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Description of Ghatiana, a new genus of freshwater crab, with two new species and a new species of Gubernatoriana (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from the Western Ghat Mountains, India

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A new genus of freshwater crab, Ghatiana, with two new species, Ghatiana aurantiaca and Ghatiana hyacintha, and a new species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970, are described from the Western Ghat Mountains in Maharashtra State, India. Ghatiana is most similar to Gubernatoriana by its wide, highly arched carapace and by the shape of the male abdomen. Nevertheless, the new genus can be distinguished from Gubernatoriana by the broadness of carapace, length of male abdomen, shape of sixth abdominal somite, length of telson and length of G1 terminal article. Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov. and G. hyacintha sp. nov. are distinguished by differences in body colour, carapace width, and G1 morphology, whereas Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov. is distinguished from two other known species [Gubernatoriana gubernatoris (Alcock, 1909) and Gubernatoriana pilosipes (Alcock, 1909)] by its triangular G1 subterminal segment and by its carapace morphology. Keys to the species of both the genera are provided.http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:36BAA1EA-DC15-4B06-BA09-7BD26C63FF54
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Description of Ghatiana, a new genus of
freshwater crab, with two new species
and a new species of Gubernatoriana
(Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura:
Gecarcinucidae) from the Western Ghat
Mountains, India
S.K. Patia & R.M. Sharmaa
a Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune, India
Published online: 26 Feb 2014.
To cite this article: S.K. Pati & R.M. Sharma (2014) Description of Ghatiana, a new genus of
freshwater crab, with two new species and a new species of Gubernatoriana (Crustacea: Decapoda:
Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from the Western Ghat Mountains, India, Journal of Natural History,
48:21-22, 1279-1298, DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2013.859315
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2013.859315
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Description of Ghatiana, a new genus of freshwater crab, with two new
species and a new species of Gubernatoriana (Crustacea: Decapoda:
Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from the Western Ghat Mountains, India
S.K. Pati*and R.M. Sharma
Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune, India
(Received 21 December 2012; accepted 22 October 2013; first published online 26 February 2014)
A new genus of freshwater crab, Ghatiana, with two new species, Ghatiana
aurantiaca and Ghatiana hyacintha, and a new species of Gubernatoriana Bott,
1970, are described from the Western Ghat Mountains in Maharashtra State,
India. Ghatiana is most similar to Gubernatoriana by its wide, highly arched
carapace and by the shape of the male abdomen. Nevertheless, the new genus
can be distinguished from Gubernatoriana by the broadness of carapace, length of
male abdomen, shape of sixth abdominal somite, length of telson and length of G1
terminal article. Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov. and G. hyacintha sp. nov. are
distinguished by differences in body colour, carapace width, and G1 morphology,
whereas Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov. is distinguished from two other known
species [Gubernatoriana gubernatoris (Alcock, 1909) and Gubernatoriana pilosipes
(Alcock, 1909)] by its triangular G1 subterminal segment and by its carapace
morphology. Keys to the species of both the genera are provided.
http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:36BAA1EA-DC15-4B06-
BA09-7BD26C63FF54
Keywords: freshwater crabs; taxonomy; new genus; new species; India
Introduction
A systematic study of freshwater crab specimens from the Western Ghat Mountains
in India (Figure 1) in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Western
Regional Centre (WRC), Pune, revealed two new species that belonged to a new
genus, Ghatiana. Specimens were compared with species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970
[type species Paratelphusa (Globitelphusa)gubernatoris Alcock, 1909, by original
designation; gender feminine], Inglethelphusa Bott, 1970 [type species Paratelphusa
(Globitelphusa)fronto Alcock, 1909, by original designation and monotypy; gender
feminine], Pilarta Bahir and Yeo, 2007 [type species Pilarta anuka Bahir and Yeo,
2007, by original designation and monotypy; gender feminine], Snaha Bahir and Yeo,
2007 [type species Snaha aruna Bahir and Yeo, 2007, by original designation; gender
feminine] and Globitelphusa Alcock, 1909 [type species Paratelphusa (Globitelphusa)
bakeri Alcock, 1909, by original designation; gender feminine]. The study also
produced a new species of Gubernatoriana. Interestingly, all known species of
Gubernatoriana and Inglethelphusa described by Alcock (1909) are from
Mahabaleshwar in the Western Ghat Mountains.
*Corresponding author. Email: sameer_pati@yahoo.co.in
Journal of Natural History, 2014
Vol. 48, Nos. 2122, 12791298, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2013.859315
© 2014 Taylor & Francis
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Figure 1. Map of collection sites of Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov. (circle); Ghatiana hyacintha
sp. nov. (square) and Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov. (triangle).
1280 S.K. Pati and R.M. Sharma
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The measurements and terminology used follow Ng and Tay (2001) and Bahir and
Yeo (2007). The following abbreviations are used: coll., collector; alt., altitude; cw,
carapace width; cl, carapace length; ch, carapace height; fw, frontal width; s1, thoracic
sternite 1; s2, thoracic sternite 2; s3, thoracic sternite 3; s4, thoracic sternite 4; p2, pereiopod
2; p3, pereiopod 3; p4, pereiopod 4; p5, pereiopod 5; G1, male first pleopod; G2, male
second pleopod.
Taxonomy
Family GECARCINUCIDAE Rathbun, 1904
Ghatiana gen. nov.
Type species
Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov, by present designation.
Diagnosis
Carapace slightly broader than long (cl/cw 0.710.78) (cw 1.31.4 times cl), highly
arched (ch/cw 0.450.52), narrow posteriorly, ch more than 0.6 times cl; anterolateral
margin short, slightly curved; front vertically deflexed, depressed, broad, nearly 0.4
times cw; epigastric crests distinct, low, broad, blunt; postorbital crests indistinct;
external orbital angle poorly developed; epibranchial tooth indistinct, very close to
level of supraorbital margin; cervical grooves poorly developed, interrupted; meso-
gastric groove long, deep, wide, extending into frontal region, bifurcate posteriorly;
frontal median triangle incomplete with only dorsal margin; lacking epistomal med-
ian tooth (Figures 2A,B,4A,B). Chelipeds unequal, carpal spine distinct, blunt, outer
surface of merus rugose. Ambulatory legs with tuft of fine bristles. Suture between
thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct and between s3/s4 incomplete visible as short
grooves on sides only; s1, s2 with setae (Figures 2C,3A,4C,5A). Male abdomen
elongated, T-shaped; fifth abdominal somite broader than long; sixth abdominal
somite longer than broad, but shorter than telson; telson long (Figures 3B,5B);
male sternoabdominal cavity deep, very long, extending beyond level of bases of
third maxillipeds (Figures 2C,4C). Exopods of first, second maxillipeds each with
long flagellum; exopod of third maxilliped lacking flagellum, exopod longer than
ischium (Figures 3D,5D). G1 short with long terminal article (0.450.55 times length
of subterminal segment); subterminal segment much broader than the terminal article
(Figures 3E,F,5E,F). G2 short with very short terminal article (Figures 3H,5H).
Etymology
The genus name is derived from the word Ghatbecause all the species in this genus
are endemic to the Western Ghats. Gender feminine.
Remarks
Ghatiana, new genus, can be distinguished from other Indian gecarcinucid genera by
the absence of a flagellum on the exopod of the third maxilliped (Figures 3D,5D)
Journal of Natural History 1281
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Figure 2. Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C.1129). (A) Dorsal view;
(B) frontal view; (C) ventral view. Scale bars: 10 mm.
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(except Pilarta,Snaha,Globitelphusa,Inglethelphusa and Gubernatoriana, which pos-
sess a flagellum on this maxilliped).
The new genus is distinguished from Pilarta and Snaha by the G2
terminal article, which is very short (Figures 3H,5H)(whereasPilarta and
Figure 3. Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C.1129). (A)
Anterior thoracic sternites; (B) abdomen; (C) right cheliped; (D) left third maxilliped; (E)
dorsal view of right G1; (F) ventral view of right G1; (G) dorsal view of terminal article
of right G1; (H) right G2. Scale bars: 5 mm (A, B); 10 mm (C); 2.5 mm (D) and 1 mm
(EH).
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Figure 4. Ghatiana hyacintha sp. nov., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C.1130). (A) Dorsal view;
(B) frontal view; (C) ventral view. Scale bars: 10 mm.
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Figure 5. Ghatiana hyacintha sp. nov., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C.1130). (A) Anterior
thoracic sternites; (B) abdomen; (C) right cheliped; (D) left third maxilliped; (E) dorsal view
of right G1; (F) ventral view of right G1; (G) dorsal view of terminal article of right G1; (H)
right G2. Scale bars: 5 mm (A, B); 10 mm (C); 2.5 mm (D) and 1 mm (EH).
Journal of Natural History 1285
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Snaha have a flagellum-like G2 distal article) (Bahir and Yeo 2007: figs. 25H,
27G, 29E).
Ghatiana can be distinguished from Globitelphusa by the distal part of the sub-
terminal segment of the G1: this is narrow, with an inner margin that gradually tapers
without angulation in Ghatiana (Figures 3E,G,5E,G) but broad with an inner margin
that tapers sharply at an angle in Globitelphusa (Bott 1970: pl. 33, fig. 15). In
addition, Globitelphusa is restricted to northeast India whereas Ghatiana is only
found in the Western Ghats.
The new genus has some affinities with the monotypic genus Inglethelphusa
in carapace morphology: both genera have a slightly curved anterolateral
margin; very low, broad and blunt epigastric crests; a long mesogastric
groove bifurcating posteriorly and extending into the frontal region; both lack
an epistomal median tooth; both have an elongated and T-shaped male
abdomen; both have a long sixth male abdominal somite and long telson; both
have a very long male sternoabdominal cavity extending beyond the level of the
third maxilliped base, and a short G2 with a short terminal article. However,
Ghatiana can easily be distinguished from Inglethelphusa by its broad carapace
(cw/cl 1.31.4 vs 1.1), narrow frontal margin (fw/cw 0.380.41 vs 0.46), long
third maxilliped exopod that is longer than the ischium (vs a short third max-
illiped exopod), and a short, slightly curved and stout G1 with a short terminal
article (Figures 2A,B,3DF,4A,B,5DF) (vs a long, almost straight, narrow
G1 with a very long terminal article) (Bott 1970:pl.34,figs.2528).
The G1s of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana appear superficially similar but the
terminal article of the former is longer than that of the latter (Figures 3E,5E,7E;
Bott 1970: pl. 27, fig. 27; pl. 34, fig. 36). Further, Ghatiana can be differentiated from
Gubernatoriana by its broad and highly arched carapace (vs squarish and compara-
tively less arched carapace), elongated T-shaped male abdomen with sixth male
abdominal somite longer than broad and a long telson (vs short T-shaped male
abdomen with sixth male abdominal somite slightly broader than long and a short
telson) (Figures 2A,C,3B,4A,C,5B,6A,C,7B; Bott 1970: pl. 6, figs. 61, 62; pl. 34,
figs. 33, 34).
Ecological notes
Specimens were found in burrows dug into the banks of small streams, or under small
stones, or inside cavities of laterite boulders on land or in holes in tree trunks. These
crabs were especially active during the night in the rainy season where they were
found either walking on the ground or on laterite boulders or climbing up tree trunks
(Pati and Sharma, unpublished data).
Distribution
Northern Western Ghat Mountains, India. The type species was found in laterite
regions of Konkan (244 m above sea level) whereas the other species was recorded
from elevated Ghat areas (883 m above sea level).
Two species are included in Ghatiana gen. nov.: Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov.
(type species) and Ghatiana hyacintha sp. nov.
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Figure 6. Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C.1134). (A) Dorsal
view; (B) frontal view; (C) ventral view. Scale bars: 10 mm.
Journal of Natural History 1287
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Figure 7. Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov., holotype male (ZSI, WRC-C.1134). (A) Anterior
thoracic sternites; (B) abdomen; (C) left cheliped; (D) left third maxilliped; (E) dorsal view of
right G1; (F) ventral view of right G1; (G) dorsal view of terminal article of right G1; (H) right
G2. Scale bars: 5 mm (A, B); 10 mm (C); 2.5 mm (D) and 1 mm (EH).
1288 S.K. Pati and R.M. Sharma
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Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov.
(Figures 2AC,3AH,8A)
Type specimens
Holotype: male (cw 17.10 mm, cl 12.14 mm, ch 7.76 mm, fw 6.42 mm), coll. P.S.
Bhatnagar and party (ZSI, WRC-C.1129), Forest Rest House, Phansad Wildlife
Sanctuary, Raigad district, Maharashtra, India, 18°2527.912N, 72°5653.1672E,
alt. 244 m; paratypes: 2 males (cw 14.5215.64 mm, cl 10.6411.30 mm, ch 6.84
7.30 mm, fw 5.646.04 mm) and 2 females (cw 10.9415.64 mm, cl 7.9411.12 mm, ch
4.707.26 mm, fw 4.306.00 mm) (ZSI, WRC-C.828), same data as holotype.
Diagnosis
Carapace slightly broader than long (cl/cw = 0.710.73); anterolateral margin curved
with smooth, cristiform, thick, oblique striations; epigastric crests distinct, low,
broad, blunt; postorbital crests indistinct; epibranchial tooth indistinct; mesogastric
groove long, deep, extending into frontal region up to frontal margin; frontal median
triangle incomplete with only dorsal margin; epistomal median lobe broadly trian-
gular with rounded apex, lacking median tooth (Figure 2A,B). Suture between
thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct and between s3/s4 visible as grooves on sides only;
s1, s2 with bunch of setae (Figures 2C,3A). Male abdomen elongated T-shape; fifth
abdominal somite broader than long; sixth abdominal somite longer than broad;
telson longer than sixth abdominal somite (Figures 2C,3B). G1 short, slightly curved
outward with long terminal article (0.45 times length of subterminal segment); tip
pointed; subterminal segment much broader than terminal article, basal two-thirds
much broader than distal one-third (Figure 3EG). G2 short with very short or
vestigial terminal article (Figure 3H). Carapace orange red in living animals
(Figure 8A).
Description
Carapace slightly broader than long (cw/cl 1.4), narrow posteriorly; highly arched
(ch/cl 0.64), anterolateral carapace inflated in frontal view; dorsal carapace surface
rugose on lateral sides; anterolateral margin curved with smooth, cristiform, thick,
oblique striations; posterolateral margin with fine, oblique striations; front depressed,
vertically deflexed, broad, fw/cw 0.4; frontal margin slightly undulating; epigastric
crests distinct, low, broad, blunt; postorbital crests indistinct; external orbital angle
poorly developed; epibranchial tooth indistinct, very close to level of supraorbital
margin; postorbital region slightly deep; branchial regions inflated, rugose; subhepatic
region with fine striations; cervical grooves poorly developed, interrupted; mesogastric
groove long, deep, extending to frontal margin, bifurcated posteriorly; H-groove
visible; frontal median triangle incomplete with only dorsal margin; epistomal median
lobe broadly triangular with rounded apex, lacking median tooth (Figure 2A,B).
Chelipeds unequal; right chela much larger; smooth; teeth on fingers blunt,
almost of equal size; dactylus shorter than palm; fingers of larger chela meet only
at tip (Figure 3C); carpal spine distinct, blunt; carpus devoid of bristles; outer surface
of merus rugose.
Journal of Natural History 1289
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Figure 8. Newly described crabs from their natural habitats. (A) Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov.,
from laterite rocks in Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary, Raigad district; (B) Ghatiana hyacintha sp.
nov., from bank of a stream in Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary, Kolhapur district; (C)
Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov., from bank of a stream in Tahmini Ghat, Pune district.
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Ambulatory legs (p2p5) long with very fine, small tuft of brownish bristles with
yellowish tips mostly on margins; dactylus (p4 and p5) longer than propodus; longest
propodus (p3) three times as long as broad.
Suture between thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct, suture between sternites s3/s4
missing except for two short lateral grooves; s1, s2 heavily setose (Figures
2C,3A).
Male abdomen elongated, T-shaped; fifth abdominal somite broader than long
with concave lateral margins, distal width shorter than proximal width; sixth
abdominal somite longer than broad, shorter than telson with slightly convex
lateral margins, proximal width equal to distal width; telson elongated, broadly
rounded at apex (Figures 2C,3B); male sternoabdominal cavity deep, very long,
extending much beyond level of bases of third maxillipeds (Figure 2C).
Exopod of first, second maxillipeds with long flagellum; exopod of third
maxilliped lacking flagellum, longer than ischium, ventral sulcus on ischium
indistinct, merus quadrangular, anterior external angle of merus right angled,
slightly depressed (Figure 3D). Mandibular palp with two joints, terminal joint
bilobed.
G1 short, slightly curved outward with long terminal article (0.45 times length of
subterminal segment); terminal article narrower than subterminal segment, tip
pointed; subterminal segment broader than terminal article, basal two-thirds broader
than distal third (Figure 3EG). G2 short with very short or vestigial terminal article;
proximal half of basal segment distinctly broader than distal half (Figure 3H).
Colour
Live animals have an orange-red carapace and chelipeds (Figure 8A); specimens
preserved in ethanol have a yellow-brown carapace and chelipeds.
Etymology
The specific epithet derived from the Latin word aurantiacus meaning orange-red,
refers to the orange-red colour of the live crab.
Remarks
Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov. is similar to G. hyacintha sp. nov. in general carapace
morphology and G1 structure. However, these two species are clearly differentiated
by the following characters: orange-red colour when alive (vs violet when alive);
carapace more transversely elongate in appearance, cw/cl 1.4 (vs carapace less trans-
verse and more squarish in appearance, cw/cl 1.3); epistomal median lobe broadly
triangular with rounded apex (vs epistomal median lobe broadly triangular with
slightly acute apex); thoracic sternites s3/s4 smooth, lacking setae (vs sternites s3/s4
highly setose); short G1 terminal article 0.45 times length of subterminal segment
(vs long terminal article 0.55 times length of subterminal segment); basal two-thirds
of G1 subterminal segment broader than distal one-third (vs basal half of G1 sub-
terminal segment broader than distal half) (Figures 2A,B,3A,E,4A,B,5A,E,8A,B).
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Ecological notes
Ghatiana aurantiaca lives on land inside cavities of laterite boulders, and inside holes
in tree trunks (present study). This crab species is active during the night in the rainy
season when it is often seen walking on the ground, on laterite boulders, or climbing
up tree trunks (Pati and Sharma, unpublished data).
Distribution
Known only from the type locality.
Ghatiana hyacintha sp. nov.
(Figures 4AC,5AH,8B)
Type specimens
Holotype: male (cw 13.58 mm, cl 10.54 mm, ch 6.62 mm, fw 5.60 mm), coll. S.S.
Jadhav and party (ZSI, WRC-C.1130), Mahadeb Mandir, Radhanagari Wildlife
Sanctuary, Kolhapur district, Maharashtra, India, 16°2524.2796N, 73°547.1964
E, alt. 883 m; paratypes: 3 males (cw 12.3613.42 mm, cl 9.5610.24 mm, ch 6.06
6.54 mm, fw 5.165.66 mm) and 2 females (cw 12.0213.80 mm, cl 9.2010.50 mm, ch
6.226.64 mm, fw 5.045.84 mm) (ZSI, WRC-C.825), same data as holotype.
Diagnosis
Carapace broader than long (cl/cw 0.760.78); anterolateral margin curved with
finely serrated crest curving into branchial regions, short, oblique, distinct striations
on lateral sides; epigastric crests distinct, low, broad, blunt; postorbital crests indis-
tinct; epibranchial tooth indistinct; mesogastric groove long, deep, wide, extending
into frontal region; frontal median triangle incomplete with only dorsal margin;
epistomal median lobe broadly triangular with slightly acute apex, lacking median
tooth (Figure 4A,B). Suture between thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct, suture between
s3/s4 incomplete except for short lateral grooves; s1s4 with setae spreading uni-
formly (Figures 4C,5A). Male abdomen elongated T-shape; fifth abdominal somite
broader than long; sixth abdominal somite longer than broad; telson longer than sixth
abdominal somite (Figures 4C,5B). G1 short, slightly curved outward with long
terminal article (0.55 times length of subterminal segment); tip pointed; subterminal
segment comparatively much broader than terminal article, basal half much broader
than distal half (Figure 5EG). G2 short with very short or vestigial terminal article
(Figure 5H). Living specimens with violet carapace and legs (Figure 8B).
Description
Carapace slightly broader than long (cw/cl 1.3), narrow posteriorly, highly arched
(ch/cl 0.63), anterolateral carapace inflated in frontal view; anterolateral margin
curved with a very finely serrated crest curving into branchial regions, short, oblique,
distinct striations on lateral sides; posterolateral margin with short, distinct, oblique
striations; front slightly depressed in middle, vertically deflexed, broad, fw/cw 0.4;
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frontal margin nearly straight; epigastric crests distinct, low, broad, blunt; postorbital
crests indistinct; external orbital angle poorly developed; epibranchial tooth indis-
tinct, very close to level of supraorbital margin; postorbital region shallow; branchial
regions inflated, rugose; subhepatic region with fine striations; cervical grooves
poorly developed, interrupted; mesogastric groove long, deep, wide, extending into
frontal region, bifurcate posteriorly; H-groove visible; frontal median triangle incom-
plete with only dorsal margin; epistomal median lobe broadly triangular with slightly
acute apex, lacking distinct median tooth (Figure 4A,B).
Chelipeds unequal; right chela larger; smooth; fingers of major cheliped with two
or three larger teeth, fingers meeting only at tip; dactylus of major cheliped shorter
than palm (Figure 5C); carpus with large blunt tooth; carpus almost devoid of
bristles; outer surface of merus rugose.
Ambulatory legs (p2p5) long with very fine, small, tuft of two or three brownish
bristles with yellowish tips mostly on margins; dactylus (p4 and p5) longer than
propodus; longest propodus (p4) three times as long as broad.
Suture between thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct, suture between s3/s4 missing
except for two lateral grooves; s1s4 with setae spreading uniformly (Figures 4C,5A).
Male abdomen elongated, T-shaped; fifth abdominal somite broader than long
with concave lateral margins, distal width shorter than proximal width; sixth abdom-
inal somite longer than broad, shorter than telson with convex lateral margins,
proximal width equal to distal width; telson elongated, broadly rounded at apex
(Figures 4C,5B); male sternoabdominal cavity deep, very long, extending much
beyond level of third maxilliped bases (Figure 4C).
Exopod of first and second maxillipeds with long flagellum; exopod of third max-
illiped lacking flagellum, longer than ischium; ventral sulcus on ischium shallow,
towards centre; merus quadrangular, anterior external angle of merus right angled,
slightly depressed (Figure 5D). Mandibular palp with two joints, terminal joint bilobed.
G1 short, slightly curved outward with long terminal article (0.55 times length of
subterminal segment); terminal article narrower than subterminal segment, tip
pointed; subterminal segment broader than terminal article, basal half broader than
distal half (Figure 5EG). G2 short with very short or vestigial terminal article;
proximal half of basal segment distinctly broader than distal half (Figure 5H).
Colour
Live animals have a violet carapace and chelipeds (Figure 8B); specimens preserved
in ethanol have a dark brown carapace and faint violet chelipeds.
Etymology
The specific epithet, hyacintha alludes to the violet colour of the species with reference
to the colour of the flowers of water hyacinth.
Remarks
Ghatiana hyacintha is similar to G. aurantiaca in overall carapace morphology and
G1 structure. Nevertheless, the species can be distinguished by the colouration of the
carapace, relative width of the carapace, appearance of the apex of the epistomal
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median lobe, pattern of the setae on thoracic sternites, and relative length of G1
terminal article and relative broadness of G1subterminal segment. For differences see
Remarks for G. aurantiaca.
Ecological notes
Specimens were collected from burrows of the banks of small streams, and from
under small stones. These crabs are generally more active during the rainy season
(from June to September) (Pati and Sharma, unpublished data).
Distribution
Known only from the type locality.
Key to the species of Ghatiana
1. Carapace of living specimens orange-red; wide (cl/cw 0.710.73); epistomal
median lobe semicircular; thoracic sternites 3 and 4 smooth, lacking setae.
G1 terminal article 0.45 times length of subterminal segment; basal two-
thirds of subterminal segment much broader than distal third ......................
.......................................................................... Ghatiana aurantiaca sp. nov.
Carapace of living specimens violet; not widened (cl/cw 0.760.78); epistomal
median lobe broadly triangular; thoracic sternites 3 and 4 setose. G1 terminal
article 0.55 times length of subterminal segment; basal half of subterminal
segment much broader than distal half .............. Ghatiana hyacintha sp. nov.
Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970
Paratelphusa (Globitelphusa) Alcock, 1909; 1910: 117 (part) (not Paratelphusa
(Globitelphusa) Alcock, 1909).
Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970: 44.
Gubernatoriana Bahir and Yeo, 2007: 334.
Gubernatoriana Ng et al. 2008:67.
Type species
Paratelphusa (Globitelphusa)gubernatoris Alcock, 1909, by original designation.
Diagnosis (revised after Bott 1970; based on type species and present material)
Carapace squarish (cl/cw 0.780.92) (cw 1.11.3 times cl), flat (ch/cl 0.6); anterolateral
margin short, nearly straight; front vertically deflexed, narrow (fw/cw 0.350.42);
epigastric crests slightly developed; postorbital crests indistinct; external orbital angle
poorly developed; epibranchial tooth indistinct; cervical grooves indistinct; mesogastric
groove long, without bifurcation posteriorly; frontal median triangle incomplete with
only dorsal margin visible; epistomal median lobe broadly triangular, lacking median
tooth (Figure 6A,B; Bott 1970: pl. 6, figs 60, 61; pl. 34, figs 33, 35). Chelipeds unequal.
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Ambulatory legs with fine bristles. Suture between thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct or
visible as a small groove and between s3/s4 visible as grooves on sides only (Figures 6C,
7A; Bott 1970: pl. 6, fig. 62; pl. 34, fig. 34). Male abdomen short T-shaped; fifth
abdominal somite much broader than long; sixth abdominal somite slightly broader
than long, subequal in length to telson; telson short; male sternoabdominal cavity deep,
long, extending beyond level of cheliped bases or even beyond level of third maxilliped
bases (Figures 6C,7B; Bott 1970: pl. 6, fig. 62; pl. 34, fig. 34). Exopods of first, second
maxillipeds with long flagellum; exopod of third maxilliped lacking flagellum, exopod
longer than ischium (Figure 7D). G1 short, stout with long terminal article (0.350.50
times length of subterminal segment); subterminal segment much broader than terminal
article (Figure 7EG; see Bott 1970: pl. 27, fig. 27; pl. 34, fig. 36). G2 short with very
short or vestigial terminal article (Figure 7H).
Remarks
Gubernatoriana is morphologically close to Ghatiana, new genus, but can be differ-
entiated based on some significant external morphological characters (see Remarks
for Ghatiana). This genus is distinguished from Snaha and Pilarta by the short
terminal article of G2 (Figure 7H) (vs long terminal article of G2) (Bahir and Yeo
2007: figs. 25H, 27G, 29E). Gubernatoriana is distinguished from Inglethelphusa by
the long third maxilliped exopod and short, stout G1 (vs short third maxilliped
exopod and long, narrow G1) (Figure 7DF; Bott 1970: pl. 34, figs. 26, 28).
Gubernatoriana escheri (Roux, 1931) was recently assigned to the genus Snaha,
while Gubernatoriana nilgiriensis (Roux, 1931) and Gubernatoriana pusilla (Roux,
1931) were both transferred to the genus Vanni (Bahir and Yeo 2007; Ng et al.
2008).
Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970, now consists of three species: Gubernatoriana guber-
natoris (Alcock 1909), Gubernatoriana pilosipes (Alcock 1909), and Gubernatoriana
triangulus sp. nov.
Ecological notes
These crabs are found in small streams, under small stones in high-altitude areas in
Western Ghats of India (Pati and Sharma, unpublished data).
Distribution
Northern Western Ghat Mountains (Maharashtra: Satara, Pune); Karnataka: North-
Canara (Bott 1970).
Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov.
(Figures 6AC,7AH,and 8C)
Type specimens
Holotype: male (cw 12.52 mm, cl 10.60 mm, ch 6.28 mm, fw 5.22 mm), B.S. Lamba
(ZSI, WRC-C.1134), Dhobi Waterfall, Mahabaleshwar, Satara district, Maharashtra,
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India, 17°568.484N, 73°3849.311E, alt. 1207 m ; paratypes: 1 male (cw 9.00 mm,
cl 7.40 mm, ch 4.12 mm, fw 3.54 mm), S.K. Pati (ZSI, WRC-C.471), Bhaka Devi and
vicinity, Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pune district, Maharashtra, India, 19°5
27.729N, 73°327.8246E, alt. 955 m and 1 female (cw 9.34 mm, cl 7.24 mm, ch
3.92 mm, fw 3.54 mm), S.K. Pati (ZSI, WRC-C.1087), Dongarwadi, Tahmini Ghat,
Pune district, Maharashtra, India, 18°294.8948N, 73°2453.8878E, alt. 593 m.
Diagnosis
Carapace squarish (cl/cw 0.760.78), highly arched anteriorly (ch/cl 0.59), less convex
posteriorly; dorsal surface almost smooth; anterolateral margin short, smooth, cristi-
form; posterolateral margin with fine, oblique striations; frontal margin slightly
concave medially; epigastric crests faint, flat, broad; postorbital crests indistinct;
epibranchial tooth indistinct; branchial regions inflated; subhepatic region smooth;
H-groove faint; frontal median triangle incomplete with only dorsal margin; episto-
mal median lobe broadly triangular, without median tooth (Figure 6A,B). Suture
between thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct, suture between sternites s3/s4 absent except
for two short lateral grooves (Figures 6C,7A). Male abdomen short, almost T-
shaped; fifth abdominal somite much broader than long; sixth abdominal somite
slightly broader than long, equal in length to telson; telson short, broadly triangular
(Figure 7B); male sternoabdominal cavity deep, long, extending beyond level of third
maxilliped bases (Figure 6C). Exopods of first, second maxillipeds with long flagel-
lum; exopod of third maxilliped lacking flagellum (Figure 7D). G1 short, stout with
long terminal article (0.5 times length of subterminal segment); terminal article
slimmer than subterminal segment, slightly curved outward, tip pointed; subterminal
segment almost triangular, basal half broader than distal half (Figure 7EG). G2
short, terminal article very short (Figure 7H).
Description
Carapace squarish, highly arched anteriorly (ch/cl 0.59), less convex posteriorly;
dorsal surface almost smooth; anterolateral carapace inflated in frontal view; ante-
rolateral margin short, smooth, cristiform; posterolateral margin with fine, oblique
striations; front vertically deflexed, flat, square cut, wide (fw/cw 0.4); frontal margin
slightly concave medially; epigastric crests faint, flat, broad; postorbital crests indis-
tinct; external orbital angle poorly developed; epibranchial tooth indistinct; postorbi-
tal region flat; branchial regions inflated considerably; subhepatic region smooth;
cervical grooves indistinct; mesogastric groove long, slightly extending into frontal
region; H-groove faint; frontal median triangle incomplete with only dorsal margin;
epistomal median lobe broadly triangular without median tooth (Figure 6A,B).
Chelipeds smooth, unequal; few small blunt teeth on anterior margin of major
(left) chela; large gape between fingers of larger chela when tips in contact (Figure
7C); fingers slightly shorter than palm; teeth on fingers of smaller chela small, blunt;
carpal spine poorly developed, blunt; outer surface of merus rugose.
Ambulatory legs (p2p5) long with bristles on margins of carpus, propodus, and
dactylus; dactylus (p4 and p5) equal in length to propodus; longest propodus (p3)
almost three times as long as broad.
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Suture between thoracic sternites s2/s3 indistinct, suture between sternites s3/s4
absent except for two short deep lateral grooves (Figures 6C,7A).
Male abdomen short, almost T-shaped; fifth abdominal somite broader than
long, lateral margins not parallel to each other; sixth abdominal somite broader
than long, equal in length to telson, lateral margins convex; telson broadly triangular,
length equal to proximal width (Figure 7B); male sternoabdominal cavity deep, long,
extending beyond level of third maxilliped bases (Figure 6C).
Exopods of first, second maxillipeds with long flagellum; exopod of third max-
illiped lacking flagellum, longer than ischium; ventral sulcus on ischium indistinct,
anterior external angle of merus right angled, depression on merus towards inner
sides (Figure 7D). Mandibular palp with two joints, terminal joint bilobed.
G1 short, stout with long terminal article (0.5 times length of subterminal seg-
ment); terminal article slimmer than subterminal segment, slightly curved outward,
tip pointed; subterminal segment almost triangular, basal half distinctly broader than
distal half (Figure 7EG). G2 short with very short terminal article; proximal half of
basal segment stout, broader than distal half (Figure 7H).
Colour
Live crabs have a brown carapace, and yellowish brown chelipeds and ambulatory
legs (Figure 8C).
Etymology
In Latin triangulus means triangular, referring to the triangular shape of the G1
subterminal segment. Used as noun in apposition.
Remarks
Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov. is similar to both G. gubernatoris and G. pilosipes in
carapace morphology. Differences between these three taxa include the carapace
height, which in G. triangulus is more inflated in the branchial regions than in the
other two species, a smooth subhepatic region in G. triangulus (vs a rugose subhepatic
region), a male sternoabdominal cavity extending beyond the level of the third max-
illiped bases in G. triangulus (vs a male sternoabdominal cavity not extending beyond
the level of cheliped bases) (Figure 6A,C; Bott 1970: pl. 6, figs. 61, 62; pl. 34, figs. 33,
34). The G1 subterminal segment of G. triangulus is triangular in appearance i.e. basal
half distinctly stouter than distal half (vs basal one-third slightly broader than distal
two-thirds in G. gubernatoris and basal two-thirds slightly broader than distal one-third
in G. pilosipes)(Figure 7E,F; Bott 1970: pl. 27, fig. 27; pl. 34, fig. 36).
Ecological notes
Specimens were found in the Western Ghat Mountains, India, along the small stream
banks, in small water bodies, and under small stones. This species is very active
especially during the rainy season (from June to September) (Pati and Sharma,
unpublished data).
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Distribution
Northern Western Ghats (Satara and Pune).
Key to the species of Gubernatoriana
1. Branchial regions inflated (ch/cl 0.59); subhepatic region smooth. Male
sternoabdominal cavity long, extending beyond level of third maxilliped
bases. G1 subterminal segment stout, triangular ...........................................
................................................................. Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov.
Branchial regions not inflated (ch/cl 0.480.58); subhepatic region rugose.
Male sternoabdominal cavity short, extending to level of cheliped bases. G1
subterminal segment slim, not triangular ..................................................... 2
2. Suture between thoracic sternites 2 and 3 indistinct. Tips of fingers of major
cheliped pointed. G1 terminal article long (0.45 times length of subterminal
segment); basal third of subterminal segment broader than distal two-thirds
.................................................. Gubernatoriana gubernatoris (Alcock, 1909)
Suture between thoracic sternites 2 and 3 visible, complete groove. Tips of
fingers of major cheliped broadly rounded or spoon shaped. G1 terminal
article short (0.35 times length of subterminal segment); basal two-thirds of
subterminal segment broader than distal third ..............................................
......................................................... Gubernatoriana pilosipes (Alcock, 1909)
Acknowledgements
We are thankful to Dr K. Venkataraman, the Director of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata
for kind support and encouragement. Thanks to the authorities of Maharashtra Forest
Department for permission to conduct surveys and for providing information regarding the
crabs. Special thanks to Dr M.K. Dev Roy and Mr S. Mitra of Crustacea Section, Zoological
Survey of India, Kolkata for facilitating access to the comparative materials under their care.
We are thankful to the reviewers for valuable suggestions and comments on the manuscript.
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Parathelphusidae). Zeylanica. 6:113199.
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... The high level of endemism in these crabs is largely associated with the isolated nature of the mountains that form geographical barriers in the form of 'sky islands' (see Klaus et al. 2014). These crabs dwell in both freshwater and semi-terrestrial habitats, including hilly streams, waterfalls, basalt rocks, and phytotelmata (see Klaus et al. 2014;Pati & Sharma 2014a;Pati et al. 2016). The heterogeneity seen in the morphology of these crabs could be attributed to their adaptation to a specific habitat. ...
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We recognize two new species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and three new species of Sahyadriana Pati & Thackeray, 2018, from the Western Ghats of India. Ghatiana durrelli n. sp. is characterized mainly by the proportionately narrower adult carapace, the relatively broader male pleonal somite 6, and the relatively stouter terminal segment of the male first gonopod. Ghatiana rouxi n. sp. is differentiated from congeners by its proportionately narrower adult carapace with the gently convex lateral margins. Sahyadriana inopinata n. sp. is characterized by a suite of characters that includes the visible epibranchial tooth, the relatively slenderer and longer terminal segment of the male first gonopod, and the subovate and relatively smaller adult vulva that is positioned a clear distance from the suture between thoracic sternites 5 and 6. Sahyadriana keshari n. sp. differs from the allied S. waghi (Pati in Pati, Thackeray & Khaire, 2016) by the relatively stouter terminal segment of the male first gonopod, and the relatively larger adult vulva, which is positioned close to the suture between thoracic sternites 5 and 6. Sahyadriana tamhini n. sp. most resembles S. alcocki (Pati in Pati, Thackeray & Khaire, 2016) but can be differentiated by its relatively longer, distally distinctly narrow terminal segment and the sinuous inner margin of the subterminal segment of the male first gonopod, and the relatively closely positioned and larger adult vulvae. Ghatiana and Sahyadriana now include 10 species and 13 species, respectively. An updated key is provided for both genera.
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A new genus of freshwater crab, Karkata gen. nov., with two species, K. ghanarakta sp. nov. (type species) and K. kusumbha sp. nov., and two new species each of Pilarta Bahir and Yeo, 2007 (P. aroma sp. nov. and P. punctatissima sp. nov.) and Cylindrotelphusa Alcock, 1909 (C. breviphallus sp. nov. and C. longiphallus sp. nov.), are described from Kerala, India. Additionally, C. granulata (Pillai, 1951) comb. et stat. nov. is recognised as a distinct species. Karkata gen. nov. is distinguished from other Indian gecarcinucid genera by a suite of carapace and gonopod characters, including a moderately arched, smooth carapace, the presence of a prominent suture between male thoracic sternites 2, 3 and 3, 4, the absence of a flagellum on the third maxilliped exopod, a very short terminal segment of the male first gonopod (G1), and a short distal segment of the male second gonopod (G2). Karkata ghanarakta sp. nov. is differentiated from K. kusumbha sp. nov. by the shape of the G1 subterminal segment and its live colouration. Pilarta punctatissima sp. nov. is distinct among the congeners mainly by its densely punctate carapace, densely setose anterolateral and posterolateral margins of the carapace, stouter G1 terminal segment, and relatively long G2 distal segment whereas P. aroma sp. nov. can be separated from P. anuka Bahir and Yeo, 2007 by its relatively smooth carapace, deep H-shaped groove, relatively long G1 terminal segment, and almost straight outer margins of the G1 terminal and subterminal segments. Cylindrotelphusa breviphallus sp. nov. is differentiated from C. longiphallus sp. nov. and C. steniops (Alcock, 1909) by its stout G1, with a stout, short terminal segment. Cylindrotelphusa longiphallus sp. nov. is distinguished from the congeners by its shallow, narrow cervical grooves and relatively slender ambulatory legs. An identification key to the species of Karkata, Pilarta and Cylindrotelphusa is provided. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AB9B01DA-B23F-4AC2-9349-75ADDBBBF707
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A new genus and new species of tree crab is described from the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in Kerala, southern India. Kani maranjandun. gen., n. sp., is substantially different from all congeners in a suite of characters, notably the diagnostic carapace and male abdominal structure, as well as the conspicuously elongated ambulatory legs. The species is wholly arboreal, living in tree-hollows or the canopy.
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Article
The freshwater crab fauna of the two southernmost Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu are reviewed based on the findings of a recent field survey and re-examination of relevant type material. Nine genera and twenty-three species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs are reported, including six new genera (Baratha, Lamella, Pilarta, Snaha, Vanni and Vela) and 10 new species (Baratha pushta, Baratha peena, Pilarta anuka, Snaha aruna, Travancoriana kuleera, Travancoriana charu, Vanni ashini, Vanni deepta, Vanni giri and Vela virupa). Four species previously regarded as junior subjective synonyms are recognised herein as valid species, namely, Lamella lamellifrons (Alcock), Vela pulvinata (Alcock), Vanni travancorica (Henderson) and Travancoriana convexa (Roux). Keys to the genera and species of southern Indian gecarcinucid freshwater crabs are provided.
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00 mm, cl 7.40 mm, ch 4.12 mm, fw 3.54 mm)); subhepatic region smooth. Male sternoabdominal cavity long, extending beyond level of third maxilliped bases. G1 subterminal segment stout
  • °56′8 India
  • °38′49 484″ N
  • S K 311″ E
  • Pati
  • Wrc-C Zsi
  • Bhaka 471 )
  • Devi
  • Vicinity
  • Bhimashankar
  • Sanctuary
India, 17°56′8.484″ N, 73°38′49.311″ E, alt. 1207 m ; paratypes: 1 male (cw 9.00 mm, cl 7.40 mm, ch 4.12 mm, fw 3.54 mm), S.K. Pati (ZSI, WRC-C.471), Bhaka Devi and vicinity, Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pune district, Maharashtra, India, 19°5′ 27.729″ N, 73°32′7.8246″ E, alt. 955 m and 1 female (cw 9.34 mm, cl 7.24 mm, ch 3.92 mm, fw 3.54 mm), S.K. Pati (ZSI, WRC-C.1087), Dongarwadi, Tahmini Ghat, Pune district, Maharashtra, India, 18°29′4.8948″ N, 73°24′53.8878″ E, alt. 593 m. 1. Branchial regions inflated (ch/cl 0.59); subhepatic region smooth. Male sternoabdominal cavity long, extending beyond level of third maxilliped bases. G1 subterminal segment stout, triangular............................................................................................................ Gubernatoriana triangulus sp. nov. Branchial regions not inflated (ch/cl 0.48–0.
Les crabs d'eau douce
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Crustacés Décapodes d'eau douce de l'Inde méridionale
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