increasing number
of other data sets are connected.
4. Publishing Linked Data on the Web
By publishing data on the Web according to the Linked Data principles, data providers add
their data to a global data space, which allows data to be discovered and used by various
applications. Publishing a data set as Linked Data on the Web involves the following three
basic steps:
1. Assign URIs to the entities described by the data set and provide for dereferencing these
URIs over the HTTP protocol into RDF representations.
2. Set RDF links to other data sources on the Web, so that clients can navigate the Web of
Data as a whole by following RDF links.
3. Provide metadata about published data, so that clients can assess the quality of
published data and choose between different means of access.
In the following, we will give an overview about each of these tasks as well as about tools
that have been developed to support publishers with each task.
Choosing URIs and RDF Vocabularies
Data providers can choose between two HTTP URI usage patterns to identify entities: 303
URIs and hash URIs. Both patterns ensure that clients can distinguish between URIs that
identify real-world entities and URIs that identify Web documents describing these real-
world entities (Sauermann & Cyganiak, 2008). In an open environment like the Web,
different information providers publish data about the same real-world entity, for instance a
geographic location or a celebrity. As they may not know about each other, they introduce
different URIs to identify the same entitiy. For instance, DBpedia uses the URI to identify Berlin, while Geonames uses the URI to identify Berlin. As both URIs refer to the same real-
world entity, they are called URI aliases. URI aliases are common on the Web of Data, as it
can not realistically be expected that all information providers agree on the same URIs to
identify an entity. URI aliases also provide an important social function to the Web of Data
as they are dereferenced to different descriptions of the same real-world entity and thus
allow different views and opinions to be expressed on the Web. In order to still be able to
track that different information providers speak about the same entity, it is common
practice that information providers set owl:sameAs links to URI aliases they know about.
Different communities have specific preferences on the vocabularies they prefer to use for
publishing data on the Web. The Web of Data is therefore open to arbitrary vocabularies
being used in parallel. Despite this general openness, it is considered good practice to reuse
terms from well-known RDF vocabularies such as FOAF, SIOC, SKOS, DOAP, vCard, Dublin
Core, OAI-ORE or GoodRelations wherever possible in order to make it easier for client
applications to process Linked Data. Only if these vocabularies do not provide the required
terms should data publishers define new, data source-specific terminology (Bizer &
Cyganiak & Heath, 2007). If new terminology is defined, it should be made self-describing
by making the URIs that identify terms Web dereferencable (Berrueta & Phipps, 2008). This
allows clients to retrieve RDF Schema or OWL definitions of the terms as well as term
mappings to other vocabularies. The Web of Data thus relies on a pay as you go data
integration approach (Das Sarma & Dong & Halevy, 2008) based on a mixture of using
common vocabularies together with data source-specific terms that are connected by
mappings as deemed necessary.
A common serialization format for Linked Data is RDF/XML (Beckett, 2004). In situations
where human inspection of RDF data is required, Notation3 (Berners-Lee, 1998), and its
subset Turtle (Beckett and Berners-Lee, 2008), are often provided as alternative, inter-
convertible serializations, due to the greater perceived readability of these formats.
Alternatively, Linked Data can also be serialized as RDFa (Adida et al., 2008) which provides
for embedding RDF triples into HTML. In the second case, data publishers should use the
RDFa about attribute to assign URIs to entities in order to allow other data providers to set
RDF links to them.
Link Generation
RDF links allow client applications to navigate between data sources and to discover
additional data. In order to be part of the Web of Data, data sources should set RDF links to
related entities in other data sources. As data sources often provide information about large
numbers of entities, it is common practice to use automated or semi-automated approaches
to generate RDF links.
In various domains, there are generally accepted naming schemata. For instance, in the
publication domain there are ISBN and ISSN numbers, in the financial domain there are
ISIN identifiers, EAN and EPC codes are widely used to identify products, in life science
various accepted identification schemata exist for genes, molecules, and chemical
substances. If the link source and the link target data sets already both support one of
these identification schema, the implicit relationship between entities in both data sets can
easily be made explicit as RDF links. This approach has been used to generate links between
various data sources in the LOD cloud.
If no shared naming schema exist, RDF links are often generated based on the similarity of
entities within both data sets. Such similarity computations can build on a large body of
related work on record linkage (Winkler, 2006) and duplicate detection (Elmagarmid et al.,
2007) within the database community as well as on ontology matching (Euzenat & Shvaiko,
2007) in the knowledge representation community. An example of a similarity based
interlinking algorithm is presented in (Raimond et al., 2008). In order to set RDF links
between artists in the Jamendo and Musicbrainz data sets, the authors use a similarity
metric that compares the names of artists as well as the titles of their albums and songs.
Various RDF link generation frameworks are available, that provide declarative languages
for specifying which types of RDF links should be created, which combination of similarity
metrics should be used to compare entities and how similarity scores for specific properties
are aggregated into an overall score. The Silk framework (Volz et al., 2009) works against
local and remote SPARQL [Endnote:] endpoints
and is designed to be employed in distributed environments without having to replicate data
sets locally. The LinQL framework (Hassanzadeh et al., 2009) works over relational
databases and is designed to be used together with database to RDF mapping tools such as
D2R Server or Virtuoso.
Linked Data should be published alongside several types of metadata, in order to increase
its utility for data consumers. In order to enable clients to assess the quality of published
data and to determine whether they want to trust data, data should be accompanied with
meta-information about its creator, its creation date as well as the creation method (Hartig,
2009). Basic provenance meta-information can be provided using Dublin Core terms or the
Semantic Web Publishing vocabulary (Carroll et al., 2005). The Open Provenance Model
(Moreau et al., 2008) provides terms for describing data transformation workflows. In (Zhao
et al., 2008), the authors propose a method for providing evidence for RDF links and for
tracing how the RDF links change over time
In order to support clients in choosing the most efficient way to access Web data for the
specific task they have to perform, data publishers can provide additional technical
metadata about their data set and its interlinkage relationships with other data sets: The
Semantic Web Crawling sitemap extension (Cyganiak et al., 2008) allows data publishers to
state which alternative means of access (SPARQL endpoint, RDF dumps) are provided
besides dereferenceable URIs. The Vocabulary Of Interlinked Datasets (Alexander et al.,
2009) defines terms and best practices to categorize and provide statistical meta-
information about data sets as well as the linksets connecting them.
Publishing Tools
A variety of Linked Data publishing tools has been developed. The tools either serve the
content of RDF stores as Linked Data on the Web or provide Linked Data views over non-
RDF legacy data sources. The tools shield publishers from dealing with technical details such
as content negotiation and ensure that data is published according to the Linked Data
community best practices (Sauermann & Cyganiak, 2008; Berrueta & Phipps, 2008; Bizer &
Cyganiak & Heath, 2007). All tools support dereferencing URIs into RDF descriptions. In
addition, some of the tools also provide SPARQL query access to the served data sets and
support the publication of RDF dumps.
D2R Server. D2R Server (Bizer & Cyganiak, 2006) is a tool for publishing non-RDF
relational databases as Linked Data on the Web. Using a declarative mapping
language, the data publisher defines a mapping between the relational schema of
the database and the target RDF vocabulary. Based on the mapping, D2R server
publishes a Linked Data view over the database and allows clients to query the
database via the SPARQL protocol.
Virtuoso Universal Server. The OpenLink Virtuoso server[Endnote:] provides for serving
RDF data via a Linked Data interface and a SPARQL endpoint. RDF data can either
be stored directly in Virtuoso or can be created on the fly from non-RDF relational
databases based on a mapping.
Talis Platform. The Talis Platform[Endnote:] is
delivered as Software as a Service accessed over HTTP, and provides native storage
for RDF/Linked Data. Access rights permitting, the contents of each Talis Platform
store are accessible via a SPARQL endpoint and a series of REST APIs that adhere to
the Linked Data principles.
Pubby. The Pubby server (Cyganiak & Bizer, 2008) can be used as an extension to
any RDF store that supports SPARQL. Pubby rewrites URI requests into SPARQL
DESCRIBE queries against the underlying RDF store. Besides RDF, Pubby also
provides a simple HTML view over the data store and takes care of handling 303
redirects and content negotiation between the two representations.
Triplify. The Triplify toolkit (Auer et al, 2009) supports developers in extending
existing Web applications with Linked Data front-ends. Based on SQL query
templates, Triplify serves a Linked Data and a JSON view over the application's
SparqPlug. SparqPlug (Coetzee, Heath and Motta, 2008) is a service that enables
the extraction of Linked Data from legacy HTML documents on the Web that do not
contain RDF data. The service operates by serialising the HTML DOM as RDF and
allowing users to define SPARQL queries that transform elements of this into an RDF
graph of their choice.
OAI2LOD Server. The OAI2LOD (Haslhofer & Schandl, 2008) is a Linked Data
wrapper for document servers that support the Open Archives OAI-RMH protocol.
SIOC Exporters. The SIOC project has developed Linked Data wrappers for several
popular blogging engines, content management systems and discussion forums such
as WordPress, Drupal, and phpBB [Endnote:].
A service that helps publishers to debug their Linked Data site is the Vapour validation
service [Endnote:]. Vapour verifies that published data
complies with the Linked Data principles and community best practices.
5. Linked Data Applications
With significant volumes of Linked Data being published on the Web, numerous efforts are
underway to research and build applications that exploit this Web of Data. At present these
efforts can be broadly classified into three categories: Linked Data browsers, Linked Data
search engines, and domain-specific Linked Data applications. In the following section we
will examine each of these categories.
Linked Data Browsers
Just as traditional Web browsers allow users to navigate between HTML pages by following
hypertext links, Linked Data browsers allow users to navigate between data sources by
following links expressed as RDF triples. For example, a user may view DBpedia's RDF
description of the city of Birmingham (UK), follow a 'birthplace' link to the description of the
comedian Tony Hancock (who was born in the city), and from there onward into RDF data
from the BBC describing broadcasts in which Hancock starred. The result is that a user may
begin navigation in one data source and progressively traverse the Web by following RDF
rather than HTML links. The Disco hyperdata browser [Endnote: http://www4.wiwiss.fu-] follows this approach and can be seen as a direct application of
the hypertext navigation paradigm to the Web of Data.
Data, however, provides human interface opportunities and challenges beyond those of the
hypertext Web. People need to be able to explore the Web of links between items, but also
to powerfully analyze data in bulk. The Tabulator (Berners-Lee et al, 2006; Berners-Lee et
al, 2008), for example, allows the user traverse the Web of Data, and expose pieces of it in
a controlled way, in "outline mode"; to discover and highlight a pattern of interest; and then
query for any other similar patterns in the data Web. The results of the query form a table
that can then be analyzed with various conventional data presentation methods, such as
faceted browsers, maps, timelines, and so on.
Tabulator and Marbles (Becker & Bizer, 2008) (see Figure 3) are among the data browsers
which track the provenance of data, while merging data about the same thing from different
sources. While authors such as (Karger & schraefel, 2006) have questioned the use of
graph-oriented views over RDF data, as seen in browsers such as FOAFNaut [Endnote:], (Hastrup, Cyganiak & Bojars, 2008) argue that such
interfaces fill an important niche, and describe their Fenfire browser that follows this display
Figure 3. The Marbles Linked Data browser displaying data about Tim Berners-Lee. The
colored dots indicate the data sources from which data was merged.
Linked Data Search Engines and Indexes
In the traditional hypertext Web, browsing and searching are often seen as the two
dominant modes of interaction (Olston & Chi, 2003). While browsers provide the
mechanisms for navigating the information space, search engines are often the place at
which that navigation process begins. A number of search engines have been developed
that crawl Linked Data from the Web by following RDF links, and provide query capabilities
over aggregated data. Broadly speaking, these services can be divided into two categories:
human-oriented search engines, and application-oriented indexes.
Human-oriented Search Engines
Search engines such as Falcons (Cheng & Qu, this issue) and SWSE (Hogan et al., 2007)
provide keyword-based search services oriented towards human users, and follow a similar
interaction paradigm to existing market leaders such as Google and Yahoo. The user is
presented with a search box into which they can enter keywords related to the item or topic
in which they are interested, and the application returns a list of results that may be
relevant to the query. However, rather than simply providing links from search results
through to the source documents in which the queried keywords are mentioned, both SWSE
and Falcons provide a more detailed interface to the user that exploits the underlying
structure of the data. Both provide a summary of the entity the user selects from the results
list, alongside additional structured data crawled from the Web and links to related entities.
Falcons provides users with the option of searching for objects, concepts and documents,
each of which leads to slightly different presentation of results. While the object search
(Figure 4.) is suited to searching for people, places and other more concrete items, the
concept search is oriented to locating classes and properties in ontologies published on the
Web. The document search feature provides a more traditional search engine experience,
where results point to RDF documents that contain the specified search terms.
It is worth noting that, while they may be referred to as distinct entities, the document Web
and the data Web form one connected, navigable information space. For example, a user
may perform a search in the existing document Web, follow a link from an HTML document
into the Web of Data, navigate this space for some time, and then follow a link to a different
HTML document, and so on.
Figure 4. Falcons object search results for the keyword 'Berlin'.
It is interesting to note that while both SWSE and Falcons operate over corpuses of
structured data crawled from the Web, they choose to provide very simple query capabilities
that mimic the query interfaces of conventional Web search engines. While one may
intuitively expect the additional structure in the data to be exploited to provide sophisticated
query capabilities for advanced users at least, this has not proved to be the case to date,
with the exception of Tabulator's style of query-by-example and faceted browsing interfaces
for query refinement. SWSE does provide access to its underlying data store via the SPARQL
query language, however this is suitable primarily for application developers with a
knowledge of the language rather than regular users wishing to ask very specific questions
through a usable human interface.
Application-oriented Indexes
While SWSE and Falcons provide search capabilities oriented towards humans, another
breed of services have been developed to serve the needs of applications built on top of
distributed Linked Data. These application-oriented indexes, such as Swoogle (Ding et al,
2005), Sindice (Oren et al, 2008) and Watson (d'Aquin et al, 2008) provide APIs through
which Linked Data applications can discover RDF documents on the Web that reference a
certain URI or contain certain keywords. The rationale for such services is that each new
Linked Data application should not need to implement its own infrastructure for crawling
and indexing all parts of the Web of Data of which it might wish to make use. Instead,
applications can query these indexes to receive pointers to potentially relevant documents
which can then be retrieved and processed by the application itself. Despite this common
theme, these services have slightly different emphases. Sindice is oriented more to
providing access to documents containing instance data, while in contrast the emphasis of
Swoogle and Watson is on finding ontologies that provide coverage of certain concepts
relevant to a query.
Domain-specific Applications
While the Linked Data browsers and search engines described above provide largely generic
functionality, a number of services have been developed that offer more domain-specific
functionality by 'mashing up' data from various Linked Data sources.
Revyu (Heath & Motta, 2008) is a generic reviewing and rating site based on Linked Data
principles and the Semantic Web technology stack. In addition to publishing Linked Data,
Revyu consumes Linked Data from the Web to enhance the experience of site users. For
example, when films are reviewed on Revyu, the site attempts to match these with the
corresponding entry in DBpedia. Where a match is made, additional information about the
film (such as the director's name and the film poster) is retrieved from DBpedia and shown
in the human-oriented (HTML) pages of the site. In addition, links are made at the RDF level
to the corresponding item, ensuring that while human users see a richer view of the item
through the mashing up of data from various sources, Linked Data-aware applications are
provided with references to URIs from which related data may be retrieved. Similar
principles are followed to link items such as books and pubs to corresponding entries in
external data sets, and to enhance user profiles with FOAF data.
DBpedia Mobile
DBpedia Mobile (Becker & Bizer, 2008) is a location-aware Linked Data browser designed to
be run on an iPhone or other mobile device. DBpedia Mobile is oriented to the use case of a
tourist exploring a city. Based on the current GPS position of the mobile device, the
application provides a location-centric mashup of nearby locations from DBpedia, associated
reviews from Revyu, and related photos via a Linked Data wrapper around the Flickr photo-
sharing API. Figure 5 shows DBpedia Mobile displaying data from DBpedia and Revyu about
the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. Besides accessing Web data, DBpedia Mobile also enables
users to publish their current location, pictures and reviews to the Web as Linked Data, so
that they can be used by other applications. Instead of simply being tagged with
geographical coordinates, published content is interlinked with a nearby DBpedia resource
and thus contributes to the overall richness of the Web of Data.
Figure 5. DBpedia Mobile displaying information about Berlin
Talis Aspire
Talis Aspire (Clarke, 2009) is a Web-based Resource List Management application deployed
to university lecturers and students. As users create lists through a conventional Web
interface, the application produces RDF triples which are persisted to an underlying Linked
Data-compatible store. The use of Linked Data principles enables items present on one list
to be transparently linked to the corresponding items featured on lists at other institutions,
thereby building a Web of scholarly data through the actions of non-specialist users.
BBC Programmes and Music
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) uses Linked Data internally as a lightweight data
integration technology. The BBC runs numerous radio stations and television channels.
Traditionally, these stations and channels use separate content management systems. The
BBC has thus started to use Linked Data technologies together with DBpedia and
MusicBrainz as controlled vocabularies to connect content about the same topic residing in
different repositories and to augment content with additional data from the Linking Open
Data cloud. Based on these connections, BBC Programmes and BBC Music build Linked Data
sites for all of its music and programmes related brands (Kobilarov et al., 2009).
DERI Pipes
Modelled on Yahoo Pipes, DERI Pipes (Le Phuoc et al. 2009) provides a data level mashup
platform that enables data sources to be plugged together to form new feeds of data. The
resulting aggregation workflows may contain sophisticated operations such as identifier
consolidation, schema mapping, RDFS or OWL reasoning, with data transformations being
expressed using SPARQL CONSTRUCT operations or XSLT templates. Figure 6. shows the
assembly of a workflow to integrate data about Tim Berners-Lee within the DERI pipes
development environment.
Figure 6. DERI pipes workflow integrating data about Tim Berners-Lee from three data
6. Related Developments (in Research and Practice)
There are several other developments related to Linked Data happening on the Web or
being pursued by related research communities. In the following sections, we will compare
these developments with Linked Data.
Similar to Linked Data, Microformats[Endnote:] aim at extending
the Web with structured data. Microformats define a set of simple data formats that are
embedded into HTML via class attributes. Two major differences between Microformats and
Linked Data in its RDFa serialization are: Linked Data is not limited in the vocabularies that
can be used to represent data, and the vocabulary development process itself is completely
open, while Microformats are restricted to a small set of vocabularies developed through a
process closely managed by a specific community. Data items that are included in HTML
pages via Microformats do not have their own identifier. This prevents the assertion, across
documents and Web sites, of relationships between data items. By using URIs as global
identifiers and RDF to represent relationships, Linked Data does not have these limitations.
Web APIs
Many major Web data sources such as Amazon, eBay, Yahoo!, and Google provide access to
their data via Web APIs. The website currently lists 1309 Web APIs
as well as 3966 mashups based on these APIs. Web APIs are accessed using a wide range of
different mechanisms, and data retrieved from these APIs is represented using various
content formats. In contrast, Linked Data commits itself to a small set of standardized
technologies: URIs and HTTP as identification and access mechanism, RDF as content
format. Using a single set of technologies instead of relying on diverse interfaces and result
formats allows data sources to be more easily crawled by search engines and accessed
using generic data browsers. Beside these technical details, there is also a major conceptual
difference between Web APIs and Linked Data: most Web APIs do not assign globally unique
identifiers to data items. Therefore it is not possible to set links between items in different
data sources in order to connect data into a global data space. Mashups based on these
APIs are therefore always implemented against a fixed set of data sources. In contrast,
Linked Data applications can work on top of an unbounded, global data space. They can
discover new data sources by following RDF links and take advantage of new data sources
as they appear on the Web without needing to change the application code. Therefore,
Linked Data technologies can contribute to connecting the different data silos that currently
exist on the Web back into the single global information space.
A recent concept within the databases community that is very similar to Linked Data is
dataspaces (Franklin et al. 2005). Dataspaces provide a target system architecture around
which ongoing research on reference reconciliation, schema matching and mapping, data
lineage, data quality and information extraction are unified (Halevy et al., 2006). In contrast
with other information-integration systems, dataspaces systems offer best-effort answers
before complete semantic mappings are provided to the system. A key idea of dataspaces is
that the semantic cohesion of a dataspace is increased over time by different parties
providing mappings; the same pay as you go data integration approach that currently
emerges on the Web of Data. The Web of Data can therefore be seen as a realization of the
dataspaces concept on global scale, relying on a specific set of Web standards in order to be
closely aligned with the overall architecture of the Web. It is therefore likely that the Web of
Data will benefit considerably from research into dataspaces that is ongoing in the database
Semantic Web
The desire to extend the capabilities of the Web to publishing of structured data is not new,
and can be traced back to the earliest proposal for the World Wide Web [Endnote:] and subsequent papers on the topic
(Berners-Lee et al., 1994). Trends foreseen at these early stages of the Web's existence
included “Evolution of objects from being principally human-readable documents to contain
more machine-oriented semantic information” (Berners-Lee et al., 1994), which can be seen
as the seeds of an idea that became known as the Semantic Web.
The vision of a Semantic Web has been interpreted in many different ways (e.g. Berners-
Lee, Hendler & Lassila, 2001; Marshall & Shipman, 2003). However, despite this diversity in
interpretation, the original goal of building a global Web of machine-readable data remains
constant across the original literature on the subject. According to (Berners-Lee, 2000,
pp.191), “The first step is putting data on the Web in a form that machines can naturally
understand, or converting it to that form. This creates what I call a Semantic Web – a web
of data that can be processed directly or indirectly by machines”. Therefore, while the
Semantic Web, or Web of Data, is the goal or the end result of this process, Linked Data
provides the means to reach that goal.
By publishing Linked Data, numerous individuals and groups have contributed to the
building of a Web of Data, which can lower the barrier to reuse, integration and application
of data from multiple, distributed and heterogeneous sources. Over time, with Linked Data
as a foundation, some of the more sophisticated proposals associated with the Semantic
Web vision, such as intelligent agents, may become a reality.
7. Research Challenges
By publishing and interlinking various data sources on the Web, the Linking Open Data
community has created an crystallization point for the Web of Data and a challenging test
bed for Linked Data technologies. However, to address the ultimate goal of being able to
use the Web like a single global database, various remaining research challenges must be
User Interfaces and Interaction Paradigms
Arguably the key benefit of Linked Data from the user perspective is the provision of
integrated access to data from a wide range of distributed and heterogeneous data sources.
By definition, this may involve integration of data from sources not explicitly selected by
users, as to do so would likely incur an unacceptable cognitive overhead. While the
browsers described in Section 5 demonstrate promising trends in how applications may be
developed that exploit Linked Data, numerous challenges remain in understanding
appropriate user interaction paradigms for applications built on data assembled dynamically
in this fashion (Heath, 2008b). For example, while hypertext browsers provide mechanisms
for navigation forwards and backwards in a document-centric information space, similar
navigation controls in a Linked Data browser should enable the user to move forwards and
backwards between entities, thereby changing the focal point of the application. Linked Data
browsers will also need to provide intuitive and effective mechanisms for adding and
removing data sources from an integrated, entity-centric view. Sigma (Catasta & Cyganiak
& Tummarello, 2009), a search engine based on the Sindice service, gives an indication of
how such functionality could be delivered. However understanding how such an interface
can be realised when data sources number in the thousands or millions is a captivating
research challenge.
Application Architectures
In principle, Linked Data may be accessed through advance crawling and caching, or on-
the-fly at application runtime through link traversal or federated querying. Search engines
such as SWSE, Sindice, Falcons, and Watson crawl the Web of Data and provide applications
with access to crawled data through APIs. Federated query architectures for Linked Data
include DARQ (Quilitz & Leser, 2008) and SemaPlorer (Schenk et al., 2008). The Semantic
Web Client Library[Endnote:]
and SQUIN [Endnote:] have demonstrated that expressive queries can be
answered against the Web of Data by relying on runtime link traversal. The appropriate
mixture of these methods will always depend on the specific needs of a Linked Data
application. However, due to the likelihood of scalability problems with on-the-fly link
traversal and federated querying, it may transpire that widespread crawling and caching will
become the norm in making data available to applications in a timely fashion, while being
able to take advantage of the openness of the Web of Data by discovering new data sources
through link traversal.
Schema Mapping and Data Fusion
Once data has been retrieved from distributed sources, it must be integrated in a
meaningful way before it is displayed to the user or is further processed. Today, most
Linked Data applications display data from different sources alongside each other but do
little to integrate it further. To do so does require mapping of terms from different
vocabularies to the applications target schema, as well as fusing data about the same entity
from different sources, by resolving data conflicts.
Linked Data sources either use their own schemata or use a mixture of terms from existing,
well-known vocabularies together with self-defined terms specific to the particular data
source. In order to support clients in transforming data between different schemata, data
sources can publish correspondences between their local terminology and the terminology of
related data sources on the Web of Data. Current W3C recommendations such as RDF
Schema (Brickley & Guha, 2004) and OWL (McGuinness & van Harmelen, 2004) define basic
terminology like owl:equivalentClass, owl:equivalentProperty, rdfs:subClassOf,
rdfs:subPropertyOf that can be used to publish basic correspondences. In many situations,
these correspondences are too coarse-grained to properly transform data between
schemata. Problems include for instance structural heterogeneity as well as value
transformations. An open research issue is therefore the development of languages to
publish more fine grained schema mappings on the Web. Ideally, such languages would
support transitive mappings and provide for combining partial mappings in order to cover
cases where data sources mix terminology from different vocabularies. Candidate
technologies for this include the alignment languages presented in (Haslhofer, 2008) and
(Euzenat & Scharffe & Zimmermann, 2007) as well as the rules interchange format
In addition to enhanced support for schema mapping, further research is needed in the area
of data fusion for Linked Data applications. Data fusion is the process of integrating multiple
data items representing the same real-world object into a single, consistent, and clean
representation. The main challenge in data fusion is the resolution of data conflicts, i.e.
choosing a value in situations where multiple sources provide different values for the same
property of an object. There is a large body of work on data fusion in the database
community (Bleiholder & Naumann, 2008) and an increasing body of work on identity
reconciliation in the Web community (Halpin & Thomson, 2008). Specific requirements that
distinguish the Web of Data from other data fusion scenarios arise from the autonomy of
data sources and the scarceness and uncertainty of quality-related meta-information that is
required to assess data quality in order to resolve inconsistencies. Prototypical systems for
fusing Linked Data from multiple sources include DERI Pipes (Le Phuoc et al., 2009) and the
KnoFuss architecture (Nikolov et al., 2008).
Link Maintenance
The content of Linked Data sources changes: data about new entities is added, outdated
data is changed or removed. Today, RDF links between data sources are updated only
sporadically which leads to dead links pointing at URIs that are no longer maintained and to
potential links not being set as new data is published. Web architecture is in principle
tolerant to dead links, but having too many of them leads to a large number of unnecessary
HTTP requests by client applications. A current research topic within the Linked Data
community is therefore link maintenance. Proposed approaches to this problem range from
recalculating links at regular intervals using frameworks such as Silk (Volz et al., 2009) or
LinQL (Hassanzadeh et al., 2009), through data sources publishing update feeds (Auer et
al., 2009) or informing link sources about changes via subscription models to central
registries such as Ping the Semantic Web that keep track of new or changed data items.
Applications that consume data from the Web must be able to access explicit specifications
of the terms under which data can be reused and republished. Availability of appropriate
frameworks for publishing such specifications is an essential requirement in encouraging
data owners to participate in the Web of Data, and in providing assurances to data
consumers that they are not infringing the rights of others by using data in a certain way.
Initiatives such as the Creative Commons [Endnote:] have
provided a framework for open licensing of creative works, underpinned by the notion of
copyright. However, as (Miller et al., 2008) discuss, copyright law is not applicable to data,
which from a legal perspective is also treated differently across jurisdictions. Therefore
frameworks such as the Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License
[Endnote:] should be adopted by the
community to provide clarity in this area. In situations where attribution is a condition of
data reuse, further research may also be required to explore how this can be achieved in
user interfaces that combine data from large numbers of sources.
Trust, Quality and Relevance
A significant consideration for Linked Data applications is how to ensure the data most
relevant or appropriate to the user's needs is identified and made available. For example, in
scenarios where data quality and trustworthiness are paramount, how can this be
determined heuristically, particularly where the data set may not have been encountered
An overview of different content-, context-, and rating-based techniques that can be used to
heuristically assess the relevance, quality and trustworthiness of data is given in (Bizer &
Cyganiak, 2009; Heath, 2008a). Equivalents to the PageRank algorithm will likely be
important in determining coarse-grained measures of the popularity or significance of a
particular data source, as a proxy for relevance or quality of the data, however such
algorithms will need to be adapted to the linkage patterns that emerge on the Web of Data.
From an interface perspective, the question of how to represent the provenance and
trustworthiness of data drawn from many sources into an integrated view is a significant
research challenge. (Berners-Lee, 1997) proposed that browser interfaces should be
enhanced with an “Oh, yeah?” button to support the user in assessing the reliability of
information encountered on the Web. Whenever a user encounteres a piece of information
that they would like to verify, pressing such a button would produce an explanation of the
trustworthiness of the displayed information. This goal has yet to be realised, however
existing developments such as WIQA (Bizer & Cyganiak, 2009) and InferenceWeb
(McGuinness & da Silva, 2003) can contribute to work in this area by providing explanations
about information quality as well as inference processes that are used to derive query
The ultimate goal of Linked Data is to be able to use the Web like a single global database.
The realization of this vision would provide benefits in many areas but will also aggravate
dangers in others. One problematic area are the opportunities to violate privacy that arise
from integrating data from distinct sources. Protecting privacy in the Linked Data context is
likely to require a combination of technical and legal means together with a higher
awareness of the users about what data to provide in which context. Interesting research
initiatives in this domain are Weitzner’s work on the privacy paradox (Weitzner, 2007) and
the recent work by the TAMI project on information accountability (Weitzner et al., 2008).
Linked Data principles and practices have been adopted by an increasing number of data
providers, resulting in the creation of a global data space on the Web containing billions of
RDF triples. Just as the Web has brought about a revolution in the publication and
consumption of documents, Linked Data has the potential to enable a revolution in how data
is accessed and utilised. The success of Web APIs has shown the power of applications that
can be created by mashing up content from different Web data sources. However, mashup
developers face the challenge of scaling their development approach beyond fixed,
predefined data silos, to encompass large numbers of data sets with heterogeneous data
models and access methods. In contrast, Linked Data realizes the vision of evolving the
Web into a global data commons, allowing applications to operate on top of an unbounded
set of data sources, via standardised access mechanisms. If the research challenges
highlighted above can be adequately addressed, we expect that Linked Data will enable a
significant evolutionary step in leading the Web to its full potential.
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Bios and Photos
Christian Bizer
Professor Christian Bizer is the head of the Web-based Systems Group at Freie Universität
Berlin. The group explores technical and economic questions concerning the development of
global, decentralized information environments. The results of his work include the Named
Graphs data model, which was adopted into the W3C SPARQL standard, the Fresnel display
vocabulary implemented by several data browsers, and the D2RQ mapping language which
is widely used for mapping relational databases to the Web of Data. He initialized the
Linking Open Data community project and the DBpedia project.
Tom Heath
Dr. Tom Heath is a researcher in the Platform Division of Talis Information Ltd, a leading
provider of Linked Data storage, management and publishing technologies, where he
coordinates internal research focusing on collective intelligence and human-computer
interaction in a Linked Data and Semantic Web context. He is a leading member of the
Linking Open Data community project, and creator of the Linked Data-enabled reviewing
and rating site, winner of the 2007 Semantic Web Challenge. Tom has a PhD in
Computer Science from The Open University.
Tim Berners-Lee
Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, an internet-based hypermedia initiative
for global information sharing while at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory. He
wrote the first web client and server in 1990. His specifications of URIs, HTTP and HTML
were refined as Web technology spread. Tim is professor at the Laboratory for Computer
Science and Artificial Intelligence (CSAIL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) and the Computer Science Department at the University of Southampton, UK. In 2001
he became a Fellow of the Royal Society.
... Associated with smart cities are other concepts such as "green", "interconnected", "intelligent", cities of knowledge" and "innovative". Green refers to urban infrastructure for CO2 emission reduction and environmental protection (Blewitt, 2014, Zygiaris, 2013; Interconnected refers to the broadband economy revolution (Bizer et al., 2011, Gillett et al., 2004, Ergen, 2009; Intelligent is associated with the ability to create valuable information, taking the city's real-time data processing as a starting point (Zygiaris, 2013, Chong andKumar, 2003); Knowledge cities and innovative refer to the city's ability to increase innovation, taking as a premise the human capital that is creative and possesses knowledge (Shapiro, 2003, Komninos, 2006, Hospers, 2006, Zygiaris, 2013. ...
... Other authors associated with smart cities other concepts such as "green", "interconnectivity", "smart", "innovative", "cities of knowledge" (Bizer et al., 2011, Blewitt, 2014, Leydesdorff and Deakin, 2011, Zygiaris, 2013. In this perspective, the entire urban infrastructure for reducing CO2 emissions and defending the environment; broadband economy; the ability to create valuable information in real-time; or the ability of the city to increase innovation; in many aspects such as mobility, access to information in real-time, access to improved management of public infrastructure, the reduction of urban waste or the reduction of water consumption, these are themes that are added to the concept of smart city innovation ecosystems. ...
This chapter aims to explore in-depth some examples of smart city innovations through a case study. We follow a qualitative research methodology, studying the reality of an academic spin-off, which operates in the area of Information, Communication and Electronic Technologies (ICTE), developing national and European R&D+I projects, through Triple Helix networks. Aiming to reinforce knowledge about the structural dimension of smart city innovation ecosystems, and in the domains of smart governance, smart economy, smart environment, smart mobility, smart mobility or smart people, this study analyzes six collaborative projects in the fields of road prevention, management underground utilities, analysis of the user experience of mobile operators, prediction of energy consumption in smart buildings, and an integrated technology platform for smart cities. Through the analysis of multi-projects, this study reveals the implementation of some solutions that help territorial ecosystems to become smarter.
... These technologies have already been proposed as suitable candidates to overcome many of the current challenges facing smart city developments, including data interoperability issues, poor machine readability, and the scalability of solutions to large and complex systems such as cities (W3C, 2015;Ronzhin et al., 2019). By following the principles of Linked Data (Berners-Lee, 2006;Bizer et al., 2011), the Semantic Web enables the discovery, integration, querying, and transfer of information between different domains and systems via the World Wide Web (Noy et al., 2019;Akroyd et al., 2021). ...
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Today, technological developments are ever-growing yet fragmented. Alongside inconsistent digital approaches and attitudes across city administrations, such developments have made it difficult to reap the benefits of city digital twins. Bringing together experiences from five research projects, this paper discusses these digital twins based on two digital integration methodologies-systems and semantic integration. We revisit the nature of the underlying technologies, and their implications for interoperability and compatibility in the context of planning processes and smart urbanism. Semantic approaches present a new opportunity for bidirectional data flows that can inform both governance processes and technological systems to co-create, cross-pollinate, and support optimal outcomes. Building on this opportunity, we suggest that considering the technological dimension as a new addition to the trifecta of economic, environmental, and social sustainability goals that guide planning processes, can aid governments to address this conundrum of fragmentation, interoperability, and compatibility. Policy Significance Statement As cities across the globe aspire to become smarter, the rapid pace of siloed technological developments and their growing complexities and pitfalls have become too significant for city administrations and politicians to ignore. This is exacerbated by the novel developments of city digital twins based on a diversity of software and technologies. We scrutinize a variety of digital twins to discern opportunities to address interoperability and compatibility. In overcoming technological lock-ins driven by business interests, we conclude that software developments need to pay greater attention to practical realities. We contend that city administrations would also have to step up to spearhead, rather than sway toward these technologies for their processes.
... The architecture that can alleviate the aforementioned limitations of search capability in UPnP-AV environment can be depicted in Fig. 3 Indeed, it is 3-tier standard UPnP-AV architecture [6]- [7], but the Media Server is now acting as a gateway and is proposed to provide advanced features: a) handling of the RDF data from the external sources (Web of Data) via the Linked Data [16] connectivity and b) enabling a more-capable search service of media contents via semantic-based operations. Three of four components serving for different management functions within a gateway will be described below. ...
... Trata-se, portanto, de um conceito não novo, a exemplo de instituições de memória que sempre tiveram curadores para zelar pelos dados de seus acervos, independente de ambiente digital. Porém, com o surgimento de elementos metodológicos contemporâneos para tratamento da informação em diversas mídias digitais, a exemplo do Resource Description and Access (RDA) (Joudrey;Taylor & Miller, 2005), do Linked Open Data (LOD) (Bizer;Heath & Berners-Lee, 2009), dos princípios FAIR, acrônimo para Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reuse (Wilkinson et al., 2016), e das linguagens para representações semânticas de características de objetos digitais em várias mídias na Web (Allemang; Hendler & Gandon, 2020), o escopo da curadoria se expandiu para diversos contextos de aplicação, exigindo novas habilidades dos profissionais da informação em lidar com organização e tratamento documental na Web. ...
We are pleased to present the proceedings of the IV Workshop on Information, Data, and Technology (WIDaT 2021). We initially planned this event to be held in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, hosted by the Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG). Still, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we celebrated it virtually from 20-21 October 2021. In its fourth edition, we aimed at bringing together, through interdisciplinary approaches, researchers and other professionals oriented to data access and use coming from computer science, information science, engineering, mathematics, and related fields. The event also focused on promoting the approximation of research groups that work in the data and information field. We tried to discuss several dispersed initiatives, but of great potential for integration among themselves.
... Os DAG podem ser conectados e permitir maior articulação, inovação e cooperação entre diferentes atores, gerando ganhos potenciais para ampliar o entendimento de problemas, contribuir para o encontro de soluções e para apoiar a tomada de decisão. Dados conectados (linked data) são definidos como um conjunto de boas práticas para publicação e conexão de dados estruturados na Internet a fim de se criar uma Rede de Dados (Bizer et al., 2006). (2006), conhecidos como sistema de 5 estrelas, que classifica o grau de abertura dos dados, sendo o maior número de estrelas representativo da maior abertura e maior facilidade de conexão dos dados: ...
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Dados abertos têm sua relevância reconhecida mundialmente em diferentes setores para maior transparência, controle social, eficiência de serviços, inovação e crescimento econômico, com grande potencial na área de saúde pública. No Brasil, a Política Nacional de Dados Abertos (PNDA) busca contribuir para que esses benefícios sejam alcançados, porém ainda há dificuldades em sua implantação, de modo que os dados publicados pelas instituições públicas não atendem a todos os princípios para serem considerados abertos. Com este estudo, buscou-se analisar o grau de alinhamento da Empresa Brasileira de Serviços Hospitalares (Ebserh) e de sua rede de hospitais universitários federais aos princípios da PNDA. O levantamento dos dados abertos pelas 39 unidades da rede Ebserh foi realizado no portal Gov.Br, registrando os tipos de dados e suas características. O grau de alinhamento da rede Ebserh aos princípios de dados abertos foi calculado de acordo com a pontuação obtida pelas unidades avaliadas nas questões definidas segundo a PNDA. Verificou-se que somente 21 das unidades da rede Ebserh (51%) publicam dados abertos, totalizando 854 conjuntos de dados. O grau de alinhamento identificado foi de 35%, considerando toda a rede Ebserh, e de 67%, considerando somente as unidades da rede que publicam dados abertos. Observa-se que as unidades da rede Ebserh encontram-se em níveis de maturidade distintos quanto à abertura de dados, sendo que nenhuma unidade atende a todos os princípios PNDA, o que pode dificultar a busca, reutilização e interoperabilidade dos dados. A qualidade dos dados abertos da rede precisa ser melhorada para que possam, de fato, serem úteis para diferentes propósitos de reuso. Aponta-se para a importância do reconhecimento dos dados como um ativo estratégico na rede Ebserh, do clareamento das questões quanto à Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessoais e do estabelecimento de uma política de governança de dados.
Smart cities have emerged as a result of smart interconnections of people, processes, data, and things, representing an excellent case study of the Internet of Everything (IoE) paradigm. One of the main challenges in realizing the smart city vision is how to provide seamless interoperability between the IoE entities. In this paper we conduct a systematic literature review on the use of semantic technologies to support interoperability between IoE entities in smart cities, with the goal of identifying the main trends and challenges in adopting semantic interoperability solutions for sustainable, green, and resilient smart cities. To this end, we have extracted data from selected primary studies over the last decade that address semantic interoperability issues in smart cities through related technologies and techniques such as ontologies, linked open data, knowledge graphs, ontology alignment/matching methods, and automated reasoning mechanisms. We have analyzed the maturity of this research area by exploring three research questions that focus on: i) the importance of semantic interoperability in the smart city domain; ii) the identification of semantic technologies and tools applied in the smart city domain to promote semantic interoperability; and iii) the identification of smart city application areas where semantic technologies are used to efficiently deliver smart services. The analysis provided research insights, including the introduction of a new evaluation framework that assesses semantic interoperability solutions on four maturity levels. The framework includes specific evaluation criteria for attributes such as modeling, scalability, and availability. Finally, an elaborated list of strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats of semantic interoperability solutions in smart cities is provided, along with a discussion of open challenges and future work in this domain.
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Climate change has been deemed to be one of the greatest challenges facing humans in the 21st century, with extreme weather events taking place more regularly than before. While the impact of climate change has been well documented in recent years across industries, the impact of climate change on the tourism economy is yet to be fully realised. This paper aims to apply a range of knowledge graph techniques to naturalistic data. Among these, weather data will be explored as one prospective way to enhance people's understanding of how climate and a country's tourism economy are related and how they interact. According to our exploration with the knowledge graph approach in organizing the climate and tourism data, the insights and knowledge gained from the knowledge graph are able to ultimately help improve the quality of life for people and the tourism industry of a country.
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Western thought in European history was mainly affected by the image of the world created during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The most popular reason to travel during the Middle Ages was taking a pilgrimage. Jerusalem, Rome, and Santiago de Compostela were the most popular destinations. It is not surprising that a lot of works written by travellers as guides for pilgrims exist. By the beginning of the Renaissance, a more precise image of the world was defined thanks to the discovery of ancient geographical models, especially the work of Ptolemy. The three years (2020-2023) Italian National research project IMAGO - Index Medii Aevi Geographiae Operum - aims to provide a systematic overview of the medieval and renaissance Latin geographical literature using the Semantic Web technologies and the LOD paradigm. Indeed, until now, this literature has not been studied using digital methods. In particular, this paper presents how we formally represented the knowledge about the toponyms, or place names, in the IMAGO ontology. To maximise the interoperability, we developed the IMAGO ontology as an extension of two reference vocabularies: the CIDOC CRM and its extension FRBRoo, including its in-progress reformulation, LRMoo. Furthermore, we used Wikidata as reference knowledge base. As case study, we chose to represent the knowledge related to the toponyms cited by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri in his Latin works. We carried out a first experiment for visualising the knowledge about these toponyms on a map and in the form of tables and CSV files.