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Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus is a poorly known Charadrius plover from the Oriental region, which has been recorded from Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Detailed accounts of the identification of Javan Plover are relatively few. At around 15 cm in length, it is about the same size as Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus and also has similar plumage. Here we describe several field observable characteristics which can be used to help identify Javan Plover, and distinguish it from Kentish Plover. We have divided these characters into three categories of relative value: important, supportive and inconclusive. Important characters are an incomplete hindneck collar, lone lateral breast patches, paler leg colour and longer tibia length; supportive characters are blunt and thickbased bill shape, oval head pattern and call; and inconclusive characters are tarsus/bill length ratio (although this character may be of use on birds in the hand or photographs) and length of feet beyond tail (in flight). It is hoped that these characters will help observers to better identify Javan Plovers in the field.
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96
INTRODUCTION
The Charadrius plovers include 31 small, cryptic and very
similar species of shorebirds (Piersma et al. 1997). This paper
focuses on the Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus, a poorly
known Charadrius plover from the Oriental region, which has
been recorded from Indonesia and Timor-Leste (Iqbal et al.
2013, Trainor 2011). Detailed accounts of the identication
of Javan Plover are relatively few. Some authors place Javan
Plover as a subspecies under Kentish Plover Charadrius
alexandrinus, but do not give further descriptions (e.g. Coates
& Bishop 2000, Hayman et al. 1986). Kentish Plovers join
a small but growing list of species for which low levels of
genetic differentiation are accompanied by the presence of
strong phenotypic divergence, suggesting that diagnostic
phenotypic characters may be encoded by a few genes that
are difcult to detect (Rheindt et al. 2011).
Hoogerwerf (1967) provided the first comprehensive
description of the Javan Plover and a comparison with other
similar small plovers in the region (e.g. the Red-capped
Plover Charadrius rucapillus and the Malaysian Plover
Charadrius peronii). MacKinnon & Phillipps (1993) briey
described the eld characteristics of the Javan Plover and
provided comparison points to its congener Kentish Plover.
Piersma & Wiersma (1996) provided an additional descrip-
tion.
This paper attempts to set out diagnostic field-marks
which will allow the eld identication of Javan Plovers, and
facilitate their ageing and sexing (given reasonable viewing
conditions). Existing characters are rened and new char-
acters are presented. This information is based on eld and
photographic studies made by the authors and other workers,
mainly in Java.
OCCURRENCE, HABITAT PREFERENCE AND
BEHAVIOUR
The Javan Plover was initially thought to be a Javan endemic
(Kangean Island) and possibly occurring on Bali (MacKin-
non & Phillipps 1993). Later surveys conrmed its presence
on Bali, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Lombok, Meno Island (off
Lombok), Sumbawa, Flores, Semau Island (Kupang, Timor)
and Timor-Leste (Iqbal et al. 2013). It is likely that the spe-
cies also exists at additional localities between Sumatra and
Timor-Leste (e.g. Belitung Island (Sumatra), S Borneo and
small islands in the Lesser Sundas).
Javan Plover has been recorded in coastal lowlands on
Java (MacKinnon & Phillipps 1993). It is regularly observed
on sandy beaches (e.g. Bangka Island, south coast of Java)
(Iqbal et al. 2011, IT pers. obs.), as well as beside saline
lagoons (Bali). Javan Plover has been seen feeding and
breeding near dry aquaculture ponds (e.g. on the east coast
of Sumatra, the north coast of Java, the south coast Sulawesi
and Timor-Leste) (Iqbal et al. 2011, Tebb et al. 2008, Trainor
2011). They have also been recorded breeding on dry saline
land (Sape, Sumbawa) (Coates & Bishop 2000). There is
an inland record at Sungai Serayu (30 km from the coast in
central Java) which appears to be atypical habitat (Asman
Adi Purwanto, in litt.). Near the south coast of Central Java
(Yogyakarta), it has also been recorded feeding and breeding
in dry cleared rice-elds before seeding or after harvesting.
Javan Plovers are not solely intertidal birds and although
they sometimes forage on sandy tidal ats, they appear to
prefer beaches or dry land above the shoreline in coastal
habitats. This is also typical preferred Kentish Plover habitat
(van de Kam et al. 2004). On Bangka Island, Javan Plovers
have been observed hunting crabs at low tide in the typical
Field identification of Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus
Muhammad Iqbal1, Imam Tauqurrahman2, Mat Gilfedder3 & Karyadi Baskoro4
1 KPB-SOS, Jalan Tanjung api-api km 9 Komplek P & K Blok E 1, Palembang 30152, Indonesia. kpbsos26@yahoo.com
2 Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia, Kompleks Perkantoran UPT Taman Kuliner Condongcatur Blok K1-K3,
Jl. Anggajaya III Condongcatur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3 PO Box 6011, St Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia
4 Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Iqbal, M., Tauqurrahman, I., Gilfedder, M. & Baskoro, K. 2013. Field identication of Javan Plover Charadrius
javanicus. Wader Study Group Bull. 120(2): 96–101.
Keywords: eld identication, Javan Plover, Charadrius javanicus, Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus,
Indonesia
Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus is a poorly known Charadrius plover from the Oriental region, which has
been recorded from Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Detailed accounts of the identication of Javan Plover are
relatively few. At around 15 cm in length, it is about the same size as Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus and also
has similar plumage. Here we describe several eld observable characteristics which can be used to help identify
Javan Plover, and distinguish it from Kentish Plover. We have divided these characters into three categories of
relative value: important, supportive and inconclusive. Important characters are an incomplete hindneck collar,
lone lateral breast patches, paler leg colour and longer tibia length; supportive characters are blunt and thick-
based bill shape, oval head pattern and call; and inconclusive characters are tarsus/bill length ratio (although
this character may be of use on birds in the hand or photographs) and length of feet beyond tail (in ight). It is
hoped that these characters will help observers to better identify Javan Plovers in the eld.
97
Iqbal et al.: Field identication of Javan Plover
manner of other Charadrius plovers, i.e. head lowered, dash-
ing across the sand to seize prey before it can retreat into its
burrow (Syahputra Putra, pers. comm.).
BREEDING
During the breeding season, both male and female Javan
Plovers incubate the eggs and share parenting of the chicks
(Figs 1 & 2). However, it is not known whether, like Kentish
Plover, there is a strong relationship between incubating sex
and time of day, with females incubating by day and males at
night (Amat & Masero 2004, Fraga & Amat 1996).
As described by Hellebrekers & Hoogerwerf (1967), Javan
Plover eggs are isabelline to dark olive cream in colour, with
numerous very irregular black or almost black markings,
often mixed with a grayish or sepia tint. These markings
present as similar to hieroglyphic characters. The hatchlings
of Javan Plover are similar to other Charadriidae hatchlings.
The peak breeding season of Javan Plover is thought to be
May to August. Eggs have been collected in May and June
(West Java), chicks found in July (east coast Sumatra, Bali),
recently edged young have also been found in July (Timor-
Leste), and downy young found in August (West and Central
Java) (Hellebrekers & Hoogerwerf 1967, Hoogerwerf 1967,
Iqbal et al. 2011, Trainor 2011, Ferry Hasudungan & Adhy
Maruly in litt.). Grantham (1998) reported May to September
as the observed breeding season in Alas Purwo National Park
(East Java).
A second breeding season occurs between September
and January/February. Birds have been observed mating in
September or October on Sulawesi (Tebb et al. 2008), downy
young in early October (Bali), and an adult attending a nest in
Fig. 1. Breeding female Javan Plover (W Java, Apr 2010): supercilium
white in front of eye with obvious pale buff extension behind eye,
white hind-collar incomplete, grey-brown on mantle and upper-parts,
well-marked russet-toned Ioral line, extensive lateral breast patches
although not complete (photo: Imam Tauqurrahman).
Fig. 2. Breeding female Javan Plover sheltering chick (Bali, Oct 2011):
complete lateral breast patches, grey brown on crown, upper-parts,
mantle and wing coverts (photo: Mat & Cathy Gilfedder).
Fig. 4. Head pattern of Kentish Plover (Hong Kong, Mar 2009):
round shape, taper-tipped, thin-based bill and clear, complete white
hindneck collar (photo: Martin Hale).
Fig. 3. Head pattern of Javan Plover (Bali, Aug 2010): oval shape,
blunt-tipped, heavy-based bill and indistinct, incomplete white hind-
neckcollar (photo: Mat & Cathy Gilfedder).
January on the south coast of Java (Adhy Maruly in litt.). We
consider May–August as the main breeding season, so the rst
calendar year for most young covers the period from hatching
to the end of December. This is similar to the breeding period
of many N hemisphere waders that will have hatched during
April–July. The second calendar year for the young is the fol-
lowing January to December (Chandler 2009). Therefore the
terminology and timing of Javan Plover plumage and moult
are similar to that of many other migratory waders.
Aggressive behaviour has been observed during the breed-
ing period. Adult Javan Plovers have been observed to attack
Little Terns Sterna albifrons (both chicks and adults) (Radityo
Pradipta, pers. comm).
Further studies are needed to learn about Javan Plover
breeding biology and habitat so that the species can be
effectively conserved.
BARE PARTS, SIZE, STRUCTURE AND VOICE
There are very few biometric records for Javan Plover.
Hoogerwerf (1967) examined only four specimens. Further
study is needed to verify the size data described below and
conrm the validity of differences between Javan Plover and
other taxa.
Javan Plover is about 15 cm in length, which is similar
to Kentish Plover. The head-shape of Javan Plover is gener-
ally oval, unlike the rounded head of Kentish Plover. As a
general impression, Javan Plover tends to look more erect
when relaxed than Kentish Plover, possibly due to its slightly
longer-legged appearance. Also Kentish Plover often has a
more horizontal stance, with its head held “hunched” into its
shoulders (Rheindt et al. 2011).
Javan Plover bill length is about 12–16 mm (Grantham
1998, Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia, unpubl. data) which
overlaps with that of Kentish Plover (14–17 mm), although
the most likely subspecies of Kentish Plover to occur in
Indonesia is C. alexandrinus dealbatus, which is longer-billed
98 Wader Study Group Bulletin 120(2) 2013
(17–19 mm) than the nominate subspecies (Prater et al. 1977).
Both species have a black bill (Figs 3 & 4). In combination
with head-shape, this gives the impression that Javan Plover
has a proportionately much longer bill than Kentish Plover.
From specimens collected between 1934 and 1936, the bill
of Javan Plover averages heavier though not longer than
Kentish Plover (Hoogerwerf 1967), and can show a thicker
bill base (M. Grantham pers. comm.). Kentish Plover has a
more pointed bill; that of Javan Plover has a blunt tip (Figs 3
& 4), although this is difcult to see clearly from a distance.
Javan Plover usually has pale olive or pale grey legs (Figs
2, 5–9), although its legs are occasionally darker. This darker
variation is sometimes seen in adults while breeding. The pale
leg-colour of Javan Plover is a useful criterion for distinguish-
ing it from Kentish Plover, which usually has dark coloured
legs (Hayman et al. 1986). However, Kentish Plover has been
recorded with pale brown legs. This may be typical of some
(or even all) rst-summer Kentish Plovers that do not acquire
breeding plumage (perhaps only a small proportion) (Shar-
rock 1980). Leg colour is often hard to observe accurately in
the eld due to soiling from mud.
Tarsus length of Javan Plover is 25–30 mm, while in Kent-
ish Plover it is 23–30 mm (Hoogerwerf 1967, Prater et al.
1977, Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia, unpubl. data). The tibia
of Javan Plover is longer than in Kentish Plover. So while
tarsus length overlaps, Javan Plover has longer legs overall
(Iqbal et al. 2011, Tebb et al. 2008).
MacKinnon & Phillipps (1993) describe the voice of Javan
Plover as a “soft, rising single note, kweek repeated”, while
Kentish Plover is described as a “soft, single, unmusical
rising note pik, repeated”. The Javan Plover’s whistle seems
a bit coarser than that of Kentish Plover (N.D. van Swelm,
pers. comm.). We examined the call of Kentish Plover C. a.
alexandrinus and Javan Plover at Xeno-Canto (http://www.
xeno-canto.org). Kentish Plover has “krk-krk…pik” or “pik”
with a shorter note, while Javan Plover has kweek……
kweek” or single “kweek” with a longer note.
PLUMAGE AND MOULT
Early descriptions of Javan Plover were based on a small
series of specimens collected during 1934–1940 in Java
(West Java, Central Java, East Java and Kangean Islands).
These show: a darker upperpart colour (more earth brown
instead of the sandy colour of Kentish Plover); the presence
(or indication) of a narrow yellowish-brown or earth-brown
breast collar; a heavier bill than Kentish Plover (although not
longer); a more brownish tint to the sides of head (less black);
the occipital and nuchal areas (the hind-neck) containing
Fig. 9. Typical breeding male Javan Plover (north coast Central
Java, Jun 2012): grey brown on upperparts, dull russet-brown on
breast patches, crown, lores and eye-stripe (photo: Karyadi Baskoro).
Fig. 5. Typical posture of Javan Plover: slim appearance, pale and
long legs (especially tibia) (photo: Muhammad Iqbal).
Fig. 6. Head-on view of Javan Plover (Bangka, Mar 2011): extensive
lateral breast-patches, long tibia and pale legs (photo: Muhammad Iqbal).
Fig. 7. Juvenile to non-breeding plumage Javan Plover (north-west
coast Java, Mar 2012): Diffuse breast patches clearly seen, wing
coverts are small and neatly arranged (photo: Khaleb Yordan).
Fig. 8. Variant breeding male Javan Plover (Jakarta, 24 May 2012):
dark frontal bar, pale brown on upperparts, dark buffy-brown lateral
breast patches, lores, eye-stripe and crown (photo: Khaleb Yordan).
99
Iqbal et al.: Field identication of Javan Plover
some rusty brown; the spots on both sides of the breast are
dark rusty instead of black (as in the seebohmi subspecies of
Kentish Plover); and an uninterrupted breast-collar (Hooger-
werf 1967).
Similar species to Javan Plover are Kentish Plover,
Malaysian Plover and Red-capped Plover. Malaysian Plover
can easily be distinguished by its variegated upper-parts
when compared to the uniform upperparts of Javan Plover
and Kentish Plover. Red-capped Plover lacks the white col-
lar across the hind-neck, making it easy to distinguish from
Javan or Kentish Plover (Hayman et al. 1986, Piersma &
Wiersma 1996).
Distinguishing Javan Plover from Kentish Plover can be
difcult, especially for observers with limited experience of
the two species. Javan Plover is similar to Kentish Plover,
and some authors treat it as a subspecies of Kentish Plover.
There are two subspecies of Kentish Plover in the East Asian
Australasian Flyway: C. a. alexandrinus and C. a. dealbatus
(Bamford et al. 2008). The subspecies C. a. alexandrinus is
widely distributed through Europe, Africa and the Middle
East to NE China, and winters south to sub-Saharan Africa,
S Asia and W Indonesia (Piersma & Wiersma 1996). The
subspecies C. a. dealbatus (sometimes considered as a
full species as White-faced Plover C. dealbatus) has been
described as having signicantly paler plumage than other
small Charadrius Plovers in E and SE Asia (Bakewell &
Kennerley 2008, Kennerley et al. 2008) and are likely to
account for birds seen in E Indonesia. Two accepted Austra-
Table 1. A summary of the principal features for eld identication of Javan Plover and Kentish Plovers. Most Kentish Plover descriptions
are derived from Bakewell & Kennerley (2008).
Features Javan Plover Kentish Plover
Bill Black. Blunt-tipped with a thick base. Combination of head pattern and
bill shape usually show that Javan Plover has a proportionately longer,
thicker bill, although they can overlap in length.
Black. Tapered tip.
Leg Usually pale, olive-grey, rarely dark. The tibia length is proportionately
longer than Kentish Plover, but tarsus lengths can overlap.
Extends level with tail-tip in ight.
Usually dark, but occasionally pinkish, pale or olive.
Extends level with tail-tip in ight.
Head: male Both sexes show a well-marked brown loral line and extensive lateral
breast patches. Male usually has fairly well-marked frontal bar, ear-
coverts, lores and lateral breast patches are dull russet-brown rather
than black as in Kentish Plover or chestnut tones on the ear covert.
While breeding, male usually shows a combination of black or dark
brown frontal bar and lores, or uniform dark buffy-brown lateral breast
patches, lores, eye stripe and crown.
White on forehead less extensive, supercilium narrower,
lores marked with a heavy black line.
Frontal bar black.
Head: female Supercilium white in front of eye with obvious pale buff extension
behind eye.
Well-marked russet-toned loral lines.
While breeding female usually has grey-brown on crown (uniform with
upperparts, mantle and wing coverts); or somewhat browner cap, with
drab brown on fore-crown, lateral breast patches, lores and eye-stripe.
Supercilium usually dusky-brown and very indistinct
behind eye.
Crown, lores and entire ear-coverts cold, dark brown.
Some individuals show rich rufous or orange wash to
brown areas.
Nape White hind-collar always incomplete. White collar split at rear by brown line coming down
from hind-crown, though usually looks complete in most
birds.
Breast or lateral
breast-patches
Breast whiter and breast band is sometimes complete.
Lateral breast-patches yellowish-brown or earth-brown, and dark
brown while breeding.
Shorter than Javan Plover, often more rounded at lower
edge.
Viewed head-on, white area between breast-patches
narrower than length of breast-patches. On male, black;
on female dark brown. Lateral breast-patches on Kentish
Plover rarely meet to form a complete band.
Scapulars and
mantle
Uniform mid sandy brown or dark brown and sometime very pale-buff. Cold, dark brown.
Behavioural
characters
Upright stance, neck visible. Horizontal stance, head held “hunched” into shoulders.
lian records for Nov 1988 and Feb 2002 were also considered
to be dealbatus (Hollands & Minton 2012, McCrie 1995).
A third subspecies (C. a. seebohmi) breeds in SE India and
Sri Lanka. This may in fact be closest in plumage to Javan
Plover. Both Kentish (White-faced) Plover C. a. dealbatus
and Javan Plover occur in Sumatra, but show no overlap in
their distribution (Iqbal et al. 2010, 2011). Thus, within its
range, Javan Plover is only likely to be confused with Kent-
ish Plover C. a. alexandrinus. A summary of the principal
features for eld identication of Javan Plover and Kentish
Plover is listed in Table 1.
The plumage and moult features of Javan Plover can be
divided to three major types: juvenile, adult non-breeding
and adult breeding. In ight, all juvenile, non-breeding and
breeding birds show an obvious white bar across the upper-
wing, as well as white outer-tail feathers (Fig. 10).
Juvenile Javan Plovers differ from other small plovers
in having a combination of plain upper-parts, being some-
what paler-headed on the forehead and supercilium, having
washed-buff upperparts, buff fringes to wing-coverts, lateral
paler and more diffuse breast-patches, and upper-parts and
wing coverts that are small and neatly arranged (Fig. 11).
Juvenile wing coverts are retained after post-juvenile moult,
although most of the upperparts are replaced.
Adult non-breeding plumage has a white nuchal (hind-
neck) collar (which is always incomplete) and less diffuse
lateral breast-patches than in breeding birds, especially during
the May–September breeding period (Fig. 7).
100 Wader Study Group Bulletin 120(2) 2013
Javan Plovers in breeding plumage have well-dened lat-
eral breast-patches that are usually complete (earth brown or
yellowish brown) (Figs 2, 8 & 9). Males in breeding plumage
have a clear white forehead and short white supercilium (only
occasionally extending behind the eye); the upperparts are
brown or grey brown (including the mantle and scapulars) or
sometimes darker brown while breeding. While breeding, the
male usually shows darker lateral breast patches and a black
frontal bar, lores and ear-coverts (Figs 8 & 9); but not as dark
as the lateral breast patches and frontal bar of breeding male
Kentish Plovers (Fig. 12).
Breeding plumage females have russet-toned loral lines,
but they lack the russet tones of the male; they have com-
plete lateral breast patches and a pale-buff supercilium that
extends well behind the eye (unlike in Kentish Plover). While
breeding, females usually have grey-brown on the crown, up-
perparts, mantle and wing coverts (Fig. 1); sometimes darker
brown uniform upper-parts, mantle, wing-coverts, lateral
breast patches, lores, eye-stripe and crown; or a combination
of grey-brown on the upperparts, mantle and wing coverts
with buffy-brown lateral breast patches, lores, eye-stripe and
crown (Figs 1 & 2).
Javan Plovers usually have a white supercilium in front of
the eye with an obvious pale buff extension behind the eye
and a white hind-collar that is invariably incomplete; this
Table 2. Relative importance of eld characters for distinguishing Javan Plover from Kentish Plover.
Important Supportive Inconclusive
l Incomplete hindneck collar
l Long lateral breast patches
l Paler leg colour
l Longer tibia length
l Blunt, thick-based bill shape
l Oval head pattern
l Call
l Tarsus/bill length ratio (although this character may be of use for
birds in the hand or photographs)
l Length of feet beyond tail (in ight)
Fig. 10. Javan Plover in ight showing broad white wing bar, white
side to upper-tail and tail, and legs extending to level with tail-tip in
ight (Bali, 28 Jun 2012) (photo: Mat & Cathy Gilfedder).
Fig. 11. Juvenile Javan Plover (south coast Java, Dec 2012): Shows
diffuse breast patches, pale on head especially on forehead, upper-
parts and wing-coverts; wing-coverts are small and neatly arranged
(photo: Waskito Kukuh Wibowo).
Fig. 12. Typical breeding male Kentish Plover (Fujian, China, Apr
2012): Clear black frontal bar and black lateral breast patches (photo:
Myron Tay).
Fig. 13. Breeding female Kentish Plover (Greece, Jun 2003): super-
cilium usually very indistinct behind eye and white collar split at rear
by brown line coming down from hind-crown, though usually looks
complete in most birds (photo: Theodosis Mamais).
contrasts with Kentish Plover which usually has a dusky-
brown supercilium that is very indistinct behind the eye and
a white collar that is split at rear by a brown line coming
down from hind-crown, though it usually looks complete in
most birds (Fig. 13).
Both sexes usually have darkish or blackish around the
eye, especially while breeding. At that time, the male usually
shows a black or dark brown frontal bar and lores as described
by Piersma & Wiersma (1996).
CONCLUSIONS
In this paper we have described several eld observable char-
acteristics which can be used to aid the identication of Javan
Plovers, and distinguish them from the similar Kentish Plover.
These characters are listed in Table 1 and in Table 2 we have
divided these characters into three categories of relative value:
important, supportive and inconclusive. These characters will
help observers to better identify Javan Plovers in the eld.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Bas van Balen, Colin Trainor, Iwan
“Londo” Febrianto, Richard Noske and Swiss Winnasis
for discussions about Javan Plover features, and for their
101
Iqbal et al.: Field identication of Javan Plover
support in providing signicance references. We are very
grateful to AbdulRahman Al-Sirhan (Kuwait), Adhy Maruly,
Ahmad Yanuar, Asman Adi Purwanto, Ferry Hasudungan,
Ige Kristianto, Khaleb Yordan, Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia,
Martin Hale (Hong Kong), Myron Tay (China), Norman
Deans van Swelm (Netherlands), Pete Morris (UK), Radityo
Pradipta, Syahputra, Theodosis Mamais (Greece), Waskito
Kukuh Wibowo, Ahmad Zulkar Abdullah for the use of
their photos and sharing additional Javan Plover knowledge.
We would also like to thank Humphrey Sitters who reviewed
this paper. Finally, we are very grateful to Mark Grantham
who improved the manuscript, and shared his knowledge and
experience of Javan Plovers and other small plovers.
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... Javan Plover was not recorded in Sumatra prior to 2007, when it was reported as breeding in Lampung province, southern Sumatra (Kennerley et al. 2008, Iqbal et al. 2011. It has since been recorded elsewhere in Sumatra on the islands of Bangka and Belitung and on the Indralaya floodplain (Iqbal et al. 2013b, Iqbal 2015, Setiawan et al. 2016. The recent spate of records outside Java is probably at least partly due to increased survey effort, but another possible factor is that birds have dispersed from Java to find suitable habitat, as many coastal areas of Java have come under heavy development pressure (Iqbal et al. 2013c). ...
... Careful attention is paid to correct identification using appropriate references (e.g. MacKinnon & Phillipps 1993, Iqbal et al. 2013b. Two similar species to Javan Plover potentially found on Indralaya floodplain are Malaysian Plover C. peronii and Kentish Plover. ...
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Javan Plover was not recorded in Sumatra prior to 2007. This paper reports that during 2013–2018, waterbird monitoring in Sumatra established that Javan Plovers occur in small numbers at three of the surveyed localities in the Indralaya subdistrict: Tanjung Putus, Tanjung Senai and Danau Seruo.
... Two small Charadrius plovers seen on 24 September 2013 at the Tanjung Putus wetlands were identified as Javan Plover. This was based on an incomplete white hind-collar, extensive lateral breast-patches (a narrow breast collar) and a bird which had a nearly complete narrow breast collar: all important field characters of the Javan Plover distinguishing it from the Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines (Iqbal et al. 2013b). Previously the Javan Plover has only been recorded from mainland of Sumatra within Lampung province, the southernmost province of Sumatra (Iqbal et al. 2011) and as such the Tanjung Putus records represent a northerly range extension of the species. ...
... All the birds showed similar characters having an incomplete white hind-collar, and extensive lateral breast-patches (a narrow breast collar); a few birds had a nearly complete narrow breast collar and pale legs (Fig. 2). Based on Iqbal et al. (2013b), these are important field characters of Javan Plover, allowing it to be distinguished from Kentish Plover. e history of Belitung Island ornithology has been reviewed (Chasen 1937, Vorderman 1890). ...
... Two small Charadrius plovers seen on 24 September 2013 at the Tanjung Putus wetlands were identified as Javan Plover. This was based on an incomplete white hind-collar, extensive lateral breast-patches (a narrow breast collar) and a bird which had a nearly complete narrow breast collar: all important field characters of the Javan Plover distinguishing it from the Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines (Iqbal et al. 2013b). Previously the Javan Plover has only been recorded from mainland of Sumatra within Lampung province, the southernmost province of Sumatra (Iqbal et al. 2011) and as such the Tanjung Putus records represent a northerly range extension of the species. ...
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Online repositories of DNA sequences are a rich and indispensable source of comparative data for biodiversity research and taxonomic studies. Despite increasingly high data quality of published sequences and associated metadata, particular attention should be paid to taxonomic assignment of DNA sequences, in particular if voucher specimens were not available or could not be examined. In this study, two nearly identical mitogenomes of two distinctive plover species (Charadrius alexandrinus and C. placidus) were re‐analysed and compared to a comprehensive data set of DNA‐barcode sequences (cytochrome‐oxidase subunit 1, COI) for 55 shorebird species. Phylogenetic analysis separated the two plover species in two reciprocally monophyletic clades that differed by mean p‐distances of 11.5–14.7%, however the COI sequence from the C. placidus mitogenome was nested in the Kentish Plover clade (C. alexandrinus). A similar mismatch was found for another DNA‐barcode sequence from a C. mongolus mitogenome that clustered with one of two clades of C. leschenaultii in the COI tree. These results strongly suggest that to date two out of seven mitogenomes published for Charadriidae are not representative of the taxon names the respective Genbank entries were assigned to. Only a few DNA‐barcode sequences were associated with outdated taxonomy, others were suspected to be chimeric sequences. Thus, free access to digital sequence information is a key factor for steady improvement of data quality in online repositories via swarm intelligence of the scientific community.
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Pantai Glagah, a coastal wetland on the south coast of Java, Indonesia, is a breeding site for Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus and is both a nationally and internationally significant migration staging and non-breeding site for Sanderling Calidris alba. These species are classified as near threatened and least concern, respectively, by BirdLife International (2014). Visits, seven years apart, recorded substantial land use changes associated with a marked expansion in human recreational use of this site. We document a number of pressures that are likely to be detrimental to shorebirds. These pressures include high levels of habitat modification and degradation, human disturbance, and increased risk of nest trampling and predation by wandering domestic animals. We identify the need for management interventions to protect the notable wildlife values of Pantai Glagah and similar sites. Recommendations include identification and protection of high value areas for shorebirds,, restriction of public access to Javan Plover breeding sites,, habitat enhancement, community outreach and visitor education.
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This paper reports on observations of White-faced Plover Charadrius dealbatus, Little Ringed Plover C. dubius curonicus, Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus and Malaysian Plover C. peronii on the central east coast of North Sumatra Province, Indonesia during September-October 2010 and November 2012. All four species were found in low numbers (in total comprising <4% of all Charadrius plovers) at a relatively small number of sites. We report the first confirmed sightings of White-faced Plover in North Sumatra Province and confirm that the non-breeding range of this taxon includes the east coast of northern Sumatra. Our findings suggest that Sumatra is at the southern edge of the regular non-breeding range for migratory Little Ringed Plover and Kentish Plover populations using the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. We found that numbers of resident Malaysian Plover are very low and the species is absent from many areas of suitable habitat. It has disappeared from areas where it was known to occur in the past and this appears to be attributable to human disturbance and modification of preferred habitat.
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The paper described the distraction behaviour of Javan Plover during its breeding. The behaviour shown by a pair with chicks and a nested female in Muara Gembong, Bekasi, West Java, and from other locations in Java. The paper also reported the chick's ability to swim in order to escape from danger and also discussed about indication of social behaviour in Javan Plover.
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Several pale Charadrius plovers associating with Kentish Plovers Charadrius alexandrinus in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, which were presumed not to resemble any known taxon, have been recorded since 1993 Evidence is presented which establishes that these birds are Aegialites [Charadrius] dealbatus, described by Robert Swinhoe in 1870 as a species distinct from Kentish Plover Subsequent confusion has resulted in this name being applied to the form of Kentish Plover that occurs in abundance in East and South-East Asia, while the true taxon dealbatus has been overlooked by almost all subsequent taxonomists, and mistakenly described and illustrated as Kentish Plover in all studies of this taxon This paper suggests that this confusion arose, in part, due to misconceptions over the appearance of dealbatus, which resulted in many museum specimens of Kentish Plover from East Asia being Incorrectly identified and erroneously labelled as dealbatus Swinhoe did not designate a type specimen when he described dealbatus, and this was only done in 1896, from a composite series of Swinhoe s specimens that comprised two taxa Here, we formally select and describe a lectotype of Aegialites [Charadrius] dealbatus from Swinhoe s pre-1870 specimens, list all known Swinhoe specimens of the composite taxa as paralectotypes of Aegialites [Charadrius] dealbatus and establish which specimens represent this taxon and which are Kentish Plover Comparison with other small Charadrius plovers occurring in South-East Asia establishes the diagnosibilty of dealbatus as a distinct taxon that differs in aspects of plumage, behaviour, habitat preference and breeding distribution from the commonly occurring Kentish Plover in East and South-East Asia Consistent morphological differences from Kentish Plover include a larger and heavier bill with a pale base to the lower mandible, pale pinkish-grey legs, light sandy-brown upperparts and a longer and more conspicuous wing-bar, particularly across the primaries We describe plumage differences between sexes and age classes, and compare dealbatus with Kentish and Malaysian Plover C peronn The breeding range remains uncertain but probably lies in coastal South China, and evidence suggests that dealbatus is allopatric with Kentish Plover, which breeds in northern China An investigation to establish the phylogenetic relationship between dealbatus and other small Charadrius plovers is currently in progress If dealbatus proves to be distinct at the species level, we recommend that the name Charadrius dealbatus with the English name White-faced Plover is adopted The name Charadriu alexandrinus nihonensis is available for the larger-billed form of Kentish Plover breeding in north-eastern Asia The true taxon dealbatus is believed to be rare but probably under-recorded