Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle Habits in US Adults, 1988-2006

Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
The American journal of medicine (Impact Factor: 5). 06/2009; 122(6):528-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.11.013
Source: PubMed


Lifestyle choices are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare adherence to healthy lifestyle habits in adults between 1988 and 2006.
Analysis of adherence to 5 healthy lifestyle trends (>or=5 fruits and vegetables/day, regular exercise >12 times/month, maintaining healthy weight [body mass index 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2)], moderate alcohol consumption [up to 1 drink/day for women, 2/day for men] and not smoking) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 were compared with results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006 among adults aged 40-74 years.
Over the last 18 years, the percent of adults aged 40-74 years with a body mass index >or=30 kg/m(2) has increased from 28% to 36% (P <.05); physical activity 12 times a month or more has decreased from 53% to 43% (P <.05); smoking rates have not changed (26.9% to 26.1%); eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables a day has decreased from 42% to 26% (P <.05), and moderate alcohol use has increased from 40% to 51% (P <.05). Adherence to all 5 healthy habits has gone from 15% to 8% (P <.05). Although adherence to a healthy lifestyle was lower among minorities, adherence decreased more among non-Hispanic Whites over the period. Individuals with a history of hypertension/diabetes/cardiovascular disease were no more likely to be adherent to a healthy lifestyle than people without these conditions.
Generally, adherence to a healthy lifestyle pattern has decreased during the last 18 years, with decreases documented in 3 of 5 healthy lifestyle habits. These findings have broad implications for the future risk of cardiovascular disease in adults.

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    • "We found trends in risk factors that are similar to trends using more conventional independent cross-sectional samples, such as from NHANES [5]. This includes declines in smoking [22], systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol [23], and increases in HDL-cholesterol [23], the use of antihypertensive medication [6], use of lipid-lowering medication, body mass index [22], and diabetes. Lower socioeconomic status has been associated with higher CAC prevalence [24] though not consistently [25]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Of concern are the national (US) data indicating that the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health decreased from 2.0% in 1988–1994 to 1.2% in 2005–2010 [4]. Over the same time, increases in physical inactivity and obesity, and decreases in fruit and vegetable consumption have been observed [37]. The biggest prevalence differences between the two present studies were observed for the RFS. "
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Public Health
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    • "The evidence for a beneficial effect of healthy behaviors on reducing the incidence and mortality of NCDs is overwhelming [4,5,10,11,12,13,14]. Despite the known benefits of healthy behaviors, few people engage in several healthy behaviors at once [5,11,14,15,16,17,18,19]. "
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