Article

Using the military in disaster relief: systemising challenges and opportunities

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of the challenges of civil military logistical cooperation, coordination and collaboration in humanitarian relief logistics. Design/methodology/approach – Systematic literature review of academic journals. Findings – This paper has four main findings. First, a categorisation of humanitarian logistics literature is achieved through a systematic review. Second, a classification of military involvement in humanitarian relief logistics is presented. Third, the research substantiated systematic differences in the kinds of military cooperation not only due to stage of operations but also depending upon whether the disaster is “natural” or “manmade”. Fourth, the research identifies the challenges of civil military logistical cooperation, coordination and collaboration and posits recommendations to overcome the identified challenges. Research limitations/implications – This paper represents an exploratory study and provides the basis for further research on cooperation, coordination and collaboration between military and civilian agencies in humanitarian operations. The paper sets a research agenda for academics. Practical implications – This paper is the first to offer practical guidance to military commanders and managers of humanitarian agencies on solutions and recommendations to overcome the challenges to civil military logistical cooperation/coordination in humanitarian operations. Originality/value – The area of civil military logistical cooperation/coordination has received limited consideration within the humanitarian aid logistics literature to date. This paper is designed to redress this shortfall. As a result, it is hoped that it will act as a catalyst for further research and to widen and deepen the resultant debate with a view to improving the outcome for those affected by current and future disasters.

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... Additionally, HRSCs may invest in holding additional inventory in reserve to increasing service levels ( Roni et al., 2016), enhancing the capacity to meet surges in demand ( Kamalahmadi and Parast, 2016;Sheffi and Rice, 2005). Other considerations during this stage include those pertaining to pre-positioning strategies (Heaslip and Barber, 2014;Long and Wood, 1995) or efforts made to acquire additional flexibility in logistics arrangements proactively (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). ...
... Additionally, HRSCs may invest in holding additional inventory in reserve to increasing service levels ( Roni et al., 2016), enhancing the capacity to meet surges in demand ( Kamalahmadi and Parast, 2016;Sheffi and Rice, 2005). Other considerations during this stage include those pertaining to pre-positioning strategies (Heaslip and Barber, 2014;Long and Wood, 1995) or efforts made to acquire additional flexibility in logistics arrangements proactively (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). ...
... Recovery. Once the immediate effects of a disaster have been addressed, disaster relief shifts towards long-term stabilisation (Altay and Green, 2006) as demand for volumes decrease relative to the immediate response phase (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). Recovery operations involve reconstruction activities to restore affected population to pre-disaster or even a better state ( Campbell and Jones, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to construct a typology of a disaster that informs humanitarian-relief supply chain (HRSC) design across the stages of disaster relief. Design/methodology/approach In addition to an interdisciplinary review of pertinent literature, this paper utilises a typology construction method to propose theoretically and methodologically sound dimensions of disasters. Findings Whilst semantic arguments surrounding the concept of a “disaster” are ongoing, the authors propose three typologies based upon six dimensions that serve as interdependent variables informing resultant HRSC design considerations. These are speed of onset, time horizon, spatial considerations, affected population needs, perceived probability of occurrence and perceived magnitude of consequence. These combinational and independent relationships of the variables offer insight into key HRSC design-making considerations. Research limitations/implications The study improves conceptual knowledge of disasters, distilling the concept to only the dimensions applicable to HRSC design, omitting other applications. The typologies provide empirical cell types based on extant literature, but do not apply the models towards new or future phenomena. Practical implications This paper provides HRSC practitioners with normative guidance through a more targeted approach to disaster relief, with a focus on the impacted system and resulting interactions’ correspondence to HRSC design. Originality/value This paper provides three typological models of disasters uniquely constructed for HRSC design across the various stages of disaster relief.
... On the other hand, the military should assist aid agencies by sharing excess warehouse capacity during peace times (Heaslip and Barber, 2016). To date, this only happens on very limited occasions, for example in Afghanistan (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). ...
... In these cases they are often treated like commercial suppliers (Walker, 1992). While collaboration in the field generally works (Heaslip and Barber, 2014), there is continuous criticism about the military competing with HOs as key actors and taking other roles than security and combat (Walker, 1992;Hall, 2008;Heaslip and Barber, 2016). As a prime example, the UN Oslo Guidelines call for using military assets only when no feasible civilian alternative exists (Morales and Sandlin, 2015). ...
... Therefore, floods are better suited than earthquakes (Sodhi and Tang, 2014). Furthermore, outsourcing appears more achievable in natural than in complex disasters (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). ...
Purpose Outsourcing of logistics has great importance in disaster relief. Aid agencies spend several billion US dollars every year on logistics services. However, the concept of outsourcing has not been established adequately in literature on humanitarian logistics, leading to a fragmented view of the practice. This paper provides a holistic perspective of the concept by constructing a conceptual framework to analyze both practice and research of outsourcing in humanitarian operations. Based on this analysis, we explore future trends and identify research gaps. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured review of academic literature, a two-round Delphi study with 31 experts from aid agencies and a complementary full-day focus group with twelve experts from aid agencies and logistics service providers. Findings The paper systemizes the current practice of outsourcing in humanitarian logistics according to a conceptual framework of five dimensions: subject, object, partner, design and context. In addition, it reveals ten probable developments of the practice over the next years. Finally, it describes eight important research gaps and presents a research agenda for the field. Research limitations/implications The literature review considered peer-reviewed academic papers. Practitioner papers could provide additional insights into the practice. Moreover, the Delphi study focused on the perspective of aid agencies. Capturing the views of logistics service providers in more detail would be a valuable addition. Originality/value The paper establishes the academic basis for the important practice of outsourcing in humanitarian logistics. It highlights essential research gaps and, thereby, opens up the field for future research.
... At high HL performance, the priority is known and more beneficiaries are covered quickly with limited resources [21]. For effective response, HOs must have expert logisticians [17], appropriate flows of communication and information and available lines of funding [22]. HOs receive donations and deliver to victims through HL. ...
... In a more positive development, donors consistently insist on receiving detailed plans from HOs they fund, which encourages HOs to plan more strategically by fulfilling their objectives, impact, activities and output. This further improves the performance of the HOs and covers more beneficiaries cheaper and faster instead of duplicating efforts or mismanaging resources [22]. Because of the increasing number of natural disasters, donors put pressure on HOs to cover more beneficiaries with appropriate cost, and short time [15]. ...
... Coexistence is the sharing of minimum necessary information between civil institutions and military forces. This generally includes information sharing information related to security and transportation movement [22]. Corruption during response RO may lead to failure of the HL mission and may create security risks [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Disaster risk can be mitigated through proper management. If disasters cannot be avoided, the suffering of the victims can be alleviated through efficient humanitarian logistics (HL) [1] and can be minimized through better management. The primary objective of this article is to supply humanitarian products and services in the most transparence, responsive and efficient way and to improve the situation better, faster and cheaper after a disaster strikes. This is a literaturebased approach that extends emerging techniques applied in the area of humanitarian aid and HL in particular. A research model combining different variables is developed. Examples drawn from real-life cases and findings are discussed within the research model in order to develop hypotheses, and to recognize and provide areas for further research. This work proposes a post-disaster fast, fair and safe HL operational model that aims at disaster relief-service distribution to maximize fair distribution and survivor resilience. The framework links information technology (IT), monitoring, security, communication and transparency mediating by trust in humanitarian organizations (HOs) for effective HL. The interrelationships among these variables need to be understood in the development of effective HL. If HL is supported and valued, the effectiveness and predictability of humanitarian response will improve. Even small improvements in logistics efficiency will save many lives and reduce logistics costs. The paper is conceptual in nature; therefore, empirical research is needed to support the framework. The distinctive features of HL that are developed enable the framework to provide practitioners with a tool for planning and carrying out HL operations. The researchers have tried to reduce the risk of disaster through various aspects and angles. Unfair distribution is a worldwide phenomenon during HL.
... Cooperation and collaboration between civil-military actors has proved a complex and uneasy affair (Pettit and Beresford, 2005;Heaslip et al., 2012;Kovács and Tatham, 2009;Van Wassenhove, 2006;Jahre et al., 2009). It is acknowledged in the literature that civilian and military actors in response to disasters are more willing to collaborate, while collaboration in complex emergencies is a more awkward affair particularly with humanitarian actors (Balcik et al., 2010;Kovács and Tatham, 2009;Heaslip and Barber, 2014). Heaslip et al. (2012, p. 390) applying a systems analysis and design technique model in an empirical setting (complex humanitarian emergency) reveal seven shared factors for a positive civil-military partnership: "Partner fit, complimentary resources, compatibility of organisational cultures, compatible strategies and objectives, network of partner organisations, flexibility and reliability. ...
... Using organisational theory, George (2002) states the need for policy makers to influence the military to coordinate more effectively with relief agencies. Heaslip and Barber (2014) use a systematic literature review to categorise HL and argue that military participation differs (systematically) depending on the nature of the disaster and the operational phase, and considers its impact on civil-military cooperation and coordination. ...
... This, in turn, led to reform within UN organisations. The culmination of the Cold War and the emergence of complex emergencies was the catalyst for systematic coordination between civil and military actors under the umbrella of the UN and often including international non-governmental organisations and national NGOs (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). The introduction of the cluster approach under the auspices of IASC came about as a result of the Southern Asian earthquake and tsunami. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify how coordination has evolved in humanitarian logistics (HL), what were the triggers for change and how have they been facilitated. Design/methodology/approach This paper applies a systematic literature review of academic journals. Findings This is the first paper to discuss the concepts of network orchestration and choreography in a humanitarian context. The research revealed that network coordination has moved on in the commercial sector to include orchestration and now, choreography concepts which have not been tested in HL literature. This reveals a lag exists between HL research and practice. Research limitations/implications This paper represents an exploratory study and provides the basis for further research on the concepts of orchestration and choreography in HL. The paper sets a research agenda for academics. Practical implications This paper is the first to discuss the concepts of network orchestration and choreography in a humanitarian context. Originality/value The areas of orchestration and choreography have received limited consideration within the humanitarian aid logistics literature to date. This paper is designed to redress this shortfall. As a result, it is hoped that it will act as a catalyst for further research and to widen and deepen the resultant debate with a view to improving the outcome for those affected by current and future disasters.
... Growing attention is given to the coordination between military and non-military relief organization during disaster relief operations (e.g. Rietjens et al. 2008;Fernandez, Suthikarnnarunai 2011;Barber 2012;Heaslip, Barber 2014;Tatham, Rietjens 2016). ...
... Coordination on the operational level between military and non-military relief organizations seems to be more common (Jahre, Jensen 2010;Listou 2011;Rutner et al. 2012;Jensen, Hertz 2016). During (humanitarian) relief operations, strongly motivated people in both civil and military camps usually find ways to surmount barriers that they encounter, but valuable time is lost inventing and reinventing these solutions (Heaslip, Barber 2014). ...
... Strongly motivated people in both camps (i.e. civil and military) usually find ways to surmount barriers that they encounter (Heaslip, Barber 2014). The relief workers see what a disaster really leads to and are confronted with the losses of lives. ...
Article
Purpose: This study focusses on the coordination required between military and non-military organisations during humanitarian disasters. Design / Research methods: An in-depth case study was conducted of the disaster relief operation after hurricane Matthew on Haiti in October 2016. We investigated the support of the Dutch military organization and its coordination with the non-military relief organizations. We examined coordination issues at operational, tactical, and strategic levels. Findings: The study shows that no coordination problems occurred at operational level. At the tactical level, cultural differences between military and non-military organizations resulted in coordination problems and deviant perspectives on urgency. At the strategic level, there was a disagreement between the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Dutch Ministry of Defence regarding the Oslo Guidelines. A minority agreed that the guidelines actually apply to military organizations during disaster relief operations. Practical implications: The coordination between the military organization and the non-military relief organization during disaster relief operations can be improved by promoting common and mutual respect and defining a clear tasks and role fulfilments. A first step to improve the coordination is to get familiarity and clarity on the Oslo Guidelines. Another step for improvement is for the military organization to accept that it has no leading but an assistance role during disaster relief operations. Research limitations/implications: A single case study limits the external validity of the results, although useful insights were gained. Future research could address the role of the Oslo Guidelines during disaster relief operations. Are these guidelines still valid, should they be updated, and are the sufficiently known by all relief organizations, including the military? Originality/value of the article: The world is faced with an increasing occurrence of disasters affecting human lives. More lives could be saved when military and non-military organizations would work together more effectively. This is one of the first studies to explore the terms of engagement at the start of relief operations.
... The lack of proper communication has equally contributed to the failure in achieving the established goal, the inability of information sharing, and disrespect for medical decisions [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]. However, this pandemic has also provided a good opportunity to evaluate and compare the current collaboration with that reported in the past [11,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]]. An evaluation is particularly crucial since disasters and public health emergencies are increasingly impacted by cross-border factors that place increasing demands on society to initiate a broader dialogue of partnership [27,[45][46][47][48]. ...
... However, this pandemic has also provided a good opportunity to evaluate and compare the current collaboration with that reported in the past [11,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]]. An evaluation is particularly crucial since disasters and public health emergencies are increasingly impacted by cross-border factors that place increasing demands on society to initiate a broader dialogue of partnership [27,[45][46][47][48]. Moreover, it is important to not only review experts' publications but also the opinions of the operational populations to identify potential gaps in outcomes and comprehension. ...
... It is well recognized that CM collaboration has resulted in advances in medical treatment of injuries, reduction of the number of deaths, and improvement of the Emergency Medical Systems. However, there seems to remain a need for new guidelines and directives to guarantee the benefits of such cooperation for both organizations and to eliminate or at least minimize some of the challenges between the two organizations, such as, in leadership, operative, and logistics partnership [3,4,9,24,46]. One way to make these organizations compatible seems to be mutual educational and training initiatives [25,30,56], which not only synchronize their activities but equally help clear the role and responsibility of each organization, joint operating mechanism, and treatment policies and reduce the organizational tensions that may exist between two populations [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the similarity in skills and assets, Civilian-Military collaboration has emerged as one of the most reliable partnerships during the disaster and public health emergency management to address all necessary elements of surge capacity, i.e., staff, stuff, structure (space), and systems. This study aimed to evaluate this collaboration before and during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic. The outcomes of the systematic review revealed several published reports on successful civilian-military collaboration and proposed a need for further improvement. One hundred sixty-six individuals from 19 countries responded to nine questions, included in an online survey with the possibility to leave comments if necessary. The questionnaire referred to elements such as command and control, safety, communication, assessment, triage, treatment, and transport, as the crucial components of emergency management. The comprehensive examination of the survey results together with registered comments revealed a possible improvement in collaboration particularly on the strategic levels, i.e., meetings at the command-and-control level, safety, communication, and networking issues. While logistic collaboration seemed to be unchanged, the practical parts of the collaboration , i.e., clinical and non-clinical operational partnership (Triage and Treatment), mutual education , training, and operational understanding of each organization remained unchanged. In conclusion , although the current pandemic may have facilitated a more intense collaboration between civilian and military healthcare organizations, it lacks practical partnership and operative engagement , representing two crucial elements necessary for harmony and compatibility of both systems. Such collaboration may require a political will and perhaps a mutual civilian-military authority.
... The numerous relief agencies, asses the victims in the form of cash, water, foods, shelters, engineers, medicine, medical teams, sanitation, equipment, support personnel [2] and relief packages [3]. Most importantly, poor relief distribution and misallocation of the donors' funds happen due to a number of reasons such as logistical insufficiencies [4], lack of expert logisticians [5] and employee turnover [6]. The poor distribution leads to devastates vulnerable people [7] and impacts on the people affected by disaster. ...
... Hence, HL mostly has a lower priority within HOs, regardless of being a factor that may determine the success or failure of DRO. Moreover, about 40% waste is occurred [9] due to a number of reasons including lack of expert logisticians [5] and employee turnover [6]. It is also reported that relief agencies do not keep in their staff enough logisticians. ...
Article
Following a disaster, humanitarian logistics service providers (HLSP) noted that besides their challenging job they are also facing high employee turnover. The main purpose of this article is to extend a precise assessment platform and provide a theoretical basis for increasing the understanding of the turnover of staff in humanitarian logistics (HL). Based on the identified variables leading to turnover of employee, this paper analyzes these variables affecting turnover of an employee in HL, using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach to evolve a model of hierarchy and categorized the interrelationships among these variables. In line with research conducted previously, the study identified and updated 16 imperative employee turnover variables out of 24 as a key performance evaluation of HL. These variables can be categorized into eight levels, which denote the driving power from higher to lower. The study findings indicate that not all variables to employee turnover in HL require the same level of concentration. Out of 16 variables, there is a group of eight variables that have high driving control and low reliance, these variables are of strategic importance and require maximum attention. Also, another group contains six variables they have a low driving power but high reliance, whereas the one variable is in the linkage category between lower and upper-level variables. This categorization will help relief agencies to distinguish between dependent and independent variables that are imperative for improving the issue of employee turnover in HL. This article is the first to discuss employee turnover using ISM in the context of HL. The developed framework herein provides a precise guideline for HL to enhance their performance, as well as to promote the efficient application of resources through employee retention.
... Performance in HL could be measured in terms of reductions in lives lost and human suffering [6]- [8] and create mutual trust [34]- [35]. The fair sharing of available resources [17]- [34] security and transparency [28], monitoring, and expert logisticians [30], the identification of priorities, and the use of advance technology and neutral language lead to fast, fair and safe HL, which further have a positive effect on donors funding and image building of the [63]. The increasing number and magnitude of disasters, the shortage of resources, the funding competition and the requirement for accountability combine to raise the importance of effective, efficient and transparent HL [38]. ...
... In a more positive recent development, donors consistently insist on receiving detailed and transparent plans from HOs they fund, which encourages HOs to plan more strategically by fulfilling their objectives, impact, activities and output. This further improves the performance of the HOs and covers more beneficiaries at lower cost and within a shorter time instead of duplication of efforts or mismanagement of resources [30]. Some organizations unload trucks at night so that the public will not notice the warehouse [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanism of how transparency can help to enhance the performance of humanitarian logistics (HL) following disaster relief operation (RO) needs to be explored. Thus, the main purposes of this paper are to systematically review the barriers to and benefits of transparency in the field of HL in order to improve the performance of HL, and also to highlight the role and unique attributes of transparency in the field of HL. A systematic literature review using the CIMO (context, intervention, mechanism, and outcomes) logic approach was adopted to perform the systematic analysis of the previous investigations relevant to the performance enhancement of HL. Most such previous research investigated transparency in the context of HL, with little examination of the outcomes of transparency in HL. Based upon this process, disaster risk can be reduced and managed through efficient HL. So far, the efficiency and performance of HL has been improved through coordination, collaboration and partnership. In the present study, recent developments corresponding to performance enhancement of HL through transparency are reviewed systematically, with a particular focus on the importance of transparency, what organizations can do to become more transparent and the challenges and potential benefits of transparency. The authors provide an in-depth understanding of the barriers and challenges to transparency faced in this field. Furthermore, the challenges in comparing with recent research are also discussed, along with future directions to improve the performance enhancement of HL through transparency. However, the poor performance of HL is one of the challenging issues associated with disaster risk management. This review article will be fruitful for novice researchers and practitioners in managing disaster risk through efficient HL and further advancement in the field of HL. Furthermore this article raises the awareness of the importance of carefully evaluating decisions related to the fair distribution of relief items.
... Disasters, as unpredictable catastrophes with seriously negative impacts on a society, lead military organizations to play a critical role in disaster relief operations. Using military assets solely for the purpose of security for the duration of an emergency is not an adequate approach given that emergency operations are very complex and dynamic, and other organizations require additional assistance from the military forces for search, rescue, and rehabilitation during and after a disaster (Ferris 2012;Heaslip and Barber 2014). ...
... When organizations in a network system have inadequate information relating to the reputation, availability, and reliability of partners, they are likely to approach resourceful members to resolve shortages of information and resources for collaboration (Pfeffer and Salancik 1978;Pfeffer 1997). In the context of disaster management in Myanmar, military organizations tend to be accessed frequently by other types of organizations in the networks because of the resources they possess within resource-scarce environments (Sylves 2008;Heaslip and Barber 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
In disaster response, collaboration facilitates interactions among actors, such as the government, the military, nongovernmental organizations, and civil society organizations. This study examined the longitudinal changes in collaborative governance in Myanmar’s disaster responses based on cases of flooding in 2015, 2016, and 2018. To examine the mechanisms underlying this dynamic network formation, the collaborative ties of the actors involved in search and rescue activities were converted into longitudinal relational data sets, and the evolution of collaborative governance was analyzed by relying on the assumptions of social capital, transaction cost, homophily, and resource dependency theories and using a longitudinal social network analysis method. The findings show that the collaborative networks of search and rescue processes in disaster response evolved and changed over time according to the hypothesized patterns of strong, weak, and preferential tie formations. The study also revealed that the collaborative governance system assumes the form of a hierarchy rather than a generalized exchange, and the actors’ reliance on military organizations is not obvious due to the emerging alternative non-military actors and diverse local actors observed in the cases.
... Voluntary actors may need to perform in parallel networks when civil and military structures are involved in the coordination (Comfort & Haase, 2006). Civil-military coordination involves voluntary networks that are often poorly attuned in emergency planning and badly coordinated in emergency responses (Heaslip & Barber, 2014;Lundström & Svedberg, 2003). Moreover, Rotolo and Berg (2010), Wijkström, Einarsson and Plowden (2003) claim that splitting coordination and resource sharing into two types of resources (civil and military) will require more planning and control. ...
... In humanitarian literature, voluntary networks are often analyzed in terms of membership, participation, and, increasingly, in relation with the military, when democratic structures apply (Heaslip & Barber, 2014;Wijkström & Einarsson, 2006;Sivesind, Lorentzen, Selle, & Wollebaek, 2002); (Wijkström & Einarsson, 2006;Sivesind, Lorentzen, Selle and Wollebaek2002). In practice, in Sweden "the number of organizations in the sector (including those that are not registered) amounted to 232,000 in 2013" (Statistics Sweden, 2015, p. 89). ...
Article
Full-text available
Voluntary networks are actors in civil society and central to the emergency preparedness efficiency of developed countries’. This study focuses on the voluntary defense networks in Sweden, a unique set of networks that contribute to the efficiency of emergency preparedness. Through interviews with experts in Swedish civil and military fields and their associated voluntary defense networks, as well as secondary data, we examined the coordination of these voluntary defense networks in practice. Although voluntary network coordination is highly associated with efficiency, in practice, most voluntary networks are not well coordinated. This study confirms that civil and military practitioners in developed countries, struggling with the coordination of voluntary networks are not isolated in their struggle; inattentive practices are indeed the norm. This article also establishes a course that civil and military practitioners can follow to improve emergency response efficiency.
... Torres (2010) asserts that the humanitarian context is rapidly changing and that even veterans in humanitarian aid are evolving albeit slowly. On humanitarian logistics, several scholars agree that it is an emerging field (Heaslip and Barber, 2014;Sandwell, 2011;Totham and Spens, 2011). These studies revealed that humanitarian logistics is under researched and according to Heaslip and Barber (2014) little has been done on cooperation, coordination and collaboration in humanitarian logistics. ...
... On humanitarian logistics, several scholars agree that it is an emerging field (Heaslip and Barber, 2014;Sandwell, 2011;Totham and Spens, 2011). These studies revealed that humanitarian logistics is under researched and according to Heaslip and Barber (2014) little has been done on cooperation, coordination and collaboration in humanitarian logistics. In order to be timely Organizations in disaster relief have often relied on speedy delivery from the Private sector, mainly because in humanitarian crises speed is highly valued in order to save lives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humanitarian crisis across the globe continue to increase in size, frequency, and complexity in the 21 st Century challenging the ability of Organizations in disaster relief to save lives of persons in distress. This has been a challenge in Countries prone to natural disaster as well as those prone to human conflict such as Syria, Southern Sudan, Central Africa Republic, Yemen, Somalia and Democratic Republic of Congo. In Kenya, humanitarian crises have occurred in the form of recurrent drought, floods, malnutrition and food security, disease outbreak, post election violence; resource based inter-communal conflicts as well as terror attacks. These crises often require immediate response in order to save lives, as a result there is increasing need to engage private sector in humanitarian logistics, financing and technology when implementing humanitarian aid projects. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of combined private sector engagement and the implementation of humanitarian aid projects. The paradigm guiding the study is pragmatism and the study employed a cross sectional-survey design. The sample was drawn from Organizations in disaster relief programmes using both probability and non-probability sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data was utilized in data collection. Primary data was collected using self administered questionnaires, Key Informant Interview, and Focus Group Discussions Guides. Questionnaires issued were 117 out of these, 85 which is 72.6% were returned for analysis. The data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. For descriptive analysis, mean, percentages and frequencies were used. For inferential analysis, correlations and regressions were used. For p<0.05, H0 was rejected and H1 accepted. For the strength of the relationships, r values were considered where: +0.10< r <+0.29; weak correlation +0.30< r <+0.49; moderate correlation +0.5 < r <+1.0; Strong correlation. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. The study findings indicate that combined private sector engagement influence on implementation of humanitarian aid projects in Kenya. The study concludes that combined private sector engagement is critical in implementation of humanitarian aid projects and there is need to put more emphasis on collaboration. The study recommended that there is need for more academic research on humanitarian aid.
... Performance in HL could be measured in terms of reductions in lives lost and human suffering [6]- [8] and create mutual trust [34]- [35]. The fair sharing of available resources [17]- [34] security and transparency [28], monitoring, and expert logisticians [30], the identification of priorities, and the use of advance technology and neutral language lead to fast, fair and safe HL, which further have a positive effect on donors funding and image building of the [63]. The increasing number and magnitude of disasters, the shortage of resources, the funding competition and the requirement for accountability combine to raise the importance of effective, efficient and transparent HL [38]. ...
... In a more positive recent development, donors consistently insist on receiving detailed and transparent plans from HOs they fund, which encourages HOs to plan more strategically by fulfilling their objectives, impact, activities and output. This further improves the performance of the HOs and covers more beneficiaries at lower cost and within a shorter time instead of duplication of efforts or mismanagement of resources [30]. Some organizations unload trucks at night so that the public will not notice the warehouse [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanism of how transparency can help to enhance the performance of humanitarian logistics (HL) following disaster relief operation (RO) needs to be explored. Thus, the main purposes of this paper are to systematically review the barriers to and benefits of transparency in the field of HL in order to improve the performance of HL, and also to highlight the role and unique attributes of transparency in the field of HL. A systematic literature review using the CIMO (context, intervention, mechanism, and outcomes) logic approach was adopted to perform the systematic analysis of the previous investigations relevant to the performance enhancement of HL. Most such previous research investigated transparency in the context of HL, with little examination of the outcomes of transparency in HL. Based upon this process, disaster risk can be reduced and managed through efficient HL. So far, the efficiency and performance of HL has been improved through coordination, collaboration and partnership. In the present study, recent developments corresponding to performance enhancement of HL through transparency are reviewed systematically, with a particular focus on the importance of transparency, what organizations can do to become more transparent and the challenges and potential benefits of transparency. The authors provide an in-depth understanding of the barriers and challenges to transparency faced in this field. Furthermore, the challenges in comparing with recent research are also discussed, along with future directions to improve the performance enhancement of HL through transparency. However, the poor performance of HL is one of the challenging issues associated with disaster risk management. This review article will be fruitful for novice researchers and practitioners in managing disaster risk through efficient HL and further advancement in the field of HL. Furthermore this article raises the awareness of the importance of carefully evaluating decisions related to the fair distribution of relief items.
... The numerous relief agencies, asses the victims in the form of cash, water, foods, shelters, engineers, medicine, medical teams, sanitation, equipment, support personnel [2] and relief packages [3]. Most importantly, poor relief distribution and misallocation of the donors' funds happen due to a number of reasons such as logistical insufficiencies [4], lack of expert logisticians [5] and employee turnover [6]. The poor distribution leads to devastates vulnerable people [7] and impacts on the people affected by disaster. ...
... Hence, HL mostly has a lower priority within HOs, regardless of being a factor that may determine the success or failure of DRO. Moreover, about 40% waste is occurred [9] due to a number of reasons including lack of expert logisticians [5] and employee turnover [6]. It is also reported that relief agencies do not keep in their staff enough logisticians. ...
Article
Full-text available
Following a disaster, humanitarian logistics service providers (HLSP) noted that besides their challenging job they are also facing high employee turnover. The main purpose of this article is to extend a precise assessment platform and provide a theoretical basis for increasing the understanding of the turnover of staff in humanitarian logistics (HL). Based on the identified variables leading to turnover of employee, this paper analyzes these variables affecting turnover of an employee in HL, using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach to evolve a model of hierarchy and categorized the interrelationships among these variables. In line with research conducted previously, the study identified and updated 16 imperative employee turnover variables out of 24 as a key performance evaluation of HL. These variables can be categorized into eight levels, which denote the driving power from higher to lower. The study findings indicate that not all variables to employee turnover in HL require the same level of concentration. Out of 16 variables, there is a group of eight variables that have high driving control and low reliance, these variables are of strategic importance and require maximum attention. Also, another group contains six variables they have a low driving power but high reliance, whereas the one variable is in the linkage category between lower and upper-level variables. This categorization will help relief agencies to distinguish between dependent and independent variables that are imperative for improving the issue of employee turnover in HL. This article is the first to discuss employee turnover using ISM in the context of HL. The developed framework herein provides a precise guideline for HL to enhance their performance, as well as to promote the efficient application of resources through employee retention.
... Arguably, floods are the most constant threat and bring the greatest damage annually in Malaysia (Chan, 2015). Military participation in humanitarian aid operations in the context of conflict or natural disaster is not a new phenomenon (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). The military plays an important role in providing support during disasters due to their strength in logistical and organisational structure (Apte, 2009;Barber, 2011). ...
Article
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An effective disaster response is crucial to any organizations. When a disaster happens, the response must be fast, coordinated and appropriate so that it will minimize the human and economic cost of disaster. In Malaysia, several states of the Peninsular are frequently affected by flooding during the monsoon season. The military has played a crucial role in disaster management and relief. The Malaysian Army are well trained in terms of combat. However, little is known about their effectiveness in handling disaster operations. The objective of this research is to examine Malaysian Army Infantry Officers' morale, training, safety and commitment to disaster responses in the context of flood disasters in Malaysia. This research found that training, commitment, morale and safety are the critical factors that influence effective disaster responses in the Malaysian Army. This study's methodology is descriptive and exploratory, using qualitative methods. Data collection was carried out through conducting interviews and focus groups with Malaysian Army Infantry Officers located in the Central region, Northern region, Southern region and East Coast who have been involved in flood disaster operations for the past three years. Data collected were transcribed, categorized and grouped into themes. This research found that even without specific training in disaster relief, the Malaysian Army Infantry officers are inspired, positive and ever ready to take up the responsibilities given, and that they execute them wholehearted during disaster responses. In addition, in terms of safety, the Malaysian Army has safety guidelines and protocols to protect its soldiers during disaster missions.
... Collaboration between actors can occur over one or more tasks, such as information sharing, capacity analysis, needs assessment, resource mobilization, procurement, transportation, warehousing, or last-mile delivery within the humanitarian supply chain (Moshtari, 2016;Oloruntoba et al., 2016). Scholars note that despite increasing collaboration, humanitarian organizations face significant challenges stemming from cultural and structural differences (see, Pettit and Beresford, 2009;Barber, 2011;Heaslip, 2011;Davis et al., 2013;Heaslip and Barber, 2014). In addition, each actor has its own resources, networks, and working experience. ...
Article
The main objective of the study is to understand how big data analytics capability (BDAC) as an organizational culture can enhance trust and collaborative performance between civil and military organizations engaged in disaster relief operations. The theoretical framework is grounded in organizational information processing theory (OIPT). We have conceptualized an original theoretical model to show, using the competing value model (CVM), how BDAC, under a moderating influence of organizational culture, affects swift trust (ST) and collaborative performance (CP). We used WarpPLS 6.0 to test the proposed research hypotheses using multi-respondent data gathered through an email questionnaire sent to managers working in 373 organizations, including the military forces of different countries, government aid agencies, UN specialized agencies, international non-government organizations (NGOs), service providers, and contractors. The results offer four important implications. First, BDAC has a positive, significant effect on ST and CP. Second, flexible orientation (FO) and controlled orientation (CO) have no significant influence on building ST. Third, FO has a positive and significant moderating effect on the path joining BDAC and CP. Finally, CO has negative and significant moderating effect on the path joining BDAC and CP. The control variables: temporal orientation (TO) and interdependency (I) have significant effects on ST and CP. These results extend OIPT to create a better understanding of the application of information processing capabilities to build swift trust and improve collaborative performance. Furthermore, managers can derive multiple insights from this theoretically-grounded study to understand how BDAC can be exploited to gain insights in contexts of different management styles and cultures. We have also outlined the study limitations and provided numerous future research directions.
... Responses to droughts fall into the realm of disaster management, which has been classified into various phases by scholars of the emerging research stream on humanitarian logistics and supply chain management (SCM; e.g., Kov acs and Spens, 2007). According to the prominent classification developed by Van Wassenhove (2006), these phases include mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation, the last phase also known as reconstruction (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). ...
Article
In the face of natural disasters, companies attempt to maintain the sustainability of their business by implementing an appropriate set of organisational practices. Based on the practice-based view of strategic management, this paper aims to identify intra- and interorganisational supply chain practices that help focal companies in the cashew nut supply chain in Brazil respond to natural disasters. To this end, three in-depth, qualitative case studies informed by semi-structured interviews and secondary data were conducted in Brazil. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis supported by NVivo software and based on an analytic framework that links resources and practices to performance in a natural disaster context. The findings indicate that companies embark on different trajectories depending on the resources and practices they deploy in response to natural disasters. While one company demonstrated a negative performance due to competitive inertia and low productivity, two companies maintained and increased their performance results based on inter-organisational collaboration. Findings demonstrate that responding to natural disasters requires companies to reorganise their strategies towards sustainability and to develop new practices such as food safety, organic production and social responsibility.
... The objective of any relief chain is to provide humanitarian assistance in the form of food, water, medicine, shelter and supplies to areas affected by large-scale emergencies [4]. According to [5], humanitarian supply chains must be fast and agile. Procurement in humanitarian operations faces different challenges than those experienced in the private sector. ...
... ; L'Hermitte et al. 2015Hermitte et al. , 2016aOloruntoba and Kovács 2015;Dubey et al. 2015;; learning and development related studies(Tatham et al. 2013a, b;Altay 2013; Kovács et al. 2012;Tint et al. 2015); sustainability related studies Kovács 2013, 2014;Battini et al. 2016;van Kempen et al. 2016; Kunz and Gold 2017), stakeholder(Ergun et al. 2014;Tatham and Houghton 2011; Kunz and Reiner 2016;Barber 2013; Heaslip 2013a, b) and coordination related studies(McLachlin and Larson 2011;Franke et al. 2011;Charles and Lauras 2011;Akhtar et al. 2012; Cozzolino 2012a, b;Heaslip et al. 2012;Moshtari and Gonçalves 2012;Heaslip and Barber 2014; Kabra and Ramesh 2015a, b, c, d;Kabra et al. 2015;Salvadó et al. 2015;Herlin and Pazirandeh 2015;Bealt et al. 2016;Jensen and Hertz 2016;Dubey et al. 2017). ...
Article
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The field of supply chain management has been extensively studied, while its role in disaster relief operations has received limited contributions. Recent dedicated special issues on Humanitarian Operations and Supply Chain Management (HOSCM) and a dedicated Journal focusing on humanitarian logistics and supply chain management clearly indicate the growing popularity of the HOSCM literature. The purpose of our current study is to undertake an extensive review of extant literature published in operations and supply chain management journals as well as popular interdisciplinary journals. A review of 362 papers published between 2011 and 2017 provides a thematic outline of the study. The study pivots around nine key themes, which have gained prominent attention from HOSCM scholars, and draws a roadmap from reviewing earlier review papers to performance evaluation of HOSCM related studies. Some of the key themes include humanitarian logistics, theory focused research, case studies, mathematical models, humanitarian supply chain properties and resources needed for efficient and effective management of humanitarian operations. Finally, our study offers several research directions which may take the existing debates to a next level.
... The concept of SCI is an important and core concept in SCM (Bhakoo et al. 2015;Turkulainen and Swink 2017;Vanpoucke et al. 2017). SCI is the core premise of SCM for reaping high performance supply chains (Kotzab and Otto 2004;Kotzab et al. 2015;Sweeney et al. 2015), and integration is quietly but increasingly attracting attention in DROSCM studies (see Heaslip et al. 2012;Heaslip and Barber 2014;Tatham and Rietjens 2016;Jahre et al. 2016;Makepeace et al. 2017). Hence, our adoption of the CRM process of the GSCF framework of SCI implementation as the lens of analysis in this paper. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate conceptual and theoretical similarities between disaster relief chains (DRCs) and commercial supply chains using the customer relationship management process model (CRM) of the seminal global supply chain forum framework (GSCF) as a lens of analysis (Croxton et al. in Int J Logist Manag 12(2):13–36, 2001). A range of empirical data from a case study of the 2006 relief and recovery response to the Cyclone Larry disaster is analysed using the CRM process model of the GSCF framework as a lens of analysis. We find that there are unexpected conceptual and theoretical similarities between DRCs in the Cyclone Larry disaster response and commercial supply chains. The study demonstrates that core commercial SCM concepts such as integration and integrative process management can also be found empirically in the domain of disaster response operations and allied management of supply chains for disaster relief and recovery (DROSCM). The study also shows that research in the DROSCM domain can develop in a range of directions unfettered by a paradigm focused on differences between DRCs and commercial supply chains. This is the first study to conceptually, theoretically, and empirically demonstrate similarities between DRCs and commercial supply chains.
... Increasingly, teams from a third-party logistics service provider or a military unit join a humanitarian country team in the field to provide available equipment, technologies, and know-how in support of the response programs (Yaziji and Doh 2009). Cooperation in such cross-sector contexts often appears to be uneven, uncertain, and difficult to achieve because parties operate under distinct mandates and may often have different missions, organizational cultures, ways of operating, interests, capacity, and logistics expertise (Dahan et al. 2010, Heaslip andBarber 2014). Extending social identity theorizing to cross-sector cooperation may reveal that we have clearly demarcated organizational groups that are unlikely to be "fused" together through collective leadership of the humanitarian country team and instead need the type of leading strategy highlighted in intergroup leadership. ...
Article
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International humanitarian organizations (IHOs) always strive to improve their operational performance in the field. While anecdotes from practice suggest that IHO field office leadership plays a crucial role in this regard, these claims have not been deeply substantiated by primary data. In response, we collected survey data from 125 humanitarian workers, concentrated in disaster response and development programs, on the issues of field office leadership and operational performance. Building on the operations management and organizational behavior literature, we find that leaders who adopt an intergroup leadership style can significantly improve operational performance via enhancing cooperation between local and expatriate subgroups inside a field office. Notably, we find that the intergroup leadership style becomes more effective as humanitarian workers become more entrenched within cohesive subgroups. These results should help IHOs to better select and train their field office leaders and achieve higher operational performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The doctors and nurses, especially, are always needed on site to provide medical care to disaster victims. It is disheartening that despite their vital involvement, our search of the literatures revealed little to no attention given to these volunteer doctors and nurses who are not expected or paid to take part in disaster relief but yet choose to do so, time and time again [2]. ...
Article
Disaster, whether natural or man-made, is an unpredictable event that occurs worldwide and may cause untold damage to the environment and its occupants. In the aftermath, deployment of volunteer workers into disaster zone is a necessary part of the effort to provide relief to disaster victims. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the experiences of disaster relief volunteers in Malaysia who has served in disaster relief efforts. Ten participants from among doctors and nurses who have worked as disaster relief volunteers were purposively selected for qualitative in-depth interviews. The data gathered during the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged in the data analysis process, namely, Limited Resources, Reactions, Support, Preparation and Gratification. The theme reveals the challenges faced by the participants and the toll taken on their psychological, emotional, and physical wellbeing. It also reveals the factors that could lessen the toll. In conclusion, we find it imperative for volunteer organizations, employers, and health bodies alike to recognize the need revealed in this study in order to provide the necessary support to prevent the possible damaging effect of disaster relief works on volunteers.
... The doctors and nurses, especially, are always needed on site to provide medical care to disaster victims. It is disheartening that despite their vital involvement, our search of the literatures revealed little to no attention given to these volunteer doctors and nurses who are not expected or paid to take part in disaster relief but yet choose to do so, time and time again (Heaslip and Barber, 2014). ...
Preprint
Disaster, whether natural or man-made, is an unpredictable event that occurs worldwide and may cause untold damage to the environment and its occupants. In the aftermath, deployment of volunteer workers into disaster zone is a necessary part of the effort to provide relief to disaster victims. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the experiences of disaster relief volunteers in Malaysia who has served in disaster relief efforts. Ten participants from among doctors and nurses who have worked as disaster relief volunteers were purposively selected for qualitative in-depth interviews. The data gathered during the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged in the data analysis process, namely, Limited Resources, Reactions, Support, Preparation and Gratification. The theme reveals the challenges faced by the participants and the toll taken on their psychological, emotional, and physical wellbeing. It also reveals the factors that could lessen the toll. In conclusion, we find it imperative for volunteer organizations, employers, and health bodies alike to recognize the need revealed in this study in order to provide the necessary support to prevent the possible damaging effect of disaster relief works on volunteers.
... Similarly, utilization of commercial [16] and military capacities [17] in humanitarian relief operations have received increasing attention. Humanitarian relief operations exemplify supply networks that act as complex adaptive systems that are able to rewire their connections in order to meet new, unexpected demands [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper defines latent capabilities in marine systems and proposes that latent capabilities can support large-scale emergency response, in which the demand for assistance exceeds the capabilities of dedicated emergency infrastructure. Latent capabilities are functional resources that were neither intended nor recognized during the design phase. Latent capabilities represent an opportunity for ship owners to adapt to swift changes in operating context, responding to new demands that emerge quickly. To enable exploitation of latent capabilities, we suggest a method for identification and implementation of latent capabilities during contingency planning. As a proof-of-concept for latent capabilities, the response to the Macondo oil spill is used as a case study. The case shows that advanced offshore vessels provided latent capabilities that were decisive in shutting down the leaking well. Enabling factors and challenges for this approach are explored, including the impact on vessel economics, the role of the managing organization, and other constraints.
... Reference [85] stated that the coexistence of cooperation leads to coordination. Coexistence involves the sharing of the minimum necessary information among actors involved in humanitarian settings. ...
Article
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There has been incredible interest in Internet-of-Things (IoT) and blockchain technology (BCT) around the world and across sectors. Following great achievement in the other sectors, the implementation of IoT and BCT have gained great interest in Humanitarian Logistics (HL) at many levels despite remaining in an earlier stage. The profit and non-profit organizations both are under increasing worldwide pressure for transparency, with donors and governments calling for enhanced transparency and information exchange in the humanitarian sector. This study, which is based on transactive memory systems (TMS) theory perspectives, proposes a study framework to understand ''how can the transparency, public trust, and coordination in HL be improved through the integration of IoT with BCT?''. We framed and tested six research hypotheses, using data collected from Humanitarian Organizations (HOs) employees. We have applied a Covariance-based structure equation model (CB-SEM) with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). This study results confirm that our all hypotheses were supported. The research results show that the association between explanatory variables (i.e., IoT and BCT) and the response variables (i.e., public trust and coordination) is mediated by transparency. This study provides substantial and valid contributions to the literature on IoT, BCT, transparency, public trust and coordination. This study proves that transparency plays a crucial role in enhancing public trust, coordination, and ultimately HL performance through the integration of IoT with BCT. The study results could be helpful for all the stakeholders of disaster risk management since they are insistently looking for strategies to support afflicts. Our study is a good candidate solution to raise awareness of fast, fair, and safe HL to reveal research gaps and provide opportunities for future research. The study will provide an enormous understanding of IoT and BCT in HL, which has not been investigated empirically before. INDEX TERMS Humanitarian logistics, Internet-of-Things, blockchain technology, transparency.
... Added to all of this is the over-reliance on donor funding, whereby donors become increasingly powerful players in the SC due to their ability to only provide financial and material support if their individual preferences and mandates are met (Hilhorst 2002;Kovács and Spens 2008). Co-ordination and collaboration between the humanitarian organisations involved is paramount if a HL operation is to succeed, and yet these activities are made more difficult as all of these organisations differ vastly in their size and approach (Kovács and Spens 2009;Moshtari 2016), and knowledge sharing is hampered by the chaotic and uncertain environment of HL (Pateman et al. 2013;Heaslip and Barber 2014;Altay and Pal 2014;Gao 2019). ...
Article
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In this study we argue that recognising humanitarian logistics (HL) as a complex system is a key step in developing supply chain design and management strategies that meet the needs of stakeholders. This study draws on complex adaptive systems theory to examine the characteristics and implications of complexity for HL. Through case-study research of humanitarian responses in Haiti and Pakistan, characteristics of complexity across organisational boundaries are identified. We find that the complexity of the context impacts the outcome of the humanitarian response and conclude that HL must not only react to its environment, it must also create its environment. As HL must work within significantly differing environments to create solutions, the standardised approaches used to manage supply chains are less desirable. While this paper focuses on HL, wider applicability to other complex logistics operations is also discussed, informing the design and management of contextually specific supply chains.
... Similarly, Bandura (1988) stated that formal education teaches general instructions and tactics for dealing with multiple situations instead of merely specific response. In term of humanitarianism, HL mostly has a lower priority within HOs, whereas about 40% waste is occurred (Bealt et al., 2016) due to a number of reasons including lack of expert logisticians (Heaslip and Barber, 2014) and employee turnover (Nurmala et al., 2017b). Therefore, based on the proceeding discussion, it can be argued that the implementation of formal education can increase skills and confidence building in group tasks and interactions that can solve the problems of expert logisticians and employee turnover, which can bring sustainability in the HL process; hence, it can be proposed that: ...
... The military is acknowledged as a significant actor in the humanitarian supply chain (Ozdamar et al. 2004), and the involvement of military forces in the provision of humanitarian aid in cases of conflict or natural disasters is not a new concept (Heaslip and Barber 2014). Military humanitarian actors have traditionally favored short-term lifesaving interventions with a clearly defined exit strategy (Rigby 2001, p. 957); hence the immediate response phase (Kovács and Spens 2008) to a natural disaster is considered to be the stage at which there is most likely to be a mix of military and non-military organizations working alongside one another (Pettit and Beresford 2005). ...
Article
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Humanitarian operations are increasingly receiving attention due to the numerous recent disasters and crises caused by both natural and man-made events, from mass human exodus to pandemics such as COVID-19. The successful management of humanitarian supply chains requires the effective use of human resource practices, which in turn requires strong leadership in the so-called ‘soft side’ of management. This study aims to investigate the current status of research on the human aspects of humanitarian supply chains. Through a systematic and comprehensive literature review, encompassing an original codification and in-depth analysis of journal articles, this work provides a research agenda and a number of lessons concerning human resource management (HRM) in humanitarian operations. The main findings reveal that: (i) HRM impacts the ability of humanitarian organizations to adequately prevent, prepare for and respond to disasters; (ii) training programs for aid personnel are a vital aspect of humanitarian responsiveness; (iii) humanitarian operations require a workforce with a variety of soft and hard skills; (iv) lack of trained staff is one of the main challenges in this field; and (v) building relationships and strengthening networks can enlarge the human resource pool available. Therefore, the findings of this study and its proposed research agenda have implications for both theory and practice. In terms of theory, this work provides seven recommendations, representing opportunities for scholars to advance this body of knowledge. For humanitarian practitioners, this paper offers insightful lessons to guide them in the management of human resources in humanitarian operations.
... The availability of spare parts to support this planned maintenance system. The readiness of Navy ships operations is able to shift troops, materials and logistics to the operational area [25]. ...
... A análise será efetuada na perspetiva do comandante da UAME, mas é também válida para qualquer comandante de unidade a quem é solicitado apoio militar de emergência, ou para qualquer outra situação tática. A vantagem das forças militares em situações de emergência, em especial após desastres naturais, reside na sua capacidade de reação e de adaptação à situação (Heaslip 2014;Rodriguez-Espíndola & Albores 2018). Por essa razão, é pertinente discutir e avaliar o atual processo de decisão militar e propor a sua adaptação. ...
Article
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O objetivo deste texto é propor uma adaptação ao processo de tomada de decisão militar em vigor (EP 2007) para as operações de Apoio Militar de Emergência (AME), tendo como referência a resposta a dar pelo Exército através da Unidade de Apoio Militar de Emergência (UAME) e das restantes unidades do dispositivo que têm responsabilidades de aprontamento de módulos de AME. A análise será efetuada na perspetiva do comandante da UAME, mas é também válida para qualquer comandante de unidade a quem é solicitado apoio militar de emergência, ou para qualquer outra situação tática.
... Some international and reginal reports that have analyzed and assessed the critical role of police in mitigating, preventing responding to, and recovering from natural disasters that have focused on the contributions of armed forces, local militias, and self-defense efforts in disaster management (Garge, Huong, and Khoo 2015, Heaslip and Barber 2014, Martinez 2015. However, it is not always easy to demonstrate the usefulness of community-based policing in disaster management in countries run by the Communist party, such as in Vietnam. ...
Chapter
In Vietnam, the presence of the police as primary responders is articulated in the Constitution and included in national legislation on disaster management as well as public security law. This chapter used desk-based research for data collection, including legal documents of government and Ministry of Public Security, to review and assess current policies and practices. Some selected case studies, based on available resources in disaster management of Vietnam between 1997-2017, are also utilized to illustrate for implementing eight main tasks of police in mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Findings pointed out that by implementing professional skills and effective measures, police in Vietnam played as core leading to support and assist the government and local citizens in natural disaster events. Some distinguishing features of police in a communist country to implement the ‘four on-the-spot' motto of police in natural disasters call for further studies in the future.
... Continuous dialogue for civil and military organisations between disaster deployments can circumvent the limited time for planning once a disaster occurs (see Figure 2). Cross-fertilisation between military and civil relief organisations and other agencies can occur in training programmes and contingency planning (Heaslip and Barber 2013). Embedding military personnel within humanitarian organisations which use different terminology may impede communication. ...
Article
The 2010 Haiti earthquake brought attention to the global need for rapid deployment of disaster relief health care services. In such large-scale disasters, a variety of international organisations provide temporary services until the damaged local health care system recovers. However, the disaster environment can pose operational and temporal challenges that may impede the effectiveness of relief services, and research is needed to provide both theory and methods for improving coordination and collaboration among relief organisations. This study investigates opportunities and barriers for relief organisations to pool complementary resources originating from multiple countries, by examining five case studies that represent the breadth of organizational types, including charter (civilian, military, university-affiliated and public/private), facility type (primary, secondary, and tertiary care), and duration of stay. The study yields a set of research propositions that chart avenues for future studies in this emerging field of research at the intersection of health care humanitarian operations and organisation theory.
... Similarly, Bandura (1988) stated that formal education teaches general instructions and tactics for dealing with multiple situations instead of merely specific response. In term of humanitarianism, HL mostly has a lower priority within HOs, whereas about 40% waste is occurred (Bealt et al., 2016) due to a number of reasons including lack of expert logisticians (Heaslip and Barber, 2014) and employee turnover (Nurmala et al., 2017b). Therefore, based on the proceeding discussion, it can be argued that the implementation of formal education can increase skills and confidence building in group tasks and interactions that can solve the problems of expert logisticians and employee turnover, which can bring sustainability in the HL process; hence, it can be proposed that: ...
Article
Purpose As humanitarian logistics (HL) functions in complicated, changing and ambiguous situations, all people, particularly the educated youth, have to know how to control the situation and assist victims, which are best achieved through formal education and training. Teaching at university has been extensively used in the context of business logistics. However, education in HL is a poorly researched field and, consequently, this article explores education for sustainable development in HL. The study addresses the following research question: How the teaching of HL at university can help to increase HL performance (HLP) and to reduce suffering. Design/methodology/approach A covariance-based structure equation modeling (CB-SEM) is implemented on the basis of confirmatory factor analysis. Findings The results show that the association between the explanatory variables and the dependent variable (HLP) is mediated by sustainability, and that the teaching of HL at university plays a vital role in enhancing HLP and is therefore a very suitable approach for sustainable development in HL. This direct approach is creative, informative and productive practice for both students and teachers. Originality/value In spite of the growing number of activities and courses in supply chain and logistics education, no study, to the best of our knowledge, has empirically analyzed the critical topic of whether or not education can bring sustainable development in HL. In order to save lives and reduce the suffering of victims, this study attempts to fill this gap.
... Reference [85] stated that the coexistence of cooperation leads to coordination. Coexistence involves the sharing of the minimum necessary information among actors involved in humanitarian settings. ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been incredible interest in Internet-of-Things (IoT) and blockchain technology (BCT) around the world and across sectors. Following great achievement in the other sectors, the implementation of IoT and BCT have gained great interest in Humanitarian Logistics (HL) at many levels despite remaining in an earlier stage. The profit and non-profit organizations both are under increasing worldwide pressure for transparency, with donors and governments calling for enhanced transparency and information exchange in the humanitarian sector. This study, which is based on transactive memory systems (TMS) theory perspectives, proposes a study framework to understand “how can the transparency, public trust, and coordination in HL be improved through the integration of IoT with BCT?”. We framed and tested six research hypotheses, using data collected from Humanitarian Organizations (HOs) employees. We have applied a Covariance-based structure equation model (CB-SEM) with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). This study results confirm that our all hypotheses were supported. The research results show that the association between explanatory variables (i.e., IoT and BCT) and the response variables (i.e., public trust and coordination) is mediated by transparency. This study provides substantial and valid contributions to the literature on IoT, BCT, transparency, public trust and coordination. This study proves that transparency plays a crucial role in enhancing public trust, coordination, and ultimately HL performance through the integration of IoT with BCT. The study results could be helpful for all the stakeholders of disaster risk management since they are insistently looking for strategies to support afflicts. Our study is a good candidate solution to raise awareness of fast, fair, and safe HL to reveal research gaps and provide opportunities for future research. The study will provide an enormous understanding of IoT and BCT in HL, which has not been investigated empirically before.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper supports the call for using a separate research stream for long-term recovery vs disaster relief in humanitarian studies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the thematic shift towards service operations during this developmental phase and explores the role of social entrepreneurial organizations. It builds from the literature on service operations management and social entrepreneurship to promote theory in humanitarian operations management. Design/methodology/approach This exploratory study uses literature concepts and field data from multiple development case studies of social entrepreneurial organizations and social enterprises in Africa and the Middle East to analyze service operations. Findings Clear contributions to the role of social entrepreneurship in providing humanitarian and development services were identified and categorized according to service operations management stages. Practical implications This paper has important practical implications. The positioning of social entrepreneurial organizations as humanitarian service providers would open opportunities for new collaborations between donors and social organizations. Mainstream NGOs dominate the scene of servicing local communities; leaving aside social entrepreneurial organizations with substantial room for innovation that they might bring to the sector. In addition, social entrepreneurial organizations’ ability to build business models and design sustainability and scalability aspects for their operations may bring long-term development to impoverished communities. Global NGOs as well as government actors who carry out the first three stages of humanitarian operations could plan on working with (or even help creating) social entrepreneurial organizations to help with long-term recovery. Originality/value This study examines the implications of two bodies of literature; service operations management and social entrepreneurship on humanitarian operations management research. It concludes with a conceptual framework emphasizing the contributions of social entrepreneurship in planning, development, delivery, and distribution of services in the long-term recovery humanitarian and development operations.
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The increase in the number and in the complexity of the UN Peacekeeping missions led to challenges in logistics implementation and operationalization. This study aims to understand and investigate the complexity of the logistical support in UN Peacekeeping operations missions and its implications and consequences.
Book
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This book investigates the challenges related to civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) and offers a new perspective by examining the social role of NATO CIMIC soldiers. The intertwining of the civilian and military spheres has become a significant part of the contemporary security environment. However, the relationship between the military and civilian actors is often troubled, filled with misunderstandings and rivalry. In their duty to provide a link between the military and diverse civilian environment, soldiers involved in CIMIC are exposed to varied, often-conflicted expectations that make up their social role and put stress on their performance and the effectiveness of CIMIC. By drawing on analysis of NATO CIMIC documents and a series of interviews with CIMIC soldiers, the author is able to, first, identify the elements of the CIMIC role and, second, diagnose the inherent role conflict and describe methods of dealing with it. Looking at civil-military cooperation through this lens reveals new layers of challenges that impact its effectiveness and a better way to understand the complexity of civil-military interaction. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, military sociology, peacekeeping, security studies, and international relations, as well as military practitioners.
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Ao longo da história, governos nacionais e organizações internacionais têm contado com o apoio logístico fornecido pelas Forças Armadas para responder às recorrentes situações de emergência humanitária. Na América do Sul, desde que Nicolás Maduro ascendeu ao poder, a Venezuela enfrenta uma drástica crise econômica e política, resultando em um fluxo intenso de população vulnerável para os países vizinhos, incluindo o Brasil. Particularmente no estado de Roraima, a migração de venezuelanos ocasionou uma situação caótica, com graves impactos nos sistemas de saúde, educação e na segurança pública. Com o objetivo de evitar o colapso do estado de Roraima e prover a ajuda humanitária aos migrantes, o governo brasileiro criou a Força-Tarefa Logística Humanitária (Operação Acolhida). Dessa forma, esse estudo visa analisar a Operação Acolhida, sob a liderança operacional das Forças Armadas, como uma resposta governamental brasileira à crise migratória venezuelana. Após a condução de um estudo de caso sobre a Operação Acolhida, foi possível examinar seu impacto no estado de Roraima, bem como identificar as principais capacidades militares empregadas pelas Forças Armadas, em especial pelo Exército Brasileiro, no âmbito dessa relevante operação logística humanitária.
Article
Purpose Decision-making structures are commonly associated with the logistics challenges experienced during disaster operations. However, the alignment between the operational level and the decision-making structure is commonly overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the fit of both levels and its impact on performance. Design/methodology/approach The research is developed around a case study in Mexico. Through a review of the disaster management policy in the country, interviews and secondary data, the paper provides an analysis of the current decision-making structure, the logistics activities undertaken by authorities and the impact of the alignment between both components on logistics performance. Findings The analysis suggests that several of the challenges commonly associated with centralisation are actually rooted on its alignment with the operational level. The logistics performance is negatively affected by faulty assumptions, poorly planned procedures, inconsistent decision-making and poorly designed structures. The case showed the need to align the operational level with a centralised perspective to increase responsiveness, flexibility and the interaction between different organisations. Originality/value This paper identifies the impact of the misalignment between the decision-making structure and the operational level on logistics performance, an area currently understudied. It moves from the current argument about the appropriate decision-making structure for disaster management to the identification of components to implement an efficient and effective disaster management system. Additionally, this paper provides recommendations for best practices in humanitarian logistics, which are applicable to Mexico and other countries using a centralised decision-making approach.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the issues and challenges in humanitarian logistics and to develop a framework for effectively managing the humanitarian logistics in disaster relief supply chain operations in India. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a framework to manage humanitarian logistics effectively in disaster management through qualitative analysis. First, the author examines the challenges facing the humanitarian logistics and supply chain through the reviews of the literature on various disasters. Then, the author presented a framework based on the best practices and initiatives taken worldwide in the preparedness and response stage of the humanitarian supply chain to manage and reduce the aftermath of any disaster in context to India. Findings A framework has been developed to manage humanitarian logistics in the disaster relief operation, which would improve the humanitarian supply chain in India and help to effectively manage natural disasters in the preparedness and response stage at the state and district levels. Research limitations/implications The paper mainly emphasises on the preparedness and response stage of disaster supply chain management in Indian context. Practical implications None of the disaster incidents can be stopped from taking place, but the impact can be minimised by proper preparedness and effective response during the operations of humanitarian logistics. With this hope, the framework has been developed, which if implemented would help to plan and manage any disaster incident in an effective manner, which ultimately would save millions of lives and cost in terms of infrastructure, property, assets etc. Originality/value As natural disaster incidents are occurring frequently in Indian states, there is an urgent need for a framework to manage the logistics operations effectively and efficiently during any disaster relief operations. Limited literature is found on developing and presenting a framework focusing on the preparedness and response phase of disaster supply chain management in context to India. Hence, this paper is believed to be the first to fulfil this gap with main emphasis on the preparedness and response stage of disaster supply chain management in Indian scenario.
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The concept of humanitarian logistics is evolving rapidly and gaining popularity in the research community.Thisresearchreviewstheliteratureonhumanitarianlogisticsforprovidingathorough outlook into the field. In this study, Authors conducted a scientometric analysis of the literature published in 1998-2015 to empirically explore the important areas and key contributors of humanitarianlogisticsresearchandprovidingnewoutlooktowardspublicationpatterns,authorship pattern, major subject areas, research impact, and research productivity. By using scientometric analysis,theresearchcriticallyevaluates509articlespublishedoverthepast18yearsandidentifies someofthemajorcontributingauthors,organizationsandkeyresearchtopicsrelatedtothefield.In thelast,thepaperexaminesthevalidityofLotka'slawtoauthorshippatterninhumanitarianlogistics. Theresultfoundthattheauthorproductivitydistributiondatainhumanitarianlogisticsdonotfollow Lotka'slaw.Thefindingsofthestudyprovideanewoutlookonhumanitarianlogisticsresearch.
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Originadas por desastres naturais ou situações de conflito, as crises humanitárias têm sido comuns ao longo da história. Tendo em vista prover uma resposta efetiva e imediata à essas emergências extremas, governos nacionais e organizações internacionais têm contado com as Forças Armadas para prestação de apoio logístico. Na América do Sul, desde que Nicolás Maduro ascendeu ao poder, a Venezuela enfrenta uma drástica crise econômica e política, resultando em um fluxo intenso de população vulnerável para os países vizinhos, incluindo o Brasil. Com o objetivo de prover a ajuda humanitária aos venezuelanos particularmente no estado de Roraima, o governo brasileiro criou a Força-Tarefa Logística Humanitária (Operação Acolhida). Inserido nessa operação de logística humanitária, o Exército Brasileiro tem realizado ações e atividades que refletem algumas capacidades militares específicas. Dessa forma, esse estudo visa identificar as capacidades militares desenvolvidas pelo Exército Brasileiro no contexto da Operação Acolhida. Após uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, foi possível determinar as ações e atividades executadas pelo Exército Brasileiro em Roraima, assim como as principais capacidades militares desenvolvidas no âmbito dessa operação de logística humanitária.
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Paper aims Based on the naval logistics doctrine, this paper describes and analyzes the Brazilian Navy's actions and the obstacles encountered in humanitarian operations conducted during the earthquakes in Haiti and Chile, both in 2010. Originality The main contribution is to report the use of Brazilian military personnel in humanitarian operations, with its distinct characteristics, serving as a basis for future works on this theme. Research method The research is qualitative and descriptive with an exploratory objective, based on Brazilian Navy mission reports, the legal doctrines that govern military logistics, and interview with militaries. Main findings The analysis of the reported cases brings lessons that the Naval Force may incorporate into possible future humanitarian operations. Implications for theory and practice The findings can also serve as a reference for a benchmark discussion of military operations in disaster response.
Chapter
The twenty-first century has already witnessed a number of public health emergencies of international concern. Current indications suggest this trend is set to continue. Traditionally, health crises have resulted in a different set of actors responding to the event than if it is declared a humanitarian disaster, and vice versa. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa blurred these boundaries though, as the event proved to be both a public health crisis as well as a humanitarian disaster. In an unprecedented move, during the outbreak over 5000 foreign military personnel were deployed to assist civilian authorities contain the spread of the virus, build treatment facilities, train health workers, and provide medical care, while domestic military forces were engaged to enforce quarantine, provide protection, and in some instances, assist with burials. The involvement of military personnel in a health emergency has generated concern amongst some communities though that it is yet further evidence of the “militarisation” of humanitarian assistance, while some militaries have since indicated they would be prepared to assist in future health emergencies. This chapter examines the ethical and legal issues arising from the involvement of military personnel in health emergencies. Drawing on work undertaken on civil-military cooperation in humanitarian disaster contexts, the chapter considers the extent to which health crises are qualitatively different from other disasters and what this may mean for the involvement of military personnel and other actors. It explores questions around the types of activities military personnel can be expected to perform and whether these differ between foreign or domestic militaries, how militaries conduct themselves during health emergencies, as well as the limits of military assistance.
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Recently, the concept of humanitarian relief was introduced, and there remains work to do to help people in any situation of disaster. The present research is focused on determining an inventory level for relief kits that can benefit 24 municipalities that belong to the State of Puebla, Mexico. Historically, these municipalities have been vulnerable to hydrometeorological phenomena. From 2001 to 2017, Puebla has had 1,632 emergency declarations, of which 59.7% were classified as a hydrometeorological issue. According to this historical, the disasters increased during August, September, and October, so it is proposed with this research to have an adequate inventory level of kits before the disasters happen in accordance to the months above. In the official records, there are not registered the number of affected people of these municipalities, so to determine demand, the frequency was found using the historical data regarding affected people by hydrometeorological phenomena at a national level. The lot size was calculated using the Newsboy Inventory Model, and the demand was separated in different age range and gender to make kits following the necessities.
Chapter
The Asia-Pacific is the most disaster-prone region in the world. As more disasters occur and the needs of affected populations increase, the global community faces the dual challenges of government capacity and the legitimacy of non-governmental organisations. One way of addressing the humanitarian capacity challenge is to recognise the added value and comparative advantages that those outside the traditional humanitarian sector can provide. This article identifies one such actor—the military—in the Asia-Pacific and discusses some of the opportunities and challenges that it brings. It looks at some of the attempts to integrate the military into the regional humanitarian system. The evolving nature of the humanitarian landscape raises new dilemmas. While traditional humanitarians are committed to upholding the principles of humanitarianism—neutrality, impartiality, independence and a commitment to humanity—other stakeholders are not solely motivated by such a humanitarian logic. By exploring the role of the military as a humanitarian actor, as well as the contentions surrounding its entry into the humanitarian arena, this article aims to inform efforts to navigate the gap between non-traditional and traditional humanitarian actors.
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Humanitarian relief organizations face many challenges due to the increasing number of both natural and man-made disasters such as drought, famine, war, and conflict. According to the United Nations, these challenges will continue to increase because of the risen vulnerability of humanitarian supply chains, especially regarding cost, accuracy, and duration. In this systematic review, we explore methods of lowering the cost of humanitarian responses, more specifically in regard to the education and training of aid workers.
Article
The magnitude, frequency and impact of disasters often test the capabilities of individual governments in Asia. In this context, different governments and non-government actors often work together to provide relief to affected populations. Globally, the humanitarian system has been dominated by large International Non-Government Organisations (INGOs), the United Nations and the Red Cross/Red Crescent movement focused on conflict response which makes up an estimated 80% of humanitarian work. The remaining 20% of work is in disaster response where these players work alongside national governments. While these three groups are most often viewed in the global system as the traditional responders to disaster situations, this is not the case in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, where myriad organisations respond in a region with the most exposure to natural hazards worldwide. This creates potential areas of disconnect with those dominant in the global humanitarian system that are slow to recognise or appreciate local and regional dynamics. It also raises new avenues for cooperation and collaboration which could further localisation and improve relief efforts. It is thus important to examine the recent developments in the humanitarian field, and to identify areas of cooperation between different government and non-government actors. Having reviewed the humanitarian affairs literature, conducted interviews with humanitarian personnel, and participated in humanitarian forums in the region, this article analyses the current humanitarian landscape in Southeast Asia and the wider region, to highlight the under-appreciated actors in the humanitarian space in Asia.
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During the last 20 years the climate-related disasters have dominated the picture accounting for 91% of all 7255 recorded events, being the floods the most frequent type of disaster. Several decisions, such as the allocation of shelters and relief distribution, are made to minimize the aftermath impact on the population. In this chapter, we present a model to develop a reliable network based on a hierarchical preferences multi-criteria framework. This work aims to minimize the distance between the affected populations and the available shelters as well as their exposition to the risk due to damaged routes integrating the several stakeholders’ preferences. The proposed solution is tested with the hurricane Stan case, which impacted the Mexican Republic southeast in 2005, affecting Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Oaxaca, and Veracruz. The case study is based solely on the state of Veracruz’s situation, which considers 27 available distribution centers, 109 affected populations, and 1,379 available shelters. The problem is solved in GAMS commercial software, and the results showed that a reduction of non-used capacity of the opened temporary shelters up to 90.33% could be obtained when the integration of stakeholders’ preferences and adequate decision-making tool.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific stages of the humanitarian logistics process in which the agile and lean principles are needed. Design/methodology/approach – To achieve this purpose, the authors propose an original conceptual framework and apply it to evidence from a “best practice” case study in the humanitarian sector: the United Nations World Food Programme and its efforts in the Darfur (Sudan) crisis. Findings – Although several previous works introduced the agile principle as suitable for disaster relief, when and how to embrace the agile and lean principles remained unclear. This paper demonstrates the proper combination of the agile and lean principles in disaster relief phases. The correspondence is based on the coincidence of the objectives that arises in every stage and that each principle is capable of achieving. Research limitations/implications – Further empirical research is needed to support the framework and to enrich the results that arise from this first explorative work. Practical implications – The proposed framework is targeted at leading actors involved in the operation and planning of humanitarian logistics when a crisis emerges. This approach, which is based on the combination of the agile and lean principles, is not exclusive to the humanitarian sector. This perspective may be useful to create business logistics that address disruptions to traditional supply chain flows and other forces that disrupt logistics, production and information handling. Originality/value – The paper clarifies how agility and leanness should be emphasised in specific stages of the humanitarian logistics process, to reach a higher level of effectiveness and efficiency when planning disaster relief.
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Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of “goods,” which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new per- spectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide future researchers with a framework for conducting research in the unique field of humanitarian logistics. Design/methodology/approach – The authors categorized humanitarian logistics research articles. Borrowing from the theory of constraints and management information systems literature, the authors developed a framework for research. Findings – The review of humanitarian logistics literature indicates that researchers have begun to lay the foundation for a core body of knowledge. While there is a growing body of research in humanitarian logistics, it is predominately focused on the area of planning. Originality/value – This effort categorizes past research using elements of logistics, develops a framework for research in humanitarian logistics, and recommends areas for further research.
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While the goal of OR/MS is to aid decision-makers, implementation of published models occurs less frequently than one might hope. However, one area that has been significantly affected by management science is the management of emergency response systems. Dozens of papers on emergency service problems appeared in the OR/MS literature in the 1970s alone, -- many of which were published in Management Science. Three of these papers won major prizes. More importantly, many of these papers resulted in the implementation of substantially new policies and practices, particularly in policing and firefighting. Much of this work originated in New York City, though many other cities subsequently adopted the resulting models and strategies. In this paper, we look at the content and nature of the research itself, and the factors that led to these early implementation successes. We then track the extent to which these original models are still affecting decision-making in emergency response systems as well as the development of new OR/MS models and applications in the area. We also look at issues in emergency responsiveness that have emerged as a result of the national focus on terrorism and discuss the potential for future OR/MS modeling and application In his editorial mission statement for this journal, Wally Hopp stated that "Management Science needs to play a leadership role in applying our legacy of high power analytic tools to high-level, long-term planning issues faced by managers". One area that has enjoyed considerable success in this regard is emergency response systems. Beginning in the late 1960s, papers on the allocation and deployment of police, fire and ambulance resources that provided important insights, policies and procedures for managers began to appear in this journal with regularity. This continued through the 1970s and into the 1980s. Of particular note is that a large fraction of the models in these papers were actually implemented and improved the planning and management of emergency response systems, particularly in New York City, which sponsored much of the basic
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare performance measurement in the humanitarian relief chain with performance measurement in the commercial supply chain, develop performance metrics for the humanitarian relief chain, and present a framework that can be used as a basis for a performance measurement system in the relief sector. Design/methodology/approach – The performance measurement analysis is developed through extensions on an existing performance measurement framework. Details regarding relief chain system were obtained through off-site and on-site interviews with relief professionals from World Vision International. Findings – The paper finds that this work yielded: a comparison of performance measurement in the humanitarian relief chain with performance measurement in the commercial supply chain, new performance metrics for the humanitarian relief chain, and a performance measurement framework for the relief chain. Research limitations/implications – The paper shows that future work includes performance measurement in community involvement and empowerment, performance measurement in community development, performance measurement in the combined relief and development mission, and understanding the role and impacts of cooperation and coordination in the relief chain. Practical implications – This paper provides a practical procedure for developing effective performance measurement systems for relief logistics processes. Originality/value – The paper presents to humanitarian relief professionals a new approach to performance measurement for relief logistics and to researchers in supply chain performance a comparison and contrast between performance measurement for relief and performance measurement in the commercial chain, new performance metrics for the relief chain, and implications for modern, quick-response supply chains.
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Purpose – In the field of humanitarianism, cluster thinking has been suggested as a solution to the lack of coordinated disaster response. Clusters for diverse functions, including sheltering, logistics and water and sanitation, can be viewed as an effort to achieve functional coordination. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of the potential of cluster concepts using supply chain coordination and inter-cluster coordination. The focus is on the conceptual level rather than on specific means of coordination. Design/methodology/approach – The cluster concept in humanitarian relief, along with some key empirical issues, is based on a case study. The concept is then compared to the literature on clusters and coordination in order to develop a theoretical framework with propositions on the tradeoffs between different types of coordination. Findings – The results provide important reflections on one of the major trends in contemporary development of humanitarian logistics. This paper shows that there is a tradeoff between different types of coordination, with horizontal coordination inside cluster drawing attention away from important issues of the supply chain as well as the need to coordinate among the clusters. Research limitations/implications – There is a need for more in-depth case studies of experiences with clusters in various operations. Various perspectives should be taken into account, including the field, responding agencies, beneficiaries, donors, military and commercial service providers, both during and between disasters. Practical implications – The paper presents the tradeoffs between different types of coordination, in which basic aims such as standardisation through functional coordination, must be balanced with cross-functional and vertical coordination in order to more successfully serve the users' composite needs. Originality/value – The focus on possible trade-offs between different types of coordination is an important complement to the literature, which often assumes simultaneous high degrees of horizontal and vertical coordination.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the resourcing issues that concern the provision of resources required for reconstruction projects after a disaster and to enable them to be integrated into a holistic planning process. Design/methodology/approach – Triangulation methodology is adopted in this paper including both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative approach, namely statistic analysis with the aid of questionnaires and SPSS is employed to identify the key factors affecting resource availability in post-disaster reconstruction situations. The qualitative semi-structured interviews and desk reviews of government and media documents are conducted to further interpret outcomes in the questionnaire session. Findings – Based on empirical research, the major finding of the paper is that in order to arrive at a resilient and sustainable built environment after a disaster, resourcing efforts should be made around four components – resourcing facilitator: legislation and policy; resourcing implementer: construction industry; resourcing platform: construction market; and resourcing access: transportation system. Originality/value – The original part of this paper is in raising the importance of resourcing for achieving a resilient post-disaster built environment, and in presenting a thorough overhaul of the resourcing components. The paper also offers a vision of comprehensive planning and preparedness to facilitate resourcing operations in post-disaster reconstruction; pinpoints possible constraints inherent in post-disaster resourcing environment; and provides a direction-setting framework to achieve the vision with built environment resilience considerations incorporated.
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Purpose – The paper's aim is to evaluate the changing patterns of defence requirements and their implications on supply chains and relationships within the UK defence industry. Design/methodology/approach – The paper builds a case study on the UK defence industry comprising 22 face-to-face interviews with senior management from the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and major first tier suppliers, as well as senior officers in the British armed forces. Findings – The results suggest that there are major changes currently taking place that have major impacts on defence supply relationships. The authors find a consensus in the industry concerning a shift towards through-life management (TLM), where major equipment platforms are kept in service for several decades. TLM is widely acknowledged as requiring much closer partnerships in the defence supply chain, in which suppliers assume much greater responsibilities in areas such as in-service support and maintenance. Yet the findings with MoD and suppliers reveal different perceptions of the feasibility and practical implications of the proposed changes. Practical implications – Product-service specific capabilities need to be developed especially in areas such as accurate lifecycle costing. The development of integrated supply partnerships requires greater emphasis on openness, risk and reward sharing, trust and long-term commitment in supplier relationships. There is also a need for early supplier involvement to ensure not only design for manufacture, but design for maintainability and logistics, instigated and managed by the customer (i.e. MoD). Originality/value – The analysis demonstrates the importance of adopting a through-life perspective when considering industrial contexts characterised by very long product lifecycles. This study shows that a through-life perspective creates a blurring of the boundary between customers and suppliers, and increases long-term supplier responsibility. This gives rise to new considerations, such as sophisticated risk and rewards sharing mechanisms, design for maintainability, and technology insertion.
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Purpose – Cluster analysis provides a statistical method whereby unknown groupings of similar attributes can be identified from a mass of data and is well‐known within marketing and a wide range of other disciplines. This paper seeks to describe the use of cluster analysis in an unusual setting to classify a large sample of dyadic, highly interdependent, supply chain relationships based upon the quality of their interactions. This paper aims to show how careful attention to the detail of research design and the use of combined methods leads to results that both are useful to managers and make a contribution to knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – Data relating to 55 monopolistic relationships in the UK defence procurement sector were collected. Hierarchical cluster analysis using Wards method was undertaken on scores from five dimensions measuring relationship satisfaction. The resulting clusters are described in terms of the scores on the dimensions and also in terms of their relationships with data, quantitative and qualitative, exogenous to the clusters. Findings – The analysis reveals five distinct clusters of relationships. Statistically significant differences are evident in the scores on the five dimensions of satisfaction with respect to these clusters. These scores lead to the labels “Poor 1” “Moderate 2” “Moderate 3” and “Good 4” being assigned to the clusters. The clusters display statistically significant relationships with a number of the exogenous variables including the value of the contract and the age of the technology involved. Relationships with the exogenous qualitative data are indicative of the validity of the clusters. Originality/value – This paper takes a novel approach to gaining an understanding of relationships through the use of hierarchical cluster analysis. This provides an elegant way of exposing the influences on relationship satisfaction at a disaggregate level which are not possible by taking an aggregate approach. This will be of particular interest to researchers who are seeking patterns in large data sets and practitioners who can identify better practice guidelines when working within supply chain relationships. The disaggregate approach using cluster analysis provides extraordinarily detailed insights into relationship patterns.
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Purpose – This paper primarily aims to address the following research question: Are techniques and practices developed for uninterrupted, for-profit supply chains adaptable to the not-for-profit (NFP), interrupted context? In other words, can the managerial tools of business logistics be used in humanitarian relief logistics? Design/methodology/approach – A combination of grounded research and case-based research methods is used. Grounded research methods involve coding interview data to enable constant comparison of the data with emerging categories. Three managerial representatives of a single case organisation, the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), are interviewed. Findings – MCC is a small NFP organisation operating in interrupted environments. As a matter of strategy, it pursues economic and social objectives. Strategic partnerships with “like-minded” organisations are critical to achieve these objectives. To assess its achievements, MCC needs a wide range of performance measures. Research limitations/implications – Since the paper is based on a single case, it is difficult to generalise the results beyond MCC, a small, faith-based NFP providing humanitarian assistance. There are future research opportunities to study more cases and search for additional themes. Practical implications – Partnerships and performance measurement are important elements of supply chain management (SCM) in humanitarian relief, characterised by NFP operations in interrupted environments. SCM tools and techniques created in the for-profit or business context, for partnership formation (e.g. “how to commit”) and performance measurement (e.g. balanced scorecard), should be adapted for the humanitarian context. Originality/value – There is a growing literature on supply chain interruptions, but very little research on NFP sector supply chains, despite pressing needs for effective SCM within the NFP context. Also, there are relatively few studies on adapting business logistics practices for the humanitarian logistics context. The paper addresses these issues.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing e-procurement adoption in the United Nations (UN) system of organizations are examined. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports on an extended multi-method case study of e-procurement in the UN. A three stage methodology is adopted – a questionnaire survey of UN organizations, case studies of e-procurement issues in three UN organizations, and an interactive workshop with the heads of purchasing of UN organizations. Findings – The paper finds that e-procurement is being used in the UN for transactions of routine, non-strategic purchases. UN development agencies are more likely to adopt e-procurement than humanitarian aid agencies as their operations are more predictable. The intention of the majority of UN organizations to adopt e-procurement within three years has been reversed following the workshop, which revealed that adoption of e-procurement would run counter to UN policies of supporting less developed nations, regions and organizations. A more cautious, “wait and see” approach has been taken rather than to unilaterally promote e-procurement across the UN system. Research limitations/implications – This research focuses on the UN, yet could have implications for other complex systems of organizations such as the public sector, or multinational companies considering implementing e-procurement with suppliers in developing countries. Practical implications – E-procurement needs to be considered in the context of other procurement policy objectives. What may be good e-procurement practice in a profit-making firm may be viewed as competing with broader policy objectives of not-for-profit organizations. The digital divide is a salient contextual factor for the UN, and brings about unforeseen issues regarding e-procurement adoption which may have resonance for other organisations. Originality/value – Much research on e-procurement has been conducted in the private sector and this paper contributes to the small but growing number of studies of e-procurement in the context of the public and not-for-profit sectors by studying e-procurement in the UN.
Thesis
Eine ständig wachsende Zahl an Naturkatastrophen erfordert eine effizientere und effektivere Planung und Durchführung von internationaler Katastrophenhilfe. Da die Logistikkosten einen Großteil der Ausgaben von Hilfsorganisationen für Katastrophenhilfe ausmachen, stellen sie einen Haupthebel für Kostensenkungen aber auch für Verbesserungen hinsichtlich Lieferzeiten und Qualitätsniveau dar. Obgleich Investitionen in die Supply Chain Infrastruktur und andere vorbereitende Maßnahmen im Vorfeld von Katastrophen eine hohe Rentabilität versprechen, finden sie weder systematisch noch umfassend statt. Fehlende Kooperation und Koordination zwischen Hilfsorganisationen zählt dabei zu den am häufigsten kritisierten Aspekten. Aber warum sollten und wie könnten Hilfsorganisationen hinsichtlich ihrer Logistik in der Katastrophenhilfe zusammenarbeiten? Die vorliegende Promotion untersucht welche Synergien und resultierenden Vorteile eine horizontale Logistikkooperation zwischen Hilfsorganisationen generieren könnte und welche Hürden hinsichtlich ihrer Realisierung bestehen. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf permanenten Supply Chain Strukturen und den logistischen Hauptläufen bis zum "Point of Entry", sprich dem der Katastrophenregion am nächsten gelegenen Flug- oder Seehafen. Die Untersuchung konzentriert sich dabei auf ein Service Provider Modell als Art der horizontalen Zusammenarbeit, bei dem eine Hilfsorganisation als Logistik Service Provider für andere Hilfsorganisationen agiert, wodurch sich Volumen konsolidieren und Größenvorteile realisieren lassen. Im Rahmen einer Kombination aus deduktivem und abduktivem Forschungsvorgehen basiert diese Arbeit sowohl of Forschungsergebnissen bezüglich horizontaler Logistikkooperationen im privaten Sektor als auch Erkenntnissen der Neuen Institutionenökonomik sowie der Produktionskostentheorie. Eine komparative Analyse von drei verschiedenen Logistikkooperationen, die entweder von großen Hilfs- oder Spendenorganisationen initiiert sind, zeigt, dass im humanitären Sektor die gleichen Synergiepotentiale gesehen werden wie im privaten Sektor, dass jedoch noch nicht alle Vorteile realisiert werden konnten. Das liegt zum Teil darin begründet, dass humanitäre Organisationen sich offensichtlich mehr auf Lieferzeiten und Qualitätsaspekte konzentrieren als auf die Ausschöpfung möglicher Kostenvorteile. Insbesondere kleinere Organisationen könnten von dem Zugang zu einem breiten logistischen Servicespektrum profitieren. Die Arbeit identifiziert vier Haupthürden, die die Kooperationsbereitschaft von Hilfsorganisationen im Bereich Katastrophenlogistik beeinträchtigen: die Wahrnehmung von Logistik als eigene Kernkompetenz, kulturelle Unterschiede und gegenseitiges Misstrauen, fehlende Transparenz hinsichtlich potentieller und realisierter Vorteile, sowie unzureichende Lieferkapazitäten. Es werden Lösungsansätze zur Überwindung dieser Hürden entwickelt sowie Modellanpassungen diskutiert um identifizierte Schwachpunkte der Zusammenarbeit zu vermeiden. Insbesondere der Austausch von humanitären Service Providern durch kommerzielle Anbieter wird hierbei als interessanter Ansatz gesehen, der Raum für weitere Forschung bietet. Implementierungsrichtlinien weisen auf die Hauptaufgaben für die verschiedenen Stakeholdergruppen wie Spendenorganisationen, humanitäre Organisationen, kommerzielle Serviceanbieter sowie Medien hin, um Thematik und Umsetzung von horizontale Kooperation in der Katastrophenlogistik in der Zukunft weiter voran zu treiben.
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The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the multitude of activities that military logisticians can provide throughout the various stages in relief supply chains. Most military joint doctrine identifies humanitarian assistance (HA) as one of the "Military Operations Other Than War" (MOOTW) that military personnel are trained to undertake. Part of this HA involves contributing to humanitarian supply chains and logistics management. The supply chain management processes, physical flows, as well as associated information and financial systems form part of the military contributions that add to other aid in the relief supply chain. The main roles of the military to relief supply chains include security and protection, distribution, and engineering. Examples of these key contributions will be provided in this chapter.
Article
The term civil military coordination (CIMIC) suggests the seamless division of labor between aid workers and international military forces. The images of humanitarian organizations distributing food and medicines under the protection of military forces, or aid workers and military working together to construct refugee camps, set up field hospitals, provide emergency water and sanitation, et cetera, has become more frequent. The media coverage from crises such as New Orleans, Kosovo, the tsunami in Asia, Pakistan, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Chad, and more recently Haiti and Japan, has heightened the expectation of a smooth interaction between humanitarian organizations and military forces. Due to fundamental differences between international military forces, humanitarian and development organizations (in terms of the principles and doctrines guiding their work, their agendas, operating styles, and roles), the area of civil military coordination in disaster relief has proven to be more difficult than other interagency relationships. This chapter will identify the many factors that render integration and collaboration problematic between diverse organizations, and especially so between civilian and military agencies. The chapter will conclude with proposals to improve CIMIC within disaster relief.
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Abstract Purpose – This paper aims to examine the nature of service operations management and its application to the field of humanitarian logistics. The purpose of this paper is to assess developments in the humanitarian logistics (HUMLOG) literature over the last six years and to lay out some opportunities for the HUMLOG academic community in the area of services operations management. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic, quantitative review, consistent with suggestions that the methodological rigor of reviews of the management literature should be strengthened, was undertaken. Findings – The paper suggests that there is an opportunity for HUMLOG academics to engage in the service operations management arena and apply their knowledge and skills to answer fundamental questions in the areas of servitisation, service developments, service standardisation, and the role of humanitarian aid (HA) organisations as logistics service providers and to apply their expertise in business services. Research limitations/implications – The analysis was limited to 15 peer-reviewed journals with the word “humanitarian” and/or any of the phrases “disaster”, “humanitarian aid”, “humanitarian logistics”, “humanitarian operations” or “humanitarian supply chains”, in either their titles, abstracts or full texts. The results of this review and analysis, however, provide sufficient evidence to support the main arguments advanced in the paper. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the knowledge and applications of services operations management in HUMLOG research. Keywords Humanitarian logistics, Operations management, Services management, Services Paper type Viewpoint
Article
Logistic skills are of importance for employment and career development, and prior research has highlighted differences in skill requirements for different logistics functions as well as for different groups of logisticians. However, the continuing incidence of natural disasters and complex emergencies and their associated challenges including the requirement to build relationships with diverse stakeholders, has increased the demand for humanitarian logisticians—but there is, as yet, little understanding of which skills are important in this context. This article develops a conceptual framework for skills in the field of humanitarian logistics, and evaluates the framework through a content analysis of job advertisements with a special focus on the 2010 Haiti earthquake. This analysis concludes that humanitarian logisticians need a broad spectrum of functional skills (such as procurement, and warehouse and transport management) that must often be held in some depth. In addition, however, humanitarian logisticians need “contextual” skills that reflect their particular field of employment (such as security management and a comprehensive knowledge of donor regulations). It is suggested that such contextual skills are likely to feature in other areas of logistic employment, and that further research to identify these would lead to improvements in training and education programs.
Purpose ‐ This is a polemical paper challenging both the principle and practice of journal ranking. In recent years academics and their institutions have become obsessive about the star-ratings of the journals in which they publish. In the UK this is partly attributed to quinquennial reviews of university research performance though preoccupation with journal ratings has become an international phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to examine the arguments for and against these ratings and argue that, on balance, they are having a damaging effect on the development of logistics as an academic discipline. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The arguments advanced in the paper are partly substantiated by references to the literature on the ranking of journals and development of scientific research. A comparison is made of the rating of logistics publications in different journal ranking systems. The views expressed in the paper are also based on informal discussions with numerous academics in logistics and other fields, and long experience as a researcher, reviewer and journal editor. Findings ‐ The ranking of journals gives university management a convenient method of assessing research performance across disciplines, though has several disadvantages. Among other things, it can skew the choice of research methodology, lengthen publication lead times, cause academics to be disloyal to the specialist journals in their field, favour theory over practical relevance and unfairly discriminate against relatively young disciplines such as logistics. Research evidence suggests that journal ratings are not a good proxy for the value and impact of an article. The paper aims to stimulate a debate on the pros and cons of journal rankings and encourage logistics academics to reflect on the impact of these rankings on their personal research plans and the wider development of the field. Research limitations/implications ‐ The review of journal ranking systems is confined to three countries, the UK, Germany and Australia. The analysis of journal ranking was also limited to 11 publications with the word logistics or supply chain management. The results of this review and analysis, however, provide sufficient evidence to support the main arguments advanced in the paper. Practical implications ‐ The paper asserts that the journal ranking system is encouraging a retreat into ivory towers where academics become more interested in impressing each other with their intellectual brilliance than in doing research that is of real value to the outside world. Originality/value ‐ Many logistics academics are concerned about the situation and trends outlined in this paper, but find it very difficult to challenge the prevailing journal ranking orthodoxy. This paper may give them greater confidence to question the value of the journal ranking systems that are increasing dominating academic life.
Purpose ‐ When deploying a frigate to the Gulf of Aden as a part of the Operation Atalanta, the Norwegian Defence outsourced logistics to a TPL provider. The purpose of this paper is to explore the cooperation between the Defence and the TPL provider during the operation. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A qualitative design was chosen. Semi-structured interviews were combined with relevant secondary sources. A theoretical framework formed the basis for the interviews. Findings ‐ No long-term history existed between the parties before the cooperation, and no psychological contracts between individuals at tactical levels were made beforehand. Yet the cooperation was a success. It seems that this to a large degree depended on the individuals assigned to the project. Research limitations/implications ‐ The research highlights the need to address not only how to design physical supply structures but also how to ensure adequate levels of collaborative competence within civil-military project groups. Further research is needed to investigate how to embed key suppliers in Defence logistics structures and how supply chains for short-term, limited deployments impact on logistics arrangements for the permanent structure of the Defence. Practical implications ‐ This research gives the Norwegian Defence valuable knowledge about how to collaborate with commercial logistics providers. Originality/value ‐ This research highlights challenges when embedding suppliers into military supply chains. This is of importance not just when supplying deployed forces but also when considering supplier integration, e.g. through PPP and PBL.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect on current research in the field of humanitarian logistics and supply chain management (SCM). Design/methodology/approach – The paper serves as the editorial for this issue of JHLSCM. Findings – The paper stresses the importance of the role of publications such as JHLSCM to help to bridge the gap between the theoretician and the practitioner, and between the profit and non‐profit sectors. In this way, knowledge and experience from all of these sources can be combined to deliver a more efficient and effective logistic response to natural disasters and complex emergencies. Originality/value – The paper provides an overview of some of the key challenges in the field of humanitarian logistics and SCM.
Article
Logistic activity can be thought of as a socio-technical process whereby a social network of individuals orchestrates a series of technical activities using supporting systems such as transportation and communications. To understand the functioning of the entire system requires proper consideration of all its components. We identify seven key components: the objectives being pursued, the origin of the commodity flows to be transported, knowledge of demand, the decision-making structure, periodicity and volume of logistic activities, and the state of the social networks and supporting systems. Based on our analysis of the differences between commercial and humanitarian logistics, we pinpoint research gaps that need to be filled to enhance both the efficiency of humanitarian logistics and the realism of the mathematical models designed to support it. We argue that humanitarian logistics is too broad a field to fit neatly into a single definition of operational conditions. At one end of the spectrum we find humanitarian logistic efforts of the kind conducted in long-term disaster recovery and humanitarian assistance, where operational efficiency – akin to commercial logistics – is a prime consideration. At the other, post-disaster humanitarian logistic operations involved in disaster response and short-term recovery activities represent a vastly different operational environment, often in chaotic settings where urgent needs, life-or-death decisions and scarce resources are the norm. The huge contrast between these operational environments requires that they be treated separately.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore packaging in developing countries by means of identifying and describing supply chain needs regarding packaging. Design/methodology/approach – The research approach is qualitative and includes an embedded single case study of ambient milk supply chains in developing countries. Data collection is based on the review of internal company documents, semi-structured interviews with industrial experts and field observations. Findings – The paper shows that secondary packaging is a vital supply chain component in these countries and that there are extensive interactions between packaging and the supply chain. The findings constitute a list of supply chain needs regarding secondary packaging broken down into categories. Moreover, propositions for managing the supply chain needs and challenges of packaging in developing countries are presented. Research limitations/implications – In the supply chains investigated, the focus is on the actors from the filling point at the manufacturer to the point of sale at retail stores in the ambient milk sector. To understand general aspects, the authors suggest further studies to test propositions developed in other contexts. Practical implications – The proposed list of packaging supply chain needs and suggested propositions provides insights into the issues and challenges of packaging as a part of designing and planning supply chains in developing countries and, by implication, in humanitarian supply chains that often (but not always) operate in such environments. Originality/value – This research complements previous research in the areas of packaging and supply chain management by exploring supply chain needs regarding packaging in developing countries. It extends the traditional perspective of humanitarian logistics by linking supply chain thinking in developing countries to long-term development and disaster relief logistics.
Article
The term Civil Military Co-ordination (CIMIC) suggests the seamless division of labour between aid workers and international military forces. The images of humanitarian organisations distributing food and medicines under the protection of military forces, or aid workers and military working together to construct refugee camps, set up field hospitals, provide emergency water and sanitation, has become more frequent. The media coverage from natural and man-made disasters in recent years, has heightened the expectation of a smooth interaction between humanitarian organisations and military forces. Due to fundamental differences between international military forces, humanitarian and development organisations (in terms of the principles and doctrines guiding their work, their agendas, operating styles, and roles), the area of civil military coordination in disaster relief has proven to be more difficult than other interagency relationships. In order to address this, the authors outline the usage of systems analysis and design technique (SADT) to explain how a more effective coordination of humanitarian operations by military and civilian organisations involved in disaster relief can be achieved across the range of humanitarian aid lifecycle phases. Furthermore the authors provide an empirical comparison of military and humanitarian organisation partnership evaluation criteria for (CIMIC). Finally, the authors then develop and present how the SADT approach can inform the development of a systems dynamics model using systems archetypes (SA) to describe the rich interactions between stakeholders and involved components. The authors propose a framework which identifies these facets as a result.
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Purpose – The aim of this article is twofold: validation of a theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system, and methodological development by employing qualitative means for analysis. Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical model to be validated serves as a starting point for a qualitative reanalysis of logic‐deductive character, aimed at verification of the pre‐existing theory that is already discovered and developed. Data from three previously published case studies were used as a frame of reference. Findings – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies management system for disaster aid is validated in most respects. The qualitative testing for high trustworthiness proves reasonable with regard to selected reference studies. Originality/value – The theoretical model of a civil contingencies agency management system for disaster aid was mostly confirmed and partly modified when being compared to empirical data and models from three previous case studies. Also, the qualitative approach to validating the theoretical model is, to the best knowledge of the authors, new.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a supply chain process modelling method adapted to the requirements of humanitarian organisations. Design/methodology/approach – Empirical research was conducted to identify the state of practice of supply chain management (SCM) in humanitarian organisations. An established procedure was selected, in order to develop a reference task model which forms the basis of the process modelling method. A literature review, expert interviews and other primary sources were used to identify the SCM activities that are required for the reference task model. Findings – An empirical survey revealed that process modelling and optimisation are in their infancy at humanitarian organisations. A reference task model identifying over 100 SCM tasks is constructed. The applicability and feasibility of the developed process modelling method is exemplified by means of a case study. Research limitations/implications – The reference task model provides the basis for further research on process modelling and optimisation in humanitarian supply chains. Practical implications – The process modelling method supports humanitarian organisations in modelling and optimising their supply chain processes. Standardisation of supply chain processes is promoted which can be a key to improving operational effectiveness and efficiency as well as cooperation and coordination in humanitarian operations. Originality/value – No rigorous supply chain process modelling technique adapted to the requirements of humanitarian organisations has yet been proposed. Likewise, to date, no comprehensive task model, which enables the construction of supply chain processes for humanitarian organisations, has been developed.
Purpose – The research on supply chains concerning disaster and crisis situations is in its infancy, but rapidly expanding on the backs of top researchers in the field. As with most young research streams there is very little theoretical grounding in extant studies. The purpose of this research is to integrate four prominent existing theoretical perspectives to provide a concise yet holistic framework for grounding future research. Design/methodology/approach – The development of the disaster recovery pyramid is completed following an extensive review of the resource, risk and crisis/disaster recovery, and preparedness literature. Additionally, literature from the resource‐based view (RBV) of the firm, communication theory, competing values theory, and relationship management theory are canvassed. Business professional and academics are also interviewed to validate the pyramid. Findings – The proposed framework is a call for future studies in the supply chain management and logistics disaster, and crisis management arena. The findings suggest that much of the work in supply chain disaster and crisis preparedness and recovery can be theoretically supported in combination of four mature theoretical perspectives: the RBV of the firm, communication theory, competing values theory, and relationship management theory. Originality/value – This is the first attempt to theoretically support the areas of supply chain disaster and crisis preparedness and recovery. The motivation of this paper is to both develop a framework and support a drive for growing multiple research streams in the area. Avenues of future research and theoretical grounding are suggested in a graphic representation.
Article
This paper focuses on the management of cultural conflicts that arise during the provision of humanitarian aid (HA). In particular, we study the cultural conflicts in the HA relationship between those delivering HA and the beneficiaries, and we examine how those delivering HA manage these conflicts. By drawing upon structuration theory, we conceptualise culture as consisting of three dimensions – systems of meaning, norms of behaviours, and power relations. We then develop a process model that shows the interactions between the HA organisation and the local community beneficiary of the aid and that shows how these interactions are mediated by culture. We illustrate the model with a case study that analyses the intervention of a non-governmental organisation during an outbreak of cholera in Mozambique in 2008. The case shows how the non-governmental organisation reflexively monitored its actions and consequences, creating a basis for adaptation and change in its practices. Furthermore, the case shows that culture is not immutable but dynamic – being constantly produced and reproduced during HA operations. From the results of the case study, we formulate some theoretical propositions that may guide further research in this area.
Article
Recent natural disasters such as the earthquake in Haiti, Hurricane Katrina in the United States, tsunami in the Indian Ocean, the earthquake in Pakistan, and numerous humanitarian challenges arising from such conflicts as that in Sudan have exposed the shortcomings in planning for disasters. In addition to the natural disasters, the homeland security issues related to domestic as well as international terrorism have increased the fear factor and have made 'readiness' the principal priority. Humanitarian logistics is a critical element of an effective disaster relief process. The objective of this monograph is to discuss research issues and potential actions surrounding the new field of humanitarian logistics. We define humanitarian logistics as that special branch of logistics which manages response supply chain of critical supplies and services with challenges such as demand surges, uncertain supplies, critical time windows in face of infrastructure vulnerabilities and vast scope and size of the operations. We survey case studies to learn from the past experience and review analytical models from the literature to understand the state-of-the-art in humanitarian logistics. We recommend further research in the fields of operations management and operations research to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of humanitarian logistics. We conclude that though humanitarian logistics is inherently chaotic and complex, and it is difficult to do research in this area, the complexity and obstacles can be dealt with by the researchers.
Article
Ii~ spite of structural and organization reform of the umanitarian system over the past decade, the United Nations has not been uniformly successful in ensuring delivery of an effective, reliable, and well-coordinated response in the field. This fact has been evident in the UN response both to complex humanitarian emergencies (e.g., in the Sudan), and to natural disasters such as the tsunami and the more recent South Asia earthquake. By mid-2005, UN reform activities had resulted in a new cluster-sectoral approach to be employed in all new emergencies. If successful, it would subsequently be implemented at the global level. The objective of the new approach was to ensure sufficient capacity and coverage for all relevant sectors during the three crucial phases of emergency: response, relief, and recovery. Some months later, the South Asia earthquake occurred and it was decided to test the efficacy of the new approach in the field~espite the lack of two crucial elements: a clear implementation plan and the incorporation of lessons learned from previous earthquakes relative to coordinating relief efforts in the field. We outline both the events that occurred after the October 8, 2005 earthquake and the complex response to this human tragedy. We review recent efforts to improve UN response to humanitarian disasters and describe the application of the new cluster-sectoral approach to the South Asia disaster. We then ask the critical question, "Did the cluster approach improve coordination?" and discuss the reasons for its limited success. The limitations of the new approach can be found in two main areas: problems inherent to the cluster-sectoral approach and, by extension, to the UN; and political and geographic factors particular to Pakistan. Where possible, we have made comparisons between the new approach and UN humanitarian assistance coordination efforts in previous earthquakes.
Article
The nature of a particular disaster or emergency determines the form of response and the mix of military or non-military commitment. Whatever the balance between military and non-military involvement, logistical support and replenishment of supplies form crucial aspects of the stabilisation process. This paper examines the processes involved in emergency relief and highlights the relationships between the participating bodies. A generic portrayal of emergency response was initially proposed by Jennings et al. (Emergency relief logistics: a disaster response model, Occasional Paper No. 64, Cardiff University, 2000) and discussed further by Beresford et al. (Emergency relief logistics: a disaster response model, in Proceedings of the Logistics Research Network Conference, 2002, pp. 121–128). This paper presents recent research that proposes a refined model for logistics requirements in emergency conditions, taking account of existing response models, both military and non-military, and of results from field research conducted partially under sponsorship by the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport. The composite model proposed here, which incorporates Jennings et al. 's model as well as the military/non-military dimension, appears to be robust and workable in a range of geopolitical and operational circumstances.
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This paper builds on the idea that private sector logistics can and should be applied to improve the performance of disaster logistics but that before embarking on this the private sector needs to understand the core capabilities of humanitarian logistics. With this in mind, the paper walks us through the complexities of managing supply chains in humanitarian settings. It pinpoints the cross learning potential for both the humanitarian and private sectors in emergency relief operations as well as possibilities of getting involved through corporate social responsibility. It also outlines strategies for better preparedness and the need for supply chains to be agile, adaptable and aligned—a core competency of many humanitarian organizations involved in disaster relief and an area which the private sector could draw on to improve their own competitive edge. Finally, the article states the case for closer collaboration between humanitarians, businesses and academics to achieve better and more effective supply chains to respond to the complexities of today's logistics be it the private sector or relieving the lives of those blighted by disaster.Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 475–489. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2602125 Published online 14 December 2005