Article

Acute Classroom Exercise Breaks Improve On-Task Behavior in 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Dose-Response

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Abstract

This study was the first to directly compare the acute effects of 5, 10, and 20 minutes of classroom exercise breaks on on-task behavior. Methods In this within-subject experiment, 96 4th and 5th grade students, in 5 classroom groups, participated in each of four conditions: 10 minutes of sedentary classroom activity and 5, 10, 20 minutes of classroom exercise breaks led by research staff. On-task behavior was directly and systematically observed from videotapes before and after each condition. The post-test time-on-task scores were compared using a repeated measures mixed ANCOVA, adjusted for age, classroom, and the time-varying pre-test time-on-task. Results Time-on-task was significantly higher in students after 10 minutes of classroom exercise breaks compared to a sedentary attention control (87.6% vs 77.1%, d=0.45, p=.004). Conclusions Ten minutes of classroom exercise breaks improved on-task behavior in children.

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... Previous studies have shown that active breaks improved children's cognitive function, 12 classroom behaviour, 13 and academic achievement. 14 However, existing active break programs have limitations restricting their translation potential. ...
... 15 While active breaks of at least 10-min have been shown to be effective for improving academic-related outcomes, few studies have investigated the effect of shorter active breaks. [12][13][14] Fourminute vigorous-intensity breaks (e.g. jumping jacks) have been shown to be effective, 12,17 while 5-min moderate-to vigorousintensity active breaks (e.g. ...
... jumping jacks) have been shown to be effective, 12,17 while 5-min moderate-to vigorousintensity active breaks (e.g. marching, jumping and running in place) were not, for improving academic-related outcomes, 13,14 suggesting that short active breaks need to be of a vigorousintensity to elicit academic benefit. However, this approach may not be feasible. ...
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Objectives: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of a 6-week pilot active break program (ACTI-BREAK) on academic achievement, classroom behaviour and physical activity. Design: Pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. Methods: 374 children in Year 3 and 4 (74% response) were recruited from six schools across Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomised to the ACTI-BREAK intervention or usual teaching practice. The intervention involved teachers incorporating 3×5min active breaks into their classroom routine daily. Academic achievement was assessed using 1-min tests in reading and mathematics; classroom behaviour at the individual and whole class level was observed by teachers; and physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometers. Multilevel mixed effects linear regression models were conducted using intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. Results: Significant intervention effects were found for classroom behaviour at the individual level (ITT B=16.17; 95% CI: 6.58, 25.76); effects were stronger for boys (B=21.42; 95% CI: 10.34, 32.49) than girls (B=12.23; 95% CI: 1.52, 22.92). No effect was found for classroom behaviour at the whole class level, reading, math or physical activity. PP findings were similar. Conclusions: Implementing active breaks during class time may improve classroom behaviour, particularly for boys. There was no evidence to suggest that implementing active breaks had any adverse effect on academic achievement or classroom behaviour, which may encourage classroom teachers to incorporate active breaks into their routine.
... Figura 1. Proceso de selección de los artículos En este trabajo de revisión se han incluido nueve artículos, todos ellos con diseño de intervención (100%), asignando a los participantes de forma aleatoria en los diferentes grupos. Tres de ellos introducen contrabalanceo en su diseño (Howie et al., 2014;Janssen et al., 2014;Kubesch et al., 2009). Únicamente tres artículos (33%) informan del efecto de variables confusoras o covariables (Donnelly y Lambourne, 2011;Howie et al., 2014;Schmidt et al., 2016). ...
... Tres de ellos introducen contrabalanceo en su diseño (Howie et al., 2014;Janssen et al., 2014;Kubesch et al., 2009). Únicamente tres artículos (33%) informan del efecto de variables confusoras o covariables (Donnelly y Lambourne, 2011;Howie et al., 2014;Schmidt et al., 2016). De los estudios seleccionados, solo uno (11%) evalúa el efecto de la AF durante el recreo (Altenburg et al., 2016) los otros ocho (89%) evalúan el efecto de practicar AF en uno o más cambios de clases. ...
... Esta revisión incluye datos de 3150 participantes, siendo el tamaño muestral de los diferente estudios de entre 56 (Altenburg et al., 2016) y 1342 (Donnelly y Lambourne, 2011). Los estudios proceden de cinco países diferentes: cinco en USA (Donnelly y Lambourne, 2011;Howie et al., 2014;Katz et al., 2010;Ma et al., 2014;Schmidt et al., 2016), dos en los Países bajos (Altenburg et al., 2016;Janssen et al., 2014), uno en Alemania (Kubesch et al., 2009) y uno en Australia (Wilson et al., 2016). Toda la información detallada en la tabla 2. ...
Article
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El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar los estudios que evalúan el efecto de la práctica de actividad física integrada en los descansos escolares, sobre la atención en niños y adolescentes. Para ello se hizo una búsqueda bibliográfica en tres bases de datos (búsqueda inicial n = 502: PubMed n = 121, SportDiscus n = 114, Web of Science n = 268), desde enero de 2000 hasta marzo de 2017. Un total de nueve estudios con intervención cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Todos los estudios emplearon ejercicio físico a intensidad moderada-vigorosa de una duración entre 5-30 min. En siete estudios obtuvieron mejoras y en dos no obtuvieron cambios. Se encontraron diferencias atendiendo al sexo. Finalmente, se observó la influencia de la duración e intensidad de la intervención habiendo controversia entre los diferentes estudios. Motivo por el que consideramos que son necesarias más investigaciones para aclarar la influencia de los factores de confusión, tipo, duración e intensidad del ejercicio.
... Bilirubin has been commonly considered to be simply the "final product" of heme catabolism [74]. The rise in bilirubin in rats exposed to high altitudes may be due to an increase in red blood cell counts [75]. Bilirubin is an endogenous antioxidant that plays an important role in the anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammation of neurons [76,77]. ...
... Age has been shown to moderate the influence of exercise on executive functions, with the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise increasing with age in adulthood [71]. It has been suggested that cognitive functions are most sensitive to sensorimotor experiences in phases during which they undergo developmental changes, such as executive functions in childhood and old age [72][73][74][75]. Participants in the present study were between 18 and 50 years of age. ...
... Reason for Exclusion Adsiz et al. (2012) [61] No AB Amicone et al. (2018) [62] No AB Bartholomew et al. (2018) [63] No attention: Time on task Ben-Zeev et al. (2020) [64] No AB: PE lesson Blasche et al. (2018) [65] No attention Budde et al. (2008) [28] No proper CG: PE lesson Chou et al. (2020) [66] No AB: PE lesson Chrismas et al. (2019) [67] No AB Contreras et al. (2020) [68] Not written in English. [71] No AB Gonzalez et al. (2020) [72] Not written in English Grieco et al. (2016) [73] No attention: Time on task Howie et al. (2015) [74] No attention Howie et al. (2014) [75] No attention: Time on task Kubesch et al. (2009) [76] No AB: PE lesson Mahar (2011) [77] Review Mavilidi et al. (2020) [78] No attention: [85] Not written in English Owen et al. (2018) [86] No AB Pesce et al. (2013) [87] No AB Ruiz-Ariza et al. (2021) [88] Not written in English Sánchez-López et al. (2015) [89] Protocol Sugahara et al. (2018) [90] No AB Tan et al. (2016) [4] No attention: Time on task Vazou, et al. (2020) [91] No attention: Observation [92] Protocol Watson et al. (2019) [93] No attention: Classroom behavior Webster et al. (2015) [94] No attention: ...
Article
School physical activity breaks are currently being proposed as a way to improve students’ learning. However, there is no clear evidence of the effects of active school breaks on academic-related cognitive outcomes. The present systematic review with meta-analysis scrutinized and synthesized the literature related to the effects of active breaks on students’ attention. On January 12th, 2021, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched for published interventions with counterbalanced cross-over or parallel-groups designs with a control group, including school-based active breaks, objective attentional outcomes, and healthy students of any age. Studies’ results were qualitatively synthesized, and meta-analyses were performed if at least three study groups provided pre-post data for the same measure. Results showed some positive acute and chronic effects of active breaks on attentional outcomes (i.e., accuracy, concentration, inhibition, and sustained attention), especially on selective attention. However, most of the results were not significant. The small number of included studies and their heterogeneous design are the primary limitations of the present study. Although the results do not clearly point out the positive effects of active breaks, they do not compromise students’ attention. The key roles of intensity and the leader of the active break are discussed.
... Studies that have explored the acute effects of PA interventions on EF and AP provide inconsistent conclusions. Interventions on classroom exercise breaks identified 10 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were sufficient for EF improvements (Howie, Beets, & Pate, 2014;Janssen et al., 2014). In contrast, a meta-analysis (Chang et al., 2012) suggests 20 min or more of quantitative PA is required to enhance cognition. ...
... Four paper-based tests were used to assess inhibitory control and working memory, adapted from previously valid and reliable tests used with children (Howie et al., 2014;Jager et al., 2015Jager et al., , 2014Szűcs, Devine, Soltesz, Nobes, & Gabriel, 2014). Tests were adapted to allow a class of children to complete the tests concurrently as well as providing greater ecological validity. ...
... The Trail Making Task (TMT) is a valid and feasible test (Howie et al., 2014;Lezak, Howieson, & Loring, 2004) assessing visual search, selective attention, psychomotor speed, working memory and cognitive flexibility (Schiff et al., 2016), providing an overall measure of EF. ...
Article
Objectives For schools to consider physical activity (PA) interventions, improvements must be shown in PA and additional educational benefits such as executive function (EF) and academic performance (AP). Over 8800 schools worldwide have implemented The Daily Mile™ (TDM), without any formal assessments of its impact. Rigorous and high-quality studies are needed to explore TDM’s contribution to moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) guidelines and potential impact on EFs and AP. Methods Children (14 classes, n = 303, age mean = 8.99 ± 0.5) from 11 primary schools already implementing TDM consented. At the individual level, children were randomly assigned using a 4-block process to either TDM or continued academic lessons (TDM n = 158, control n = 145). Children completed pre and post, EF tests (Trail Making Task; Digit Recall; Flanker; Animal Stroop) and a maths fluency test (Maths Addition and Subtraction, Speed and Accuracy Test). Accelerometers assessed MVPA using 15-s-epochs and Evenson cut-points. Results Using multi-level modelling, TDM revealed significantly greater MVPA (+10.23 min) and reduced sedentary time (−9.28 min) compared to control (p ≤ 0.001, d = 4.92, 3.61 retrospectively). Maths fluency interacted with condition and time (p = 0.031, d = 0.25); post hocs revealed no significances over time (p > 0.05). No differences in EFs (all p > 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first assessing the acute effects of TDM compared to continued academic lessons. TDM revealed no significant improvements in maths fluency or EF. These findings question justifying the widespread adoption of TDM based on enhanced cognition claims. Nonetheless, TDM may provide 10 min of MVPA, achieving a third of the daily in school recommendations to meet overall daily recommendations.
... A 5-10 min MVPA session during the break between classes or during classes produced improvements in cognitive variables (Howie et al., 2015) and time on task (Howie et al., 2014) in the following hour. A 15 min ALB was found to improve selective attention (Janssen et al., 2014) and a 4 min ALB involving vigorous activity reduced the number of mistakes in post-test attention (Ma et al., 2014). ...
... However, 16 months of the Action Schools!BC programme (AS!BC®), which involves moderate-intensity ALBs (15 min/day x 5 days/week) did not affect academic performance (Ahamed et al., 2007). Ahamed et al. (2007) did not find differences between sexes, however, Howie et al. (2014Howie et al. ( , 2015 found differences in sex. Boys had lower attention after 5 min ALB than girls, and girls had higher improvements in Mathematics than boys, respectively. ...
... Although PA during school time is beneficial, the effects are variable. Howie et al. (2014) observed that ALB interventions based on brief MVPA sessions produced cognitive improvements in girls, but not in boys. Mullender-Wijnsma et al. (2015a) concluded that the cognitive benefits of PAAL were greater in students aged 6-7 years than in older children. ...
... To date, most of the research has implemented physically active lessons, while fewer studies have examined the effects of CAB (Daly-Smith et al., 2018;Watson et al., 2017). However, of the few studies that have investigated CAB and on-task behavior, results consistently show that CAB are associated with improvements in on-task behavior, with an average improvement in on-task behavior of 16.5% (Howie et al., 2014;Ma et al., 2014;Webster et al., 2015). Some CAB were teacher led (Webster et al., 2015), whereas others were researcher led (Howie et al., 2014;Ma et al., 2014); however, the improvement in on-task behavior remained consistent, indicating that adequately trained teachers can successfully implement CAB. ...
... However, of the few studies that have investigated CAB and on-task behavior, results consistently show that CAB are associated with improvements in on-task behavior, with an average improvement in on-task behavior of 16.5% (Howie et al., 2014;Ma et al., 2014;Webster et al., 2015). Some CAB were teacher led (Webster et al., 2015), whereas others were researcher led (Howie et al., 2014;Ma et al., 2014); however, the improvement in on-task behavior remained consistent, indicating that adequately trained teachers can successfully implement CAB. ...
... On-and off-task behavior was measured via systematic time sampling observation performed by the primary researcher (AAB) for all data collection, as well as a secondary researcher that varied across classrooms. This method has been used previously in research (Howie et al., 2014;Ma et al., 2014;M. T. Mahar et al., 2006) and consists of a group no more than 6 students being observed in a systematic manner. ...
Article
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Classroom physical activity breaks (CAB) are beneficial for increasing children’s physical activity (PA) levels as well as the amount of time spent being on-task within the classroom. Purpose: To examine the effect of CAB at different times within the school day on on-task behavior and PA levels in primary school (grade 1–3) children. Methods: Thirty-five children (6 ± 1 y, 22 = male, 13 = female) participated in four conditions in a randomized order: morning (AM), afternoon (PM), morning and afternoon (BOTH), and no CAB (CTRL). CAB followed a traditional Tabata format of 20 s work and 10 s rest repeated 8 times for a total of 4 min. PA levels were monitored (accelerometry). On-task behavior and three types of off-task (motor, verbal, passive) were recorded following each CAB (mobile application). Results: When compared to control, AM, PM, and BOTH increased on-task behavior AM: Δ10.4%, PM: Δ10.5%, BOTH: Δ14%; p < .001). AM was most beneficial for reducing off-task motor (Δ-6.5%) and off-task verbal (Δ-3%) behavior, while PM was most beneficial for reducing off-task passive (Δ-9%) behavior. These effects were greatest in those students demonstrating higher amounts off-task behavior during CTRL (r > 0.67, p < .001). Students achieved an additional 8.4 (p = .070; d = 0.93), 12.2 (p < .001, d = 0.49), and 6.3 min (p = .09, d = 0.47) of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over 24 h following a CAB vs CTRL in AM, PM, and BOTH, respectively. Additionally, performing any of the CAB conditions increased the number of steps taken during the school day by an average of 2007 steps (p < .009). Conclusion: Overall, these results demonstrate that CAB improve both on-task behavior and PA levels, regardless of time of day. However, performing two CAB (BOTH) is recommended to derive the greatest improvements in on-task behavior across the school day.
... Of the few studies to use multiple durations of exercise, two were conducted by Howie and colleagues [26,27]. Both studies examined the effect of 5, 10, and 20 min of moderate-to-vigorous classroom-based exercise, compared to 10 min of sedentary activity, on the cognitive performance of children (aged 9-12 years) [26,27]. ...
... Of the few studies to use multiple durations of exercise, two were conducted by Howie and colleagues [26,27]. Both studies examined the effect of 5, 10, and 20 min of moderate-to-vigorous classroom-based exercise, compared to 10 min of sedentary activity, on the cognitive performance of children (aged 9-12 years) [26,27]. Children presented higher math fluency scores after 10 and 20 min of exercise when compared to 10 min of sedentary activity [27]. ...
... Children presented higher math fluency scores after 10 and 20 min of exercise when compared to 10 min of sedentary activity [27]. Moreover, on-task behaviour was improved after 10 min of exercise, and there was a trend towards improved on-task behaviour after 20 min of exercise, again when compared to the sedentary condition [26]. In contrast, no improvements in executive function or working memory were evident after any of the exercise bouts [27]. ...
Article
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Exercise duration may influence the acute effects on cognition. However, only one study to date has explored the dose-response relationship between exercise duration and cognition in adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differing durations of high-intensity intermittent running on cognition in adolescents. Thirty-eight adolescents (23 girls) completed three trials separated by 7 d: 30 min exercise, 60 min exercise, and rest; in a randomised crossover design. The exercise was a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), which elicited high-intensity intermittent exercise. Cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Flanker task) were completed 30 min pre, immediately post, and 45 min post exercise. Response times on the incongruent level of the Flanker task improved to a greater extent 45 min following the 30 min LIST, compared to rest (p = 0.009). Moreover, response times improved to a greater extent on the three-item level of Sternberg paradigm 45 min following the 30 min LIST, compared to the 60 min LIST (p = 0.002) and rest (p = 0.013), as well as on the five-item level 45 min following the 30 min LIST, compared to the 60 min LIST (p = 0.002). In conclusion, acute exercise enhanced subsequent cognition in adolescents, but overall, 30 min of high-intensity intermittent running is more favourable to adolescents' cognition, compared to 60 min.
... Single bouts of physical activity enhance attention, cognitive control, academic achievement, and classroom behavior [4]. Indeed, physically active lessons have been shown to improve on-task behavior (i.e., behavior directed towards learning activities) and reduce off-task behavior (i.e., behavior directed towards unrelated activities) in children from preschool through fifth grade [5][6][7][8][9][10]. However, full integration of physical activity with instruction presents a dual-task environment, leading to a trade-off in task prioritization. ...
... Although substantial prior work has measured on-task behavior following physically active lessons [5,8,39,40], teachers have highlighted off-task behavior as a significant concern necessitating novel instructional activities to help students reduce such disruptive behavior [41]. Moreover, off-task behavior is an index of behavioral self-regulation and has been shown to be a valid and reliable method for assessing executive functioning in young children [42]. ...
... Understanding the relationship between these two inverse behaviors is important and off-task behavior is considered a significant concern for teachers [41]. Although prior work has measured on-task behavior following physically active lessons [5,8,39,40], the present study measured off-task behavior during performance of the computerized approximate number system task. ...
Article
Background: Providing physical activity during the school day may mitigate increasingly sedentary lifestyles among children. Young children may be susceptible to interference during learning and consolidation when performing physical activity concurrently with academic instruction. Methods: Preschoolers (N = 72, mean age 5.1 ± 0.8 years, 50% female) completed a quantity estimation task before, following, and one week after engaging in either a 20-min physically active or sedentary lesson. Physical activity intensity and volume were measured using heart rate and pedometer step counts, respectively. Off-task behavior was recorded prior to and following the lesson. Results: Children exhibited similar learning and retention, but an added benefit of physically active lessons was a 1900% step increase and a 58% reduction in off-task behavior. Conclusion: Providing physically active lessons instead of sitting for extended periods of time in early childhood classrooms reduces sedentary behavior and improves self-regulation while not interfering with educational outcomes.
... This variable was converted to three categories representing low (≤25 min/week), medium (>25 to <50 min/week), and high (≥50 min/week) levels of engagement. These categories correspond to an average of less than 5 min per day for the low group, to greater than 10 min per day for the high group, and were selected based on recommended doses of physical activity in the scientific literature, whereby at least 10 min of movement integration per day is widely considered a meaningful dose [45][46][47]. Schools that reported no adoption of PA breaks were coded as dose of zero minutes. ...
... Therefore, a simple majority of teachers was considered for penetration. For dose of PA breaks, a threshold of ≥50 min/week was compared versus lower dose, based on 10 min per day (i.e., 50 min per week), being widely considered a meaningful dose in the previously published literature [45][46][47]. ...
Article
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The intentional integration of physical activity in elementary school classrooms-including brief instructional breaks for activity, or integration into lessons-can benefit children's physical activity and education outcomes. Teachers are key implementation agents, but despite physical activity in the classroom being an evidence-informed practice, many teachers do not regularly implement it. The aim of this study was to obtain updated nationally representative prevalence estimates in United States public elementary schools, regarding four key outcomes: (1) school adoption of physically active lessons (PA lessons); (2) school adoption of physical-activity breaks (PA breaks); (3) penetration in the classroom, defined as ≥50% of teachers using PA breaks; and (4) dose, defined as an average of at least 50 min per week of PA breaks. We examined variations in outcomes by school demographic characteristics, and by three factors hypothesized to be implementation facilitators (administrative support, financial resources, and presence of a wellness champion at the school). In the 2019-20 school year, surveys were distributed to a nationally representative sample of 1010 public elementary schools in the US; responses were obtained from 559 (55.3%). The weighted prevalence of schools reporting adoption of PA lessons was 77.9% (95% CI = 73.9% to 81.9%), and adoption of PA breaks was nearly universal at 91.2% (95% CI = 88.4% to 94.1%). Few demographic differences emerged, although adoption of PA lessons was less prevalent at higher-poverty schools (73.9%) and medium-poverty schools (77.0%) as compared to schools with lower poverty levels (87.1%; p < 0.01). Across all four outcomes, associations emerged with facilitators in multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of adoption of PA lessons, adoption of PA breaks, and dose of PA breaks were all significantly higher at schools where administrative encouragement occurred more frequently. Financial support was associated with implementation outcomes, including adoption of PA lessons, and penetration and dose of PA breaks. Presence of a champion was associated with higher prevalence of reporting adoption of PA lessons. School leaders can play a crucial role in supporting teachers' implementation of PA breaks and lessons in the classroom, through providing financial resources, encouragement, and supporting champions. Effective school-leadership practices have the potential to positively impact students at a large-scale population level by supporting implementation of PA lessons and breaks.
... However, physical activity interventions targeting the school environment can be difficult to implement, often due to competing time demands associated with academic accountability [4]. Active breaks are short bursts of physical activity performed in the classroom as a break from learning tasks [5]. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews show children's classroom behaviour improves following participation in such sessions [6][7][8]. ...
... For example, active breaks as short as 4-min have been shown to have a positive effect on classroom behaviour immediately following participation [5,9,10]. Thus, active breaks may provide an attractive strategy for teachers to incrementally increase children's daily physical activity during school hours [9,11], while simultaneously improving classroom behaviour outcomes. ...
Article
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Background Active breaks in the classroom have been shown to be effective for increasing children’s physical activity, while simultaneously improving classroom behaviour outcomes. However, there is limited evidence on the feasibility and fidelity of these programs outside of the research context. The purpose of this study was to conduct a process evaluation to explore factors associated with feasibility and fidelity of a classroom active break (ACTI-BREAK) program designed to improve classroom behaviour and physical activity outcomes for children in primary (elementary) school Years 3 and 4. Methods Six schools (3 intervention; 3 control) and 374 children (74% response) were included in the ACTI-BREAK pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. The intervention involved teachers implementing 3 × 5-minute moderate-intensity ACTI-BREAKS into their classroom routines, daily. This study focuses on the responses of students (n = 138) and their teachers (n = 7) who participated in the ACTI-BREAK intervention group. Intervention fidelity was assessed by number of ACTI-BREAKS completed per class per day; minutes spent in moderate-intensity physical activity (accelerometry) per ACTI-BREAK; change in physical activity from baseline to mid- and end- intervention. Intervention feasibility was explored through telephone interviews (teachers), questionnaires and focus groups (students), and teacher observations of acute effects on classroom behaviour. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analyses; acute effects on classroom behaviour and change in physical activity were explored using paired t-tests; questionnaire data were described as frequencies. Results Teachers implemented two ACTI-BREAKS/day on average, mostly of light-intensity physical activity. Physical activity increased from baseline to mid-, but not baseline to end-intervention; classroom behaviour improved immediately following ACTI-BREAKS. Barriers to implementation included ability for students to return to task and scheduling. Facilitators included ease of implementation, flexible delivery options and student enjoyment. Students were largely satisfied with the program and enjoyed ACTI-BREAKS that incorporated choice, imagination and challenge but did not enjoy ACTI-BREAKS that evoked silliness or were perceived as too difficult and some did not like doing ACTI-BREAKS in the confined space of their classroom. Conclusions Results indicated the ACTI-BREAK program was acceptable for students and feasible for teachers, however, some minor modifications in terms of required frequency and intensity could improve fidelity. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12617000602325). Retrospectively registered on 27 April 2017.
... Providing greater opportunities to engage in physical activity during the school day-even in short bouts-enhances scholastic outcomes, on-task behavior, and attentional control. [5][6][7][8] In contrast to concerns regarding difficulty getting students to re-engage with academics following physical activity, children exhibit improved on-task behavior and complete more arithmetic problems following 10-and 20min classroom activity breaks relative to a 10-min sedentary break. 6 Similarly, enhancements in reading, arithmetic, and neural indices of attention have been observed following a 20-min bout of physical activity. ...
... [5][6][7][8] In contrast to concerns regarding difficulty getting students to re-engage with academics following physical activity, children exhibit improved on-task behavior and complete more arithmetic problems following 10-and 20min classroom activity breaks relative to a 10-min sedentary break. 6 Similarly, enhancements in reading, arithmetic, and neural indices of attention have been observed following a 20-min bout of physical activity. 8 Given that these acute physical activity interventions have observed improvements in attention and academic achievement in school-aged children, recommendations to implement physical activity breaks during the school day to increase overall levels of physical activity appear to be well-justified. ...
Article
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Objective To determine how the dual‐task nature of incorporating physical activity with instructional activities immediately impacts acuity of the approximate number system and on‐task behavior in preschoolers. Methods Using a randomized within‐participants repeated‐measures crossover design, 51 children completed an approximate number system task before and after either 20‐min of physically active instruction corresponding to 38% heart rate reserve (light‐to‐moderate intensity) or conventional sedentary instruction at corresponding to 21% heart rate reserve (very light intensity). Results Findings revealed that preschool‐aged children exhibited similar learning and greater on‐task behavior following a single bout of physically active instruction relative to conventional sedentary instruction. Overall, preschoolers accrued 931.3 ± 8.2 more steps and an additional 9 minutes at or above light intensity activity during the physically active instruction. Conclusion Accordingly, these findings suggest that the dual‐task nature of physically active learning does not compromise learning, reduces the need for redirecting off‐task behavior, and ultimately allows children to avoid sedentary behavior in educational contexts.
... 16 In line with such recommendations, the active break is a short mental and physical break which incorporates brief bouts of physical activity into daily routines. 8,17 Previous research has focused primarily on the effect of active breaks in schools and workplaces. 18,19 In schools, active breaks have been found to have positive effects on physical activity levels of children, increasing the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, as well as step count. ...
... 20 Academic performance and classroom behavior, such as the time spent on task behavior during lessons, also improved. 17,20,21 Active breaks were found to be an acceptable intervention to children and feasible to implement for teachers. 22 Similarly, in adult populations active breaks in the workplace have been reported to be enjoyable, to enhance productivity and efficiency, as well as reducing absenteeism. ...
Article
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Objective To assess the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of an active break designed to disrupt prolonged sitting in university students. Participants: Students attending lectures in Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Methods: Participants took part in an active break, which consisted of following a short exercise video lasting ∼4 min. They then completed a validated questionnaire consisting of 12 statements with two open-ended questions capturing likes/dislikes. Results: Overall 106 (response rate 96%) predominately female (83%, n = 87), health sciences students (91%, n = 96) participated. Percentage agreement ranged from 93.4% (n = 99) to 96.2% (n = 102) for acceptability, 84.9% (n = 90) to 93.4% (n = 99) for appropriateness, and 80.2% (n = 85) to 96.2% (n = 102) for feasibility. Space constraints and warm temperatures impacted negatively. Conclusion: An active break delivered during lectures is an acceptable and feasible intervention to disrupt sitting in students. Further investigation using a broader representation of the university population is needed prior to implementation.
... [23][24][25] Notably, the positioning of before-school PA prior to class time may be conducive to acute cognitive and/ or learning benefits. 26 27 Research has shown enhanced attention in children and adolescents following single-bout (acute) PA, as well as significant effects of acute PA on executive functions such as inhibition, 4 5 important for success in school and life. 28 Notwithstanding potential benefits, in some contexts, the suitability of the before-school segment for hosting PA opportunities may also be constrained by barriers, including inadequate transportation for participants, and time and administrative burden associated with facilitating programmes. ...
... 23 This study reported positive findings, in line with studies showing improvements immediately following classroom PA breaks. 26 Given the positioning of the beforeschool period at the beginning of the day, further research on the effects of various PA programmes on classroom behaviours is warranted. Recognising that effects may last longer than 45 min, this research may consider examining effects at the start of the school day and in periods of instruction later in the day. ...
Article
Objective To review and evaluate the impact of school-based, before-school physical activity (PA) programmes on children’s PA levels, health and learning-related outcomes. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Embase and ERIC were searched in January 2021. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies (1) Original research published in English, (2) sample included typically developing school-age children and/or adolescents, (3) examined school-based PA programmes delivered before school, (4) included a comparator and (5) reported associations with PA, physical health, learning-related and/or psychosocial outcomes. Studies examining before-school active transport or sport were excluded. Results Thirteen articles representing 10 studies were included (published 2012–2020); seven conducted in primary schools. Programmes ranged between 3 weeks and 6 months, primarily operating daily and for 25–40 min. One study examined a programme informed by theory; six incorporated fidelity measures. Data synthesis, considering consistency of findings, showed indeterminate associations for the domains of physical health, learning-related and psychosocial outcomes. Among subdomains, synthesis showed positive associations with before-school and daily PA, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, readiness to learn and an inverse association with adiposity. Risk of bias was high/serious or insufficiently detailed across studies and outcome domains, except PA, which included moderate-risk studies. Conclusion There is limited available evidence on school-based, before-school PA programmes, with some positive associations at domain and subdomain levels. Continued research is justified to understand the role of before-school programmes for facilitating PA. Future research should follow recommended practice for intervention design and process evaluation, and address under-represented contexts, including secondary schools. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020181108.
... To change student's perceptions about math, teachers must implement new creative or renewed strategies during the educational process; for instance, educational games (EdGa), also known as academic games (Bragg, 2012;Giannakos, 2013). EdGa imply movement, thinking, enjoyment, decision making, and immediate feedback (Green & Seitz, 2015;Howie et al., 2014Howie et al., , 2015Howie & Pate, 2012). These features could improve self-esteem, curiosity, motivation, engagement, and passion for studying. ...
... One of the advantages of EdGa is that these can be used during classroom breaks. Indeed, 10-to 20-min of exposure to EdGa have shown to enhance academic performance (Hillman et al., 2009;Howie et al., 2014). For instance, Howie et al. (2015), reported that 10-and 20min EdGa improved math performance in 9 to 12 yr. ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine whether educational games improve mathematics performance in elementary school students. Volunteers were 47 Costa Rican students from a public school, who were assigned to an experimental (EXP: educational games) or a control (CTRL: traditional class) group. Twenty games were created and nine experienced teachers provided expert judge validity assessed by Kendall’s concordance coefficient (W). The EXP group completed 20 sessions (8 weeks) of 10-min games and following every game, students provided feedback. Before and after the treatment, students completed an official sixth-grade mathematics test. Two-way mixed ANOVA (assessments: pre-test, post-test by groups: EXP, CTRL) showed a significant main assessment effect. The W for teachers’ feedback allowed to use the games indoors, and student’s opinion following the games was considered ‘very good’. In conclusion, 20 educational games failed to improve mathematics academic performance in sixth-grade students; however, students enjoyed the games and there was a trend to improve performance compared to a CTRL group.
... In this context, it is important to refer to active breaks as a strategy to prevent the previously mentioned challenges. Briefly, active breaks consist of short bursts of physical activity performed in the school as a break from learning tasks [17], the main aim of which is to activate students cognitively, with special emphasis on improving executive functions. Thus, active breaks may provide an attractive strategy for teachers to incrementally increase children's daily physical activity during school hours [18,19] while simultaneously improving classroom behaviour outcomes. ...
Article
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Citation: Mendoza-Muñoz, M.; Calle-Guisado, V.; Pastor-Cisneros, R.; Barrios-Fernandez, S.; Rojo-Ramos, J.; Vega-Muñoz, A.; Contreras-Barraza, N.; Carlos-Vivas, J. Effects of Active Breaks on Physical Literacy: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study in a Region of Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res.
... Movement activities can also improve attention. Incorporating 10-15-min movement breaks into classroom routines increased children's arousal level and their ability to stay on task (Howie et al. 2014;Janssen et al. 2014). Students with attentional difficulties especially benefited from movement breaks (Mahar et al. 2006). ...
Article
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This paper provides a comprehensive review of the role of self-regulation for academic achievement and behavior in the early childhood education classroom. It discusses neurocognitive processes involved in self-regulation including response inhibition, voluntary attention, and working memory. Response inhibition creates a delay in responding which makes it possible to override habitual behavior, thus providing students with an opportunity to master new skills. Voluntary attention is involved in selecting relevant information and combating distractors, while working memory is essential for maintaining internal representations that guide students’ behavior and task performance. The paper identifies classroom demands for these processes. It further discusses environmental, instructional, and behavioral interventions to foster self-regulation skills in the classroom.
... Our choice for Just Dance videos and the exercise duration of 10 min was based on the acute exercise literature combined with the preferences of Dutch teachers and children in the upper grades of primary school. The exercise literature indicates that moderate-to-vigorous exercise bouts need to have a duration of at least 10 min to exert acute cognitive improvements (Howie et al., 2014a(Howie et al., , 2015Daly-Smith et al., 2018). Teachers have indicated that they prefer additional PA in school to be classroom-based, easy to implement (i.e., requiring little preparation time) and up to a maximum of 10 min (van den Berg et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Exercise is assumed to have positive effects on children’s cognitive performance. However, given the inconclusive evidence for the long-term effects of exercise, it is difficult to advice schools on what specific exercise programs can improve children’s cognitive performance. In particular, little is known about the effects of small exercise programs that may be feasible in daily school practice. Therefore, we assessed the effects of a 9-weeks program consisting of daily exercise breaks on children’s cognitive performance, aerobic fitness and physical activity levels. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 21 classes of eight Dutch primary schools. A total of 512 children aged 9–12 years participated. The exercise intervention had a duration of 9 weeks and consisted of a daily 10-min classroom-based exercise break of moderate to vigorous intensity. Before and after the intervention, we used four cognitive tasks (i.e., the Attention Network Test, Stroop test, d2 test of attention and Fluency task) to measure children’s cognitive performance in domains of selective attention, inhibition and memory retrieval. In addition, we measured aerobic fitness with a Shuttle Run test and physical activity during school hours by accelerometers. We analyzed data using mixed models, adjusting for baseline scores, class and school. After 9 weeks, there were no intervention effects on children’s cognitive performance or aerobic fitness. Children in the intervention group spent 2.9 min more of their school hours in moderate to vigorous physical activity as compared to the children in the control group. In conclusion, daily 10-min exercise breaks in the classroom did not improve, nor deteriorate cognitive performance in children. The exercise breaks had no effect on children’s fitness, and resulted in 2.9 min more time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity during school hours. Daily exercise breaks can be implemented in the classroom to promote children’s physical activity during school time, without adverse effect on their cognitive performance.
... immediate) effects of active breaks, children's behavior appears positively affected when the physical activity intensity was moderate-to-vigorous and sustained for more than 10 minutes or when the physical activity bouts were shorter (~5 minutes) and more intense. Unlike evidence for active lessons, there is agreement between previous studies that children's time on-task improves following non-curriculum-linked active breaks, compared to traditional class time activity (Carlson et al., 2015;Howie, Beets, & Pate, 2014;Ma, Le Mare, & Gurd, 2014;Whitt-Glover, Ham, & Yancey, 2011). ...
... Fortunately, a few studies have investigated effects of PA breaks on classroom behavior. An informative study tested impacts of classroom PA breaks of different durations (i.e., 5-minutes, 10-minutes, and 20-minutes), relative to sedentary breaks, on subsequent classroom behavior of 4 th and 5 th grade students (Howie, Beets, & Pate, 2014). The greatest improvements (10%) in ontask behavior followed bouts of 10-minutes, with even greater improvement (30%) for students who were least on-task initially. ...
Article
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THE PROBLEM: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the most common childhood mental health disorder in the United States, is the behavioral manifestation of neurodevelopmental delays. Physical activity (PA) is broadly accessible, culturally acceptable, and influences many of the same neurocognitive systems delayed in ADHD. These factors make PA a potential tool in treatment and management plans. This selective qualitative review synthesizes findings from studies investigating PA, fitness, and motor coordination in ADHD. INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies of PA [and related constructs] in youth on the spectrum for ADHD. MAIN RESULTS: Cross-sectional studies suggest children with ADHD evidence similar or higher PA levels than typically developing peers in childhood—a period when most PA is free play—but any advantages dissipate by adolescence, as PA programs become increasingly structured and selective. In adulthood, individuals with ADHD are more likely to be obese and less likely to meet healthy lifestyle guidelines. Longitudinal studies suggest that PA at earlier life stages predicts symptom severity in subsequent stages. Acute bout experiments suggest transient benefits on neurocognitive function following moderate-intensity activity of limited duration. Multi-week intervention studies have tested diverse formats with results that differ based upon the chosen outcome and comparison group utilized. CONCLUSION AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Existing research suggests youth with ADHD may benefit most from PA interventions that challenge cognition and fundamental movement skills in childhood, empower youth to participate in structured programs and meet PA guidelines in adolescence, and strategically time PA bouts to maximize focus during difficult periods of daily routines.
... However, some children noted that having to engage in active breaks or perform activities within the confined space of their classroom served as a limitation. This finding is in line with previous process evaluations exploring children's perceptions of active breaks, where some participants did not like taking part in active breaks due to lack of space (Howie et al., 2014;Watson et al., 2019). Overall, this finding suggests that researchers should consider the classroom space when adapting the Transform-Us! ...
Article
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In Northern Ireland (NI), many children do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity (PA). To reduce the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated health conditions, it is important to understand the influences on children's PA, which in turn has the potential to inform future intervention design. The purpose of this formative study was to examine the current views, barriers, facilitators, experiences, and perceptions of children in relation to PA in the classroom, school, and home environments, and to assess the acceptability of components for a school-based intervention. Write and draw tasks and semi-structured focus groups (n = 10) were conducted with 50 children aged 7–9 years (22 boys, 28 girls) from six primary schools. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner and represent key emergent themes. Results indicated that children's perception and knowledge of PA was mainly structured and sport-based, while some referred to fun, play and health. Fun, social support and outdoor activity were identified as key facilitators. Barriers included parental restrictions, lack of time and space in the different environments. The acceptability of intervention components was examined, children recognized the potential benefits of additional movement in the classroom, but opinions differed on the sit-to-stand desks. Findings contribute to a more detailed understanding of children's perceptions of context specific PA, the barriers they face, in addition to factors that support them to lead a physically active lifestyle, which may inform future PA promotion strategies.
... Afortunadamente, algunos estudios han investigado el efecto de pausas activas en la conducta dentro del salón de clases. Un estudio examinó el efecto de las pausas activas de diferentes duraciones (5, 10 y 20 minutos) en el salón de clase en infantes del cuarto y quinto grado en comparación con pausas pasivas (Howie, Beets y Pate, 2014). El mejoramiento más evidente (10%) en el comportamiento relacionado a las tareas que debían realizar durante la clase (comportamiento esperado) se observó después de las pausas activas de 10 minutos y un mayor mejoramiento (30%) para quienes inicialmente obtuvieron una puntuación más baja en el comportamiento esperado. ...
Article
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PROBLEMA: El trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) está caracterizado por retrasos en el desarrollo neurobiológico. La actividad física (AF) puede influir en varios de los mecanismos neurocognitivos que también son afectados por el TDAH, por lo tanto, puede considerarse parte del tratamiento y manejo del TDAH. Esta revisión sobre TDAH resumirá estudios que evaluaron AF, aptitud física y coordinación motora. CRITERIOS DE INCLUSIÓN/EXCLUSIÓN: Fueron incluidos artículos sobre AF en la niñez en el espectro de TDAH. RESULTADOS: Estudios transversales: los niños con TDAH presentan niveles de AF más altos que aquellos niños aparentemente saludables. La niñez coincide con oportunidades para participar en juego libre, pero esta ventaja es reducida durante la adolescencia, en la cual la AF es estructurada y menos inclusiva. Durante la adultez, las personas con TDAH están más propensas a ser obesas y a no adoptar las recomendaciones de estilos de vida saludables. Estudios longitudinales: AF durante etapas tempranas predice la severidad de los síntomas del TDAH en etapas subsecuentes. Otros estudios: la AF moderada de corta duración brinda beneficios neurocognitivos. Los resultados sobre intervenciones de varias semanas difieren según la variable de interés y el grupo con el cual es comparada la intervención. CONCLUSIÓN/IMPLICACIONES: Las intervenciones de AF que retan las habilidades cognitivas y destrezas de movimientos brindan beneficios a los niños con TDAH. Además, estimulan a niños, niñas y adolescentes a participar en AF estructurada, a cumplir con la recomendación de AF y a incluir AF de corta duración como parte de las rutinas diarias.
... Study on performance of students has been observed during a lesson with 5, 10 and 20 min sedentary breaks. The results have been assessed using Analysis of covariance or ANCOVA on posttest time-on-task scores and pre-test time-on-task results [8]. It has proved that optimal results were obtained during the 10 min break experiments. ...
Conference Paper
Naturally, a human can maintain focus on study for 45-55 minutes. However, many previous research works also have stated that student can only pay attention to study for 10-15 minutes, approximately. Students who study over this period may have reduced learning performance. Also, taking a break for a short period or mental break can refresh the brain in order to increase learning efficiency for those who want to continuous study. Therefore, this study performs two different methods of class conductance; 15 minutes study with 5 minutes mental break and 45 minutes study without a mental break for evaluating the Learning Performance of the student. It is related to eSense meter, which is indicated to attention and relaxation in which alterable performance. It also performs the subject test to observe the variations. It applies a statistical method, ANOVA and analysis of gain for a different demonstration between pre-test and post-test score for each group. As a result, the gain of the first group (0.3788) is higher than the second group (-0.6794). In conclusion, a short study with mental break method is better than a long study without mental break method in this study.
... In a randomized controlled study designed to evaluate the influence of classroom physical activity breaks, time-on-task was significantly higher in students after a 10-minute classroom physical activity break, compared to a sedentary control group. 6 Physical activity breaks taken throughout the school day may improve children's ability to focus on classroom tasks, possibly leading to better learning outcomes. ...
... In addition, research on active breaks mainly focusing on chronic school-based interventions found improvements on children's on-task behaviour but conflicting results on students' academic achievement and cognitive function [39,40]. In particular, some studies found positive [36,[41][42][43], as well as adverse or negative effects [35,44]. ...
Article
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(1) Background: Test anxiety has been found to negatively affect students’ mental health and academic performance. A primary explanation for this is that anxiety-related thoughts occupy working memory resources during testing that cannot be used for test-related processes (such as information retrieval and problem-solving). The present intervention study investigated whether physical activity could decrease anxiety levels and improve math test performance in sixth-grade children. (2) Methods: Sixty-eight children of 11–12 years from two primary schools in New South Wales, Australia were categorised as low or high anxious from their scores on a trait-anxiety questionnaire. After this assessment, they were randomly assigned to the activity break condition, in which they had to do several physical activities of moderate intensity (e.g., star jumps) for 10 min, or the control condition, in which they played a vocabulary game for 10 min. The outcome measures were children’s anxiety levels at the beginning, during, and at the end of the test, invested mental effort, perceived task difficulty and math test performance. (3) Results: Results showed that regardless of the condition, low anxious students performed better on the maths test than high anxious children. No differences were found for any of the variables between the activity break condition and the control condition. (4) Conclusions: Although test anxiety was not reduced as expected, this study showed that short physical activity breaks can be used before examinations without impeding academic performance.
... La literatura demuestra que la AF está positivamente relacionada con el rendimiento académico. Algunos estudios han demostrado que la práctica habitual o incrementada de AF en los colegios se asocia con el rendimiento cognitivo (Méndez-Giménez, 2019;Donnelly et al., 2016), ya que influye positivamente en diferente procesos de la cognición de los niños en general (Chaddock, Pontifex, Hillman y Kramer, 2011;Howie, Beets y Pate, 2014), y en la atención en particular (Ma, Le Mare y Gurd, 2015;Mahar, 2011;Rudasill, Gallagher y White, 2010). ...
Article
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RESUMEN Los descansos activos en entornos educativos se presentan como una propuesta para lograr un aumento de la actividad física diaria que acerque a los más jóvenes a las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (2010). Más allá de los conocidos beneficios de la actividad física en la salud y el bienestar de niños y adolescentes, en numerosas ocasiones también se han observado beneficios a nivel cognitivo. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la influencia que tiene un período de descansos activos en la atención y concentración de niños de Educación Primaria. Para ello, participaron un total de 73 niños de entre 9 y 11 años, de los cuales 29 pertenecían al género masculino y 44 al femenino. Se llevó a cabo un programa de descansos activos en horario escolar compuesto de 10 sesiones. Los resultados del estudio muestran un incremento en la atención y concentración de los niños tras la implementación del programa. Estos resultados sugieren que 15 minutos diarios de actividad física cognitivamente involucrada podrían ayudan a mejorar considerablemente la cognición de los niños, lo cual podría beneficiar a su rendimiento académico. Por tanto, se recomienda incluir los descansos activos como actividad rutinaria en los centros educativos.
... Several authors [17][18][19][20] showed how acute active bouts of PA during the breaks between periods of academic instruction influence students' on-task behavior. The acute effects include short moderate-to-vigorous intensity bouts of PA, increasing plasma catecholamines, improving activation and arousal, or restoring cognitive resources after challenging lessons [21]. ...
Article
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Background: The increasing need to face the problem of sedentarism, especially in the COVID-19 era, induced teachers and researchers to find new intervention methodologies in school context. Active breaks (ABs) include brief periods of physical activity as a part of the curriculum. This study aimed to investigate the AB acute responses on attentive skills and mathematical performance and attention in a primary school. Methods: A total of 141 children (aged 9.61 ± 0.82), divided into six classes, participated in this study. Each class was randomly assigned to three groups on the basis of the type of protocol performed during the three ABs scheduled in a school day: fitness (FIT), creativity (CREAT), and control group (CON). At baseline and at the end of interventions, all participants underwent the Stroop Color and Word test (SCWT) and the math test (MATH) to assess the level of attention and mathematical performance, respectively. The degree of enjoyment was evaluated through the modified Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Results: The factorial ANOVA showed significant differences between the FIT and CON in MATH test (p = 0.023) and SCWT (p = 0.034). CREAT and FIT groups showed higher degree of enjoyment than the CON (both ps < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed a positive acute impact of AB interventions. FIT positively influenced attentive and math performances more than the CREAT, probably due to the correct work/rest ratio and executive rhythm that allowed children to reach a good level of exertion. This report showed that ABs can be a useful and productive activity to be performed between curricular lessons.
... Children who engaged in the highest levels of physical activity enjoyed the greatest increases in on-task classroom behavior. This finding is consistent with studies showing that the duration and intensity of adultdirected physical activity programs for older children and adolescents is related to on-task behavior (Bartholomew et al. 2018;Hillman and Pontifex 2009;Howie et al. 2014). Too, it supports the implementation of strategies to increase preschool children's activity level on the playground through adult guidance Wadsworth et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Physical activity—including outdoor motor play—has been associated with learning and brain-related functions and abilities in elementary school children and adolescence. Few studies have been conducted on the relationships between active play and these cognitive processes in preschool aged children. Several investigations have revealed that adult-directed physical activity can enhance preschoolers’ performance on measures of executive functions, such as inhibitory control or attention. In the present investigation we sought to determine if naturalistic playground play would have a similar effect to adult-guided exercise on a classroom indicator of young children’s cognitive control—on-task behavior during a whole group learning experience. The on-task behavior of 21 three-, four-, and five-year-olds was compared under two conditions—one in which children played outdoors immediately prior to the experience and one in which they did not. Too, the relationship between the level of physical activity on the playground of children and their on-task behavior directly following it was examined. Findings indicate that outdoor play prior to learning resulted in greater on-task behavior for boys and children of low socioeconomic status. Level of activity in play prior to a learning time was positively related to on-task behavior. Implications for scheduling of outdoor play and the role of teachers’ in facilitating more active motor play are discussed. Future research on a larger, more diverse sample of children is recommended.
... Despite these limitations, this pilot and feasibility study was useful to test how to implement this type of intervention in the school setting. The results encourage us to implement the protocol with a structured study involving a larger sample of children and teachers, and investigating other aspects, in particular the effects of ABs on cognitive functions and quality of life [47,48]. ...
Article
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Background: The school gives access to children, regardless of age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic class and can be identified as the key environment in which to promote children’s physical activity (PA). The guidelines of the European Union recommend accumulating at least 10-min bouts of PA to reach the daily 60 min. Active breaks (ABs) led by teachers inside the classroom represent a good strategy to promote PA. The aim of this pilot and feasibility study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness in terms of PA level of an AB programme in children aged 8−9 years attending primary school. Methods: A pre-post quasi-experimental pilot and feasibility study was performed in two primary school classes, one of which was assigned to a 14-week AB intervention (AB group) and the other to the control group (CG). At baseline and at follow-up, children were monitored for sedentary and motor activity during an entire week using ActiGraph Accelerometer (ActiLife6 wGT3X-BT). The satisfaction of children and teachers was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results: In the pre-post comparison, AB group (n = 16) showed a reduction in the minutes spent in weekly sedentary activity (-168.7 min, p > 0.05), an increase in the number of step counts (+ 14,026.9, p
... La literatura demuestra que la AF está positivamente relacionada con el rendimiento académico. Algunos estudios han demostrado que la práctica habitual o incrementada de AF en los colegios se asocia con el rendimiento cognitivo (Méndez-Giménez, 2019;Donnelly et al., 2016), ya que influye positivamente en diferente procesos de la cognición de los niños en general (Chaddock, Pontifex, Hillman y Kramer, 2011;Howie, Beets y Pate, 2014), y en la atención en particular (Ma, Le Mare y Gurd, 2015;Mahar, 2011;Rudasill, Gallagher y White, 2010). ...
Article
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Los descansos activos en entornos educativos se presentan como una propuesta para lograr un aumento de la actividad física diaria que acerque a los más jóvenes a las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (2010). Más allá de los conocidos beneficios de la actividad física en la salud y el bienestar de niños y adolescentes, en numerosas ocasiones también se han observado beneficios a nivel cognitivo. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la influencia que tiene un período de descansos activos en la atención y concentración de niños de Educación Primaria. Para ello, participaron un total de 73 niños de entre 9 y 11 años, de los cuales 29 pertenecían al género masculino y 44 al femenino. Se llevó a cabo un programa de descansos activos en horario escolar compuesto de 10 sesiones. Los resultados del estudio muestran un incremento en la atención y concentración de los niños tras la implementación del programa. Estos resultados sugieren que 15 minutos diarios de actividad física cognitivamente involucrada podrían ayudan a mejorar considerablemente la cognición de los niños, lo cual podría beneficiar a su rendimiento académico. Por tanto, se recomienda incluir los descansos activos como actividad rutinaria en los centros educativos.
... Por contra, existen más trabajos que analizan la relación entre la implicación del estudiante y la práctica físico-deportiva (Bailey 2006;Barros, Silver, y Stein, 2009;Fedewa y Ahn, 2011;Fredricks y Eccles, 2006;Howie, Beets, y Pate, 2014;Vazou, Gavrilou, Mamalaki, Papanastasiou, y Sioumala, 2012;Yu, Chan, Cheng, Sung, y Hau, 2006) vinculan la participación en actividades extraescolares deportivas con una mejora de los rendimientos académicos y una mayor implicación de los estudiantes con la escuela. El trabajo más reciente es el meta-análisis realizado por Owen et al. (2016), en el que se analizan 38 estudios previos y se concluye que los resultados sugieren un aumento de la implicación con la práctica de la actividad físico-deportiva. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is the engagement of students with the practice of physical activity (AFD). Three dimensions are observed: emotional (identification), behavioural (participation) and cognitive (investment in the task). Attention is given to groups related to physical education and they are compared with similar age and degrees groups. It is considered that his engagement with the AFD will affect his classes and the involvement of their students. The general objective is to describe the engagement with the AFD, and observe differences regarding gender, age and groups. Ex post facto type quantitative methodology is used by passing the questionnaire of engagement with physical activity (IMAF) of 22 items. The total sample is 321 students, 87 women (27.1%) and 234 men (72.9%), between 19 and 45 years old, with an average age of 23.15 years (SD= 3.07). The results show that the students are very engaged with the AFD, especially in the affective dimension. Regarding gender, the involvement of men is greater and the participation of women is lower. The AFD increases until the 24 years, decreasing later. The engagement of CAFYD students is higher. The results obtained are adjusted to the theoretical framework and will allow intervention programs for each group.
... Commonly, the interventions targeting PA in academic lessons have focused on specific types of PA, such as short energizers and brain breaks (Bobe et al., 2014;Erin Kaye Howie et al., 2014;Mahar et al., 2006), integrating high intensity PA with academic content with an emphasis on acquired MVPA (Martin & Murtagh, 2017a;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2016) or mixing these two approaches (Resaland et al., 2015). However, these kinds of interventions, even when proven to be effective, may remain short-lived because they often fail to become embedded after the specific intervention (Reis et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Engaging key stakeholders, including students into the process of school-based physical activity (PA) intervention planning is considered important. The present study was part of the preparatory phase of the Estonian Schools in Motion pilot programme and aimed to examine students’ perspective of PA opportunities in the classroom. Based on 17 focus group interviews with 92 Estonian children aged 8–15, the results demonstrate that although PA is not yet a natural part of academic lessons in Estonia, students are eager and motivated to practise more PA. Even though they do not associate PA and academic lessons in general, they can come up with a wide range of activities that could make learning process more physically active. Students could identify several activities from incidental and content-related movement to games and energy breaks which helps to broaden the scope of classroom PA.
... Therefore, the dose-response relationship between activity duration and cognitive effects may need to be shifted to shorter durations of activity. This hypothesis is supported by the results of Howie et al. (2014) which found significant improvement in academic outcomes in a classroombased PA session of 15 min, and no improvement after 20 min. Egger et al. (2018) also argues for a shorter duration of activity as their 20-min classroom-based cognitively engaging PA session also showed no significant effect on inhibition and actually led to worse performance on a shifting task. ...
Article
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Cognitively engaging physical activity (PA) has been suggested to have superior effects on cognition compared to PA with low cognitive demands; however, there have been few studies directly comparing these different types of activities. The aim of this study is to compare the cognitive effects of a combined physically and cognitively engaging bout of PA to a physical or cognitive activity alone in children. Children were randomized in pairs to one of three 20-min conditions: (1) a cognitive sedentary activity; (2) a non-cognitively engaging PA; and a (3) cognitively engaging PA. Executive function (EF) was assessed using a modified Eriksen flanker task immediately before and 10–15 min following the experimental condition. Children ages 6–8 years ( n = 48, Mage = 7.04, SD = 1.37; 40% girls) were included in the study. A repeated measures ANOVA found no significant difference between groups with respect to scores on the flanker task. The results do not support the hypotheses that a cognitively engaging bout of PA enhances cognitive performance over non-cognitively engaging PA or sedentary activities. Possible explanations for our findings include overexertion during the acute bout of PA and depletion of positive affect prior to performing the post-intervention EF tasks.
... Reason for Exclusion Adsiz et al. (2012) [61] No AB Amicone et al. (2018) [62] No AB Bartholomew et al. (2018) [63] No attention: Time on task Ben-Zeev et al. (2020) [64] No AB: PE lesson Blasche et al. (2018) [65] No attention Budde et al. (2008) [28] No proper CG: PE lesson Chou et al. (2020) [66] No AB: PE lesson Chrismas et al. (2019) [67] No AB Contreras et al. (2020) [68] Not written in English. [71] No AB Gonzalez et al. (2020) [72] Not written in English Grieco et al. (2016) [73] No attention: Time on task Howie et al. (2015) [74] No attention Howie et al. (2014) [75] No attention: Time on task Kubesch et al. (2009) [76] No AB: PE lesson Mahar (2011) [77] Review Mavilidi et al. (2020) [78] No attention: [85] Not written in English Owen et al. (2018) [86] No AB Pesce et al. (2013) [87] No AB Ruiz-Ariza et al. (2021) [88] Not written in English Sánchez-López et al. (2015) [89] Protocol Sugahara et al. (2018) [90] No AB Tan et al. (2016) [4] No attention: Time on task Vazou, et al. (2020) [91] No attention: Observation [92] Protocol Watson et al. (2019) [93] No attention: Classroom behavior Webster et al. (2015) [94] No attention: Time on task AB: active break, CG: control group, PE: physical education. ...
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School physical activity breaks are currently being proposed as a way to improve students’ learning. However, there is no clear evidence of the effects of active school breaks on academic-related cognitive outcomes. The present systematic review with meta-analysis scrutinized and synthesized the literature related to the effects of active breaks on students’ attention. On January 12th, 2021, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched for published interventions with counterbalanced cross-over or parallel-groups designs with a con-trol group, including school-based active breaks, objective attentional outcomes, and healthy students of any age. Studies’ results were qualitatively synthesized, and meta-analyses were performed if at least three study groups provided pre-post data for the same measure. Results showed some positive acute and chronic effects of active breaks on attentional outcomes (i.e., accuracy, concentration, inhibition, and sustained attention), especially on selective attention. However, most of the results were not significant. The small number of included studies and their heterogeneous design are the primary limitations of the present study. Although the results do not clearly point out the positive effects of active breaks, they do not compromise stu-dents’ attention. The key roles of intensity and the leader of the active break are discussed.
... There is a growing interest in the study on the effect of one bout of physical activity, which is also referred to as acute exercise, on cognitive and behavioral functioning over the past couple of decades. A body of literature has demonstrated that a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise, in particular, done for 10-45 min, positively influences brain health and cognition (Chang et al., 2017;Howie et al., 2014;Kao et al., 2020;Mrcpuk et al., 2017;Niemann et al., 2013;O'Leary et al., 2011;Won et al., 2017). Notwithstanding the consistent evidence from previous studies and meta-analytical reviews (Kao et al., 2019;Lubans et al., 2016;Ludyga et al., 2016;Pontifex et al., 2018), the specific aspect or domain of cognitive functions, which preferentially benefits from acute exercise, remains unclear. ...
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Objectives: To examine the effect of acute exercise on multiple ERP components in young adults and to determine whether acute moderate-intensity exercise exerts a general or selective effect on a cognitive task requiring basic information processing and the inhibitory aspect of executive function. Design: A randomized controlled trial design. Methods: Forty young adults were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (a) an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise (n = 20) or (b) a non-exercise control (n = 20). The participants completed congruent and incongruent trials of a flanker task at baseline and after the treatments (exercise or control) while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results: Acute moderate-intensity exercise facilitated response times for both congruent and incongruent flanker conditions. Larger P2, N2c, and P3 amplitudes were observed under both conditions following the exercise. No effects on accuracy or latency were found. Conclusion: These findings suggest that acute moderate-intensity exercise generally influences basic information processing and the inhibitory aspect of executive function in healthy young adults. The ERP data imply that general facilitation occurs in the perceptual, stimulus classification and evaluation processes.
... Focusing on small breaks over a period of 7 hours can be challenging for younger students. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the Korkmaz and Demir 475 effect of class activity breaks, and after a 10-minute exercise break, a significantly higher incidence was observed in students compared to a non-stationary control group (Howie et al., 2014). Cognitive functions are related to taking, storing, processing, and using information such as attention, perception, memory, and thinking. ...
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The goal of this study is to investigate whether or not the attention level of middle school students’ changes depends on their physical activity. Fourty middle-school students who have been taking education in Yalova province joined the study as a volunteer. Fifty percent of the participants are male and the others are female. The experimental and the control groups have been formed and each of these groups consisted of 10 male and 10 female students. International physical activity questionnaire short form and Burdon concentration test were used as the information gathering instruments. To compare the experimental groups with the control groups, a T-test was used for independent groups. To compare one to another participant in each group, also T-test was used for dependent groups. Using the international physical activity questionnaire short form, preliminary and final tests were applied to each participant. According to the results of the questionnaire, weekly MET values of each participant were calculated. At the beginning of the study, the Burdon concentration test applied to each participant. Our study has finished in eight weeks. The physical activity levels of the control group were kept constant and no information was given. Twenty pieces of Xiaomi-mi-band-3 smart bracelets were supplied to the experimental group and they were informed about the features of these devices. At the end of 8 weeks period, the international physical activity questionnaire short form and Burdon concentration test were applied to each participant again. According to the physical activity levels of the control group, no significant difference has been found between the results of the Burdon concentration test (p > 0.05). But according to the physical activity levels of the experimental group, a significant difference has been found between the results of the Burdon concentration test (p < 0.05). As a result, it has been observed that an increase in levels of physical activity provides an increase in concentration. In conclusion, it is seen that many students and young people have low levels of physical activity due to both lifestyle and virtual world dependence. Although there are many factors, the decrease in physical activity causes low levels of attention. The better the attention levels of our students and young people, the more successful they will be in their lives. Our study and most of the mentioned studies reveal that attention is a developable skill and a situational factor that is open to influence. Therefore, attention development in children who are directed to recreational activities should be emphasized, especially during periods of rapid physical growth. If we want our students and young people to be more successful, they should be encouraged and supported more about physical activity.
... Future studies should explore if a 1hour program is the optimal length for BASPs to effectively increase PA as this has been done with other types of schoolbased PA programs. 45,46 Finally, results from the DCE show that parents prefer BASPs that offer a balanced mix of PA opportunities and academic time. Those involved with the planning and designing of BASPs specifically should allow for academic time alongside PA opportunities. ...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare parent preferences of before and after school physical activity program components in rural and suburban elementary schools. Methods: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to measure parent preferences for components of before/after school programs. A total of 183 parents (age = 37.2 [8.2] y, 155 females) sampled from 15 elementary schools (K-6 grades) in the Western United States took part in the study, half of which were from a rural community (n = 93, 50.8%). Results from the discrete choice experiment were analyzed using hierarchic Bayesian methodology, which estimated utility scores and was used to calculate important scores for program components. Results: The specific goal of the before/after school program was the strongest determinant of parents' stated choice overall, followed by leaders, time of day, length, and main focus. Learning sports as the physical activity goal was the top-rated attribute. Subgroup analyses revealed discrepancies between suburban and rural parents and parents of boys and girls. Conclusion: This study extends the application of discrete choice experiments to school-based programming, providing a unique way to design empirically based, stakeholder informed school programs, specifically within before and after school settings.
... Like teachers and students, the principal also expressed her belief that PA at school is advantageous for student learning and behavior. Indeed, evidence has supported a positive association between classroom PA and elementary student behavior, including time spent on-task (Howie, Beets, and Pate, 2014;Szabo-Reed et al., 2017). Further, the teachers' and the principal in this study both valued the connection between PA in the classroom and academic-related outcomes, which is consistent with previous research (Brown and Elliott, 2015). ...
Chapter
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The physical activity has been shown to be beneficial to indicators of physical, mental, and psychosocial health in child and adolescent populations. In this way, there is a growing interest in the effect of physical activity on cognitive outcomes, because there are some evidences about the influence of physical activity and his efficacious and low-cost health behavior on cognitive and brain development in children and adolescents. However, the effects of regular physical activity on cognitive performance in children have been inconsistent in the literature and not enough study in childhood education. For this reason, the aim of this chapter will be focused in many aspects to take into account to create a proposal to increase the physical activity levels to improve the attentional and concentration levels in children from 3 to 6 years old.
Chapter
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Active breaks have received great attention both among teachers and researchers and are used by those who pursuit to take advantage of all its benefits. Because of these benefits, many teachers or schools have incorporated active breaks into their daily classroom routines. However, to the authors' knowledge, there is not any program aimed entirely at preschool age. Also, the type of activities proposed in these programs are mostly mechanic with low cognitive engagement while some authors argue that cognitively engaging physical activity is more beneficial for cognitive and academic performance than mechanic activities. For these reasons, this chapter proposes a new active break program aimed at preschool children. This program, entitled “Move Your Brain,” will be composed of physical activities with inherent cognitive demands to challenge the children's brains.
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El principal objetivo fue revisar la evidencia científica sobre los efectos de dos estrategias que integran movimiento en las clases de aula (clases académicas físicamente activas y descansos activos) en resultados académicos, cognitivos y de salud. Las clases físicamente activas refuerzan el contenido académico conectándolo directamente con determinadas actividades físicas, mientras que los descansos activos utilizan la AF como recuperación de la carga académica sin conectar necesariamente con contenidos curriculares. Se examinan las revisiones y meta-análisis publicadas en los últimos cinco años y se pone el foco en implicaciones docentes relevantes. Se concluye que integrar movimiento en las clases académicas tiene el potencial no solo de mejorar los niveles de actividad física modera y vigorosa de los estudiantes durante la jornada escolar, sino también de incrementar facilitadores del aprendizaje como la concentración, la cognición y el tiempo en la tarea, así como las funciones ejecutivas de organización, y el rendimiento académico.
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BACKGROUND High volumes of school-based sedentary time may impact academic achievement and executive function negatively. This study evaluated a multimodal classroom program's (POWER) effect on fifth graders' physical activity (PA) and executive function. METHODS Six 5th grade classes (3 = intervention [POW]; 3 = waitlist control [CONT]) in 2 diverse New Jersey schools participated. Data were collected before, during, and post-intervention. PA was assessed via accelerometer, executive function by NIH Toolbox, and academic achievement via standardized math tests. The POW principal, teachers, and select students participated in follow-up interviews. Group comparisons were made by multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA and linear regression. RESULTS PA decreased in both groups over time, but POW's post-intervention class-time PA was significantly higher than CONT's. POW's NIH Toolbox score increased 3 percentiles more than CONT's. Intervention fidelity was associated with significantly higher scores for one NIH Toolbox test. Student math test scores increased significantly for both schools, but there was no significant main effect for group. POW's feedback was positive, with the principal reporting fewer disciplinary referrals and teachers and students conveying positive growth. CONCLUSIONS Overall, POW's positive changes and the favorable reception of POWER support POWER'S ability to improve children's socioemotional and physical health.
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Physical activity in children is associated with several cognitive benefits. Since children and adolescents spend an increasing amount of time engaged in sedentary behavior both at school and in their free time, movement breaks during class hours, in which students are physically active, may be beneficial for effective learning. The aim of this systematic research is to provide an overview of prospective studies investigating the influence of classroom-based physical activity (CB-PA) interventions on attention and on-task behavior in school-aged children and adolescents aged between 4 and 18 years. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Science Direct, PsycINFO, Ovid), according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, was performed from July 2020 to March 2021. Study characteristics data were analyzed and a methodological quality assessment, using a modified Downs and Black checklist, of both randomized and non-randomized studies was conducted. Overall, the available evidence points to a beneficial effect of exercise on attention and on-task behavior in a classroom setting. However, methodological differences concerning participants and duration and type of physical activity should be considered when comparing the results. Further studies with more comparable methodology are needed to provide a better understanding of the effect of CB-PA on attention and on-task behavior.
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Though classroom time has been identified as a contributing factor to sedentary behavior, school has been recognized as the main educational setting providing physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a classroom-based intervention which integrates PA during the school time, and assess its potential effect on reducing inactivity in primary school children. The intervention was performed in a sample of 47 children attending a primary school in the south of Italy and it was structured in two sessions of classroom active breaks (CABs) in three school days a week, shared with and supervised by the teachers. CABs showed an overall potential positive effect on the reduction of inactivity of ∼12 min and an equivalent increase in PA levels, of which 5 min were of moderate/vigorous intensity. Girls showed lower time spent in light and moderate PA and higher amount of inactivity than boys and responded better to the intervention. The satisfaction of children and teachers was high. CABs program is a safe tool to reduce inactivity and increase moderate/vigorous PA. Designing structured exercise breaks adapted in a flexible way to meet the needs of the school curriculum program may increase the feasibility of such PA program in the schools.
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Though classroom time has been identified as a contributing factor to sedentary behavior, school has been recognized as the main educational setting providing physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a classroom-based intervention which integrates PA during the school time, and assess its potential effect on reducing inactivity in primary school children. The intervention was performed in a sample of 47 children attending a primary school in the south of Italy and it was structured in two sessions of classroom active breaks (CABs) in three school days a week, shared with and supervised by the teachers. CABs showed an overall potential positive effect on the reduction of inactivity of ∼12 min and an equivalent increase in PA levels, of which 5 min were of moderate/vigorous intensity. Girls showed lower time spent in light and moderate PA and higher amount of inactivity than boys and responded better to the intervention. The satisfaction of children and teachers was high. CABs program is a safe tool to reduce inactivity and increase moderate/vigorous PA. Designing structured exercise breaks adapted in a flexible way to meet the needs of the school curriculum program may increase the feasibility of such PA program in the schools.
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Objective To evaluate the impact of three types of social cognitive theory (SCT)-based elementary school classroom physical activity (PA) training on teachers’ implementation rates, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. Design Key stakeholder focus groups informed development of phase II which took the form of a randomised controlled trial of three different intensities of teacher training to conduct classroom-based PA sessions. Setting The study was conducted over one school year (2016–2017), across four elementary schools in the USA. Methods Researchers delivered professional development to teachers, focusing on effective methods for PA use in the classroom through three formats: webinar, in-person training and in-person with personalised assistance. Training content was built on SCT constructs. This study examined the impact of the PA training on SCT construct outcomes among elementary school classroom teachers ( n = 41). Study outcome measures included reciprocal determinism, behavioural capability, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Over the 12-week period following the training, teachers completed surveys to measure SCT construct outcomes. Results Results of the intervention demonstrated an increase in teacher self-efficacy and knowledge ( p < .01 and p < .01). There was a significant increase of teachers who started using PA in the classroom who indicated no use at baseline (from 21% to 6% not using). Conclusion The use of SCT to provide a teacher training is an effective method to increase classroom PA, while improving teacher self-efficacy and knowledge concerning PA implementation.
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Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of specifically designed physical activities on primary school children's foreign language vocabulary learning and attentional performance. Design: A total of 104 children aged between 8 and 10 years were assigned to either (a) an embodied learning condition consisting of task-relevant physical activities, (b) a physical activity condition involving task-irrelevant physical activities, or (c) a control condition consisting of a sedentary teaching style. Within a 2-week teaching program, consisting of four learning sessions, children had to learn 20 foreign language words. Method: Children were tested on their memory performance (cued recall test) after completion of the program and on their focused attention (d2-R test of attention) immediately after one learning session. Results: Linear mixed model analyses revealed both the embodied learning (d = 1.12) and the physical activity condition (d = 0.51) as being more effective in teaching children new words than the control condition. Children's focused attention, however, did not differ between the three conditions. Conclusions: The results are discussed in the light of embodied cognition and cognitive load theory. Implications for the inclusion of specific physical activities during the school day are proposed.
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Individuals with attention problems often exhibit more off-task behaviors and less engagement in classroom settings, and exercising has demonstrated positive effects in decreasing disruptive behaviors and increasing on-task behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical activity on academic engaged time for individuals with attention problems in a classroom setting. Results indicate that the average percentage of on-task behaviors were higher on days of exercise compared to days without exercise, though visual inspection of the data suggests physical activity has no effect on on-task behavior.
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Giriş ve Amaç: Hareketsizlik, sağlıksız beslenme ve teknoloji bağımlılığı ile ilişkilendirilen obezite, diyabet, kalp-damar hastalıkları ve psikolojik problemler çocuklar arasında giderek artış göstermektedir. Bu bağlamda, zamanlarının büyük bir bölümünü okulda geçiren çocukların ilgili sağlık problemlerine karşı korunması adına okullarda yapılacak düzenlemeler önem kazanmaktadır. Nitekim, son yıllarda, sınıflarda gerçekleştirilen fiziksel aktivite uygulamalarına yönelik çok sayıda bilimsel araştırmanın yanı sıra, uygulamalı projelerin sayısındaki artış dikkat çekmektedir. İlgili çalışmalarda, fiziksel aktivite, vücut kitle endeksi ve harcanan kalori gibi fizyolojik parametrelerin yanı sıra, dikkat, görev davranışı, motivasyon, akademik performans gibi bilişsel ve psikolojik parametreler de incelenmiştir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, uluslararası perspektifte literatürde yer alan bilgi kaynaklarının değerlendirilmesi ve konuya bütünsel bir bakış açısı sağlanması, ulusal perspektifte ise Türkiye’de gerçekleştirilecek fiziksel aktiviteye dayalı öğrenme uygulamalarına yönelik gelecek araştırma ve projelere ışık tutulmasıdır. Yöntem: Bu araştırmada, nitel araştırma yaklaşımı temel alınarak doküman analizi tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmaya dahil edilen makaleler (n=44) ölçüt örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Bu doğrultuda, dergilerin tarandığı indeksler-veri tabanları (WoS, Pubmed, Scopus, PsycINFO vb.), dergilerin etki faktörleri, güncellik ve özgünlük gibi nitel ve nicel ölçütler dikkate alınmıştır. İlgili makaleler araştırmacılar tarafından incelendikten sonra araştırmacı notları ortak bir toplantı ile çözümlenerek değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: Fiziksel aktiviteye dayalı öğrenme ortamlarının öğrencilerin fizyolojik, bilişsel ve psikolojik parametreleri üzerinde olumlu etkileri olduğu, buna karşın etki büyüklüklerinin farklılaştığı gözlenmiştir. Uygulamaların dezavantajlı gruplar üzerindeki olumlu etkileri daha belirgindir. Aktivitenin şiddeti, süresi, türü gibi bağımsız değişkenler bağımlı değişkenler üzerinde farklı sonuçlar doğurabilmektedir. Uygulama öncesi eğitim, motivasyon ve destek öğretmenlerin uygulamalardaki bilgisi, becerisi ve pozisyonu açısından önem taşımaktadır. Araştırmalarda kullanılan yöntem ve veri toplama araçlarına göre elde edilen sonuçlar soru işareti uyandıracak düzeyde farklılaşmaktadır. Sonuç: Araştırmaların büyük bir çoğunluğu, fiziksel aktiviteye dayalı öğrenme ortamlarının fizyolojik, bilişsel ve psikolojik parametreler üzerinde olumlu etkileri olduğunu raporlamaktadır. Çocukluk obezitesinin hızla arttığı ülkemizde eğitim, sağlık ve spor alanında faaliyet yürüten kurum ve kuruluşlar vakit kaybetmeden örnek araştırma ve uygulamalar gerçekleştirilmelidir. The present study aimed to investigate international literature regarding to physical activity integrated learning environments. Document analysis technique was used on basis of qualitative research approach. The articles covered by the study (n=44) were selected using criterion sampling method. In this regard, indexes-data bases for journals (WoS, Pubmed, Scopus, PsycINFO etc.), journals’ effect factors, actuality and authenticity criterias were considered. It is obvious that physical activity based learning environments have positive effects on physiological, cognitive and psychological parameters, however, effect sizes varies. Additionally, type, duration and volume of physical activity and research designs causes changeable results. Positive effects seems more apparent on disadvantaged groups. Practical training and motivation are critical for teacher’s knowledge, skills and position. It was observed that limitations in studies may effect results. According to many studies, physical activity based learning environments have positive effects on pupils and learning environments, however future studies must enhance and carefully constitute parameters concerning to research designs. Additionally, In Turkey, where childhood obesity is rapidly increasing, institutions operating in the field of health and sport have to carry out sample research and practices without any delay.
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The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.
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Three field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different recess timing regimens on children’s classroom and recess behaviors. Experiment 1 involved children in Grades K, 2, and 4. The timing of their recess was experimentally varied by 30 minutes. Students’ classroom behavior before and after recess was observed as was their outdoor recess behavior. Children’s prerecess inattention varied as a function of deprivation duration. Further, children, but especially boys, were more socially interactive on the playground following the long deprivation, compared to the short deprivation. Recess behaviors did not relate significantly to postrecess inattention. However, inattention rates were higher before recess than after. Experiment 2 utilized a similar paradigm with a sample of second and fourth graders from the same school. Experiment 2, generally, replicated results from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, which utilized a replication sample design, children s recess was also manipulated, but the recess period was indoors. Results of the two samples replicated each other and the preceding experiments. Results are discussed in terms of play deprivation theory and massed versus distributed practice.
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This paper reports an analysis of videotape and interview data from four Year 8 mathematics lessons from the perspective of student cognitive engagement. The study extends our understanding of cognitive engagement by locating empirical evidence for its occurrence within the classroom. On the basis of the data we have examined, it appears that cognitive engagement can be consistently recognised by specific linguistic and behavioural indicators and is promoted by particular aspects of the classroom situation, the task, and the individual.
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The effectiveness of fixed-time delivery of attention to increase the on-task behavior of 2 students in general education was examined. The teacher in this study provided attention to students on a 5-min fixed-time schedule and responded to students in her typical manner between cued intervals. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to test the effects of the intervention. The results of this study indicate that a fixed-time schedule of attention was effective in increasing students’ on-task behavior and decreasing their off-task behavior. Implications of the study for research and practice are discussed. KeywordsFixed-time schedule–Reinforcement–Teacher attention–Intervention–On-task behavior
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Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies. California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools. Board members' highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs. Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.
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The present study evaluated the effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill walking on aspects of cognitive control underlying successful academic achievement. The study used a within-subjects counterbalanced design with a sample of 36 preadolescent children. Cognitive performance was assessed using a modified flanker task and a modified spatial n-back task to assess inhibition and working memory, respectively. No changes in task performance were observed while individuals were actively walking or at seated rest across both tasks. However, during the flanker task, increased response accuracy was observed after exercise relative to post-seated rest. Further observation revealed decrements to response accuracy after seated rest relative to baseline. No such effect was observed for the n-back task. These findings suggest selective exercise-induced changes to cognitive control for aspects of inhibitory control and attention but not for working memory. Furthermore, the findings suggest that short bouts of exercise may be efficacious for maintaining cognitive performance, which may have implications for scholastic achievement.
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