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Animals, archetypes, and advertising (A3): Theory and the practice of customer brand symbolism

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Animals, archetypes, and advertising (A3): Theory and the practice of customer brand symbolism

Abstract

This study provides a theoretical grounding from social anthropology and psychoanalysis into the use of animal symbolism in marketing communications. The study analyses the adoption of animal symbols in brand communications, and considers these as either implicitly anthropomorphic (totemic) or explicitly anthropomorphic (fetishist). Contemporary advertising messages, as they become more visual, indirect, and implicit in their content (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2002), continue to employ animal symbols. Such integration of animal symbols serves to activate and connect archetypal associations automatically in consumers’ minds, thereby enabling them to activate the cultural schema that the brand represents. The effective application of cultural schema associated with a brand contributes to brand engagement and thereby to brand equity.
... The use of symbolism in advertising and its contribution to the complex process of brand building is well accepted in the advertising research domain (Madhavaram, Badrinarayanan, and McDonald 2005;Lloyd and Woodside 2013). Advertising researchers have studied brand imagery and logos (Henke 1995;Pieters and Wedel 2004), cultural symbolism (Holland and Gentry 1997;Zeybek and Ekin 2012), and even animal imagery (Lloyd and Woodside 2013;Spears, Mowen, and Chakraborty 1996). ...
... The use of symbolism in advertising and its contribution to the complex process of brand building is well accepted in the advertising research domain (Madhavaram, Badrinarayanan, and McDonald 2005;Lloyd and Woodside 2013). Advertising researchers have studied brand imagery and logos (Henke 1995;Pieters and Wedel 2004), cultural symbolism (Holland and Gentry 1997;Zeybek and Ekin 2012), and even animal imagery (Lloyd and Woodside 2013;Spears, Mowen, and Chakraborty 1996). However, the study of religious signs has received comparatively less focus, even though religion is known to play an important role in consumer behavior (Agarwala, Mishra, and Singh 2019;Mokhlis 2009;Arli, Cherrier, and Tjiptono 2016;Minton 2015). ...
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The influence of symbolic meanings and brand associations on consumers’ buying decisions is an important area of inquiry. In this article, we use symbolic interactionism as the theoretical framework for investigating the impact of the presence of religious signs in print advertisements on consumers’ brand evaluation (namely, brand affect and brand trust) and purchase intention. We also study the comparative impact of two different types of religious signs—religious icons versus religious symbols—on brand evaluation and purchase intention. Three experimental studies (N = 80, 161, and 452) were conducted to investigate the effect of religious signs in advertisements for secular products and to compare the results for religious icons and religious symbols. Both kinds of religious signs were found to positively impact brand evaluation and purchase intention. However, religious icons were found to have a higher positive impact than religious symbols on brand evaluation and purchase intention. The results also indicate that highly religious consumers respond more favorably to advertisements containing religious cues in comparison to less-religious consumers. The theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the studies in the domains of advertising, branding, and semiotics are discussed, and research limitations are also presented.
... As marketing psychology literature shows, recall of information is not always an accurate predictor of actual behaviour, and since people use information in their decision-making that they cannot recall, subconscious thinking and its influence on behaviour also needs to be taken into consideration (Lloyd & Woodside, 2013;Woodside, 2008). Here, we turn to Jung's (1919) archetypes, the patterns of the collective unconscious that are 'symbolic expressions of psychic dramas that become accessible to human consciousness by way of projection' (Lloyd & Woodside, 2013). ...
... As marketing psychology literature shows, recall of information is not always an accurate predictor of actual behaviour, and since people use information in their decision-making that they cannot recall, subconscious thinking and its influence on behaviour also needs to be taken into consideration (Lloyd & Woodside, 2013;Woodside, 2008). Here, we turn to Jung's (1919) archetypes, the patterns of the collective unconscious that are 'symbolic expressions of psychic dramas that become accessible to human consciousness by way of projection' (Lloyd & Woodside, 2013). In other words, we adapt the primary Jungian archetypes to propose the first collection of archetypal attitudes in favour of collaborative consumption. ...
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The aim of this study is to show how consumers' pursuit of social identity drives collaborative consumption. A survey conducted among active participants in various forms of collaborative consumption found four types of users with clearly distinguishable characteristics: Social Followers, Distrustful Prosumers, Doubtful Laggards and Traditional Spenders. We use social identity theory to explain why those users who engage in collaborative consumption because of sociability and seeking excitement are also highly environmentally conscious (Social Followers), while very frugal users show the least trust towards what collaborative consumption has to offer (Distrustful Prosumers). We observe favourable social identity for collaborative consumption in the Social Followers segment and unfavourable social identity in the Doubtful Laggards segment. Our findings suggest that social identity plays an important role in forming consumers’ intentions to participate in collaborative consumption. At the general level of collaborative consumption, our study confirms previous findings that social values outweigh environmental and economic values. However, this study contributes to the discussion and closes the research gap by explaining that each component may predominate depending on the type of collaborative consumption user.
... review Balcombe, 2010de Waal, 1999Jacobson, 2008Mithen, 1996Brown, 2010 2.1. Human attitudes toward wild animals Serpell, 2003Eidt, 2016Silk et al., 2018Courchamp et al., 2018 Dotz et al., 1996Fournier, 1998Cayla, 2013Levinson, 1969Serpell, 1999Bonas et al., 2000Baker, 2000Bettany & Belk, 2011Spears et al., 1996Connell, 2013Laksmidewi et al., 2017Lloyd & Woodside. 2013Bryant, 2005Nijman & Nekaris, 2017Peers, 2008Callcott & Alvey, 1991Belson & Bremner, 2004Lai, 2005 Ganea et al., 2011McCrindle & Odendaal, 1994Marriott, 2002Sackes et al., 2009Burke & Copenhaver, 2004Geerdts et al., 2015Smith et al., 2012Prokop et al., 2011Eagles & Demare, 1999Bousé, 2003de Waal, 2001Lutts, 1992Fouts et al., 2006. Non-hu ...
... PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), condemning the use of real animals in commercials, rewarded the creators of Aleksandr Orlov with the Goody Award for Best Advert of the Year 2009 (Glover, 2009;Bennett, 2009). Human-like animals in advertising increase brand recognition and sales (Lloyd & Woodside, 2013), but they also appear to increase people's interest in and concern for these animals (Bryant, 2005). For example, as a result of Aleksandr Orlov's great fame, the number of visitors in front of the meerkats' installation at the London Zoo increased a few months after the advertising campaign was launched (Brown, 2010). ...
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Anthropomorphic figures of nonhuman animals are omnipresent in various forms of mass media (e.g., movies, books, and advertising). The depiction of companion and wild animals, including nonhuman primates (e.g., chimpanzees), as possessing human characteristics or behaviors can influence these animals’ desirability as companions. Ultimately, this can distort general public perception of what constitutes “normal” wild behavior, as well as the conservation status of these animals. Therefore, anthropomorphic animal representations can contribute to the spread of misleading messages that may have highly unpredictable effects. In the present review, we have highlighted various articles from the academic literature which focus on anthropomorphised animals, noting the main thematic issues. We suggest that further studies on this topic are needed to deepen such a complex and not yet clarified topic.
... Symbolism is the use of tangible symbols to signify something intangible, such as qualities and ideas, by giving them figurative meanings that differ from their literal sense (Lloyd and Woodside 2013). A brand is essentially symbolic, in that a brand's name, product design, packaging, and stories are all symbolic resources unique to a firm (Gioia et al. 2000). ...
... However, the definition of brand symbolism is not consistent in branding research. It can refer to the driver that seeks to forge the cohesion of a given brand's identity via those symbolic resources, which is helpful in promoting brand recall (Lloyd and Woodside 2013). It can also refer to the extent to which a brand symbolizes the identity or status of the person who is consuming it (Bernritter et al. 2017). ...
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This study aims to empirically investigate the influence of a green brand story strategy on perceived brand authenticity (PBA) and brand trust. The theory of narrative rhetoric is adopted to examine the effect of three rhetorical strategies—anthropomorphism, reversal, and symbolism—on narrative immersion and its effect on PBA. The impact of PBA on brand trust is also examined. The study proposes a research model and conducts two independent online experiments with the aid of a survey research company to observe participant response to stories written with or without the rhetorical strategies. Data collected via the post-experimental survey are used to test the proposed model. Results show that the green brand story with narrative rhetoric positively affects immersion, which in turn enhances PBA, and brand trust is also positively affected. In particular, reversal and symbolism positively impact immersion, but no significant effect is identified between anthropomorphism and immersion. This study provides a new perspective from which the relationships among brand storytelling, PBA, and brand trust may be explored.
... Authentic brands tend to cluster around different externally validated "brand archetypes," which symbolically represent the university and its distinctive strengths. Archetypes create an organizational "persona" suitable for storytelling through linkages with mythological, animal or other attributes (Herskovitz & Crystal, 2010;Lloyd & Woodside, 2013). The most commonly accepted brand archetypes are developed from Jungian personality archetypes signifying sets of fundamental desires, first applied to business schools by Mark & Pearson (2001). ...
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In today’s ultra-competitive education industry many business programs may be in danger of closing within the next 20 or 30 years. As universities face enrollment, funding, and non-traditional student support difficulties - the pressure increases. These troubles stem from the growth in the popularity of business degrees among employers, while applications decline, demographics change, and the quality of non-traditional offerings are questioned. The use of academic branding has emerged as a tool in this struggle for ability/sustainability. The ultimate goal of branding for a business school is to provide an impression leading to a positive reaction. Given the importance of adaptation and change, the authors propose that brand innovativeness is becoming an increasingly important criterion in academic marketing. This paper explores types of brand innovativeness by adapting the model developed by Beverland, Napoli and Farrelly to business schools. Further, Mark & Pearson’s (2001) 12 Jungian archetypes can be added to the mix to give these innovative brands a face, a persona and marketing appeal. While brand archetypes are commonly utilized in other industries, the application of brand archetypes to business schools has just begun to be explored. From this perspective the potential tradeoffs between business school branding strategies and their attendant brand marketing initiatives become clear.
... Der Post fungiert auf dem Account als Einführungspost: Sie stellt sich in der Bildbeschreibung vor, indem sie kurz ihren Werdegang bei der Polizei Niedersachsen skizziert und fünf ausgewählte Fakten über sich nennt. Auch der dargestellte Hund verkörpert wesentliche Gefühle und Werte, welche mit der Marke Polizei assoziiert werden sollen: Er steht für Teamgeist und Loyalität, aber auch für Wachsamkeit und Schutz (Lloyd and Woodside 2013). Durch die Pose des Hundes, seine aufgestellten Ohren und dem fokussiert wirkenden Blick über die Kamera hinweg, scheint der Hund wahrzunehmen, was den Betrachtenden verborgen bleibt. ...
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Unter dem Hashtag #instacops betreibt die Polizei Niedersachsen seit 2019 personalisierte Instagram-Accounts, auf denen Polizist*innen im digitalen Raum „Gesicht-Zeigen“. Im Rahmen des sogenannten Digitalen Community Policings (DCP) wollen sie mit Bürger*innen in sozialen Netzwerken in Kontakt treten, virtuell Präsenz zeigen und das Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in die Polizei stärken. Auf Grundlage einer visuellen und intertextuellen Einzelpostanalyse argumentieren wir in diesem Beitrag, dass im personalisierten Instagram-Auftritt der Polizei Niedersachsen drei Kernanliegen digitaler Polizeiarbeit verschmelzen: Imagepflege, Nachwuchs-gewinnung und Sicherheitsproduktion. Polizist*innen werden dabei zu Markenpersönlichkeiten der Polizei Niedersachsen, welche sich in ihrer Darstellung zwischen vermeintlicher Privatheit, institutioneller Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und der Performance gegenwärtiger Netzkulturen bewegen. Bestehende visuelle und intertextuelle Narrative auf Instagram und digitale Communities werden dabei als Ressourcen digitaler Polizeiarbeit genutzt, woraus sich eigenständige, polizeiliche Netzkulturen entfalten, die Fragen hinsichtlich der Legitimität, Effektivität und Angemessenheit polizeilicher Präsenz in sozialen Netzwerken aufwerfen. ______________________________________________________________________________ Erschienen in: https://doi.org/10.4393/opushwr-3370
... Animals have cultural and symbolic meanings that advertisers have for years employed to contribute to a brand's equity. 4 When it comes to children, research has frequently documented the special relationship that children often have with animals; pets can provide children with a special type of companionship and joy. 5 For example, in one study kids consistently ranked their pet in the list of "top 10 most special" relationships. 6 Further evidence suggests that children often seek out their pets as sources of comfort and esteem, and can even prefer cats and dogs to human relationships such as aunts, uncles and grandparents. ...
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Most western countries face either existing or looming teacher shortages. No doubt there are many and varied reasons for this and no simple remedy. Contemporaneously, film and television can have profound, often unintended attitudinal and behavioural consequences. As reflectors and creators of societal values, axiomatically, they provide insight into the construction and management of both personal and professional identities. The portrayal of various occupations on screen is therefore of perennial importance. Indeed, several professions have struggled with the implications of their representation in popular culture. Teachers have been variously portrayed on screen. However, a consistent and significant negative shift has taken place this century. Consequently, a descriptive analysis is undertaken of teacher characters streaming on Netflix in 2019. Pattern coding reveals three equally disturbing themes: incompetence/character flaws; promiscuity; and substance abuse. Conclusions are drawn and future research directions outlined.
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