The Charadrius plovers include 31 small, cryptic and very
similar species of shorebirds (Piersma et al. 1997). This paper
focuses on the Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus, a poorly
known Charadrius plover from the Oriental region, which has
been recorded from Indonesia and Timor-Leste (Iqbal et al.
2013, Trainor 2011). Detailed accounts of the identication
of Javan Plover are relatively few. Some authors place Javan
Plover as a subspecies under Kentish Plover Charadrius
alexandrinus, but do not give further descriptions (e.g. Coates
& Bishop 2000, Hayman et al. 1986). Kentish Plovers join
a small but growing list of species for which low levels of
genetic differentiation are accompanied by the presence of
strong phenotypic divergence, suggesting that diagnostic
phenotypic characters may be encoded by a few genes that
are difcult to detect (Rheindt et al. 2011).
Hoogerwerf (1967) provided the first comprehensive
description of the Javan Plover and a comparison with other
similar small plovers in the region (e.g. the Red-capped
Plover Charadrius rucapillus and the Malaysian Plover
Charadrius peronii). MacKinnon & Phillipps (1993) briey
described the eld characteristics of the Javan Plover and
provided comparison points to its congener Kentish Plover.
Piersma & Wiersma (1996) provided an additional descrip-
This paper attempts to set out diagnostic field-marks
which will allow the eld identication of Javan Plovers, and
facilitate their ageing and sexing (given reasonable viewing
conditions). Existing characters are rened and new char-
acters are presented. This information is based on eld and
photographic studies made by the authors and other workers,
mainly in Java.
OCCURRENCE, HABITAT PREFERENCE AND
The Javan Plover was initially thought to be a Javan endemic
(Kangean Island) and possibly occurring on Bali (MacKin-
non & Phillipps 1993). Later surveys conrmed its presence
on Bali, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Lombok, Meno Island (off
Lombok), Sumbawa, Flores, Semau Island (Kupang, Timor)
and Timor-Leste (Iqbal et al. 2013). It is likely that the spe-
cies also exists at additional localities between Sumatra and
Timor-Leste (e.g. Belitung Island (Sumatra), S Borneo and
small islands in the Lesser Sundas).
Javan Plover has been recorded in coastal lowlands on
Java (MacKinnon & Phillipps 1993). It is regularly observed
on sandy beaches (e.g. Bangka Island, south coast of Java)
(Iqbal et al. 2011, IT pers. obs.), as well as beside saline
lagoons (Bali). Javan Plover has been seen feeding and
breeding near dry aquaculture ponds (e.g. on the east coast
of Sumatra, the north coast of Java, the south coast Sulawesi
and Timor-Leste) (Iqbal et al. 2011, Tebb et al. 2008, Trainor
2011). They have also been recorded breeding on dry saline
land (Sape, Sumbawa) (Coates & Bishop 2000). There is
an inland record at Sungai Serayu (30 km from the coast in
central Java) which appears to be atypical habitat (Asman
Adi Purwanto, in litt.). Near the south coast of Central Java
(Yogyakarta), it has also been recorded feeding and breeding
in dry cleared rice-elds before seeding or after harvesting.
Javan Plovers are not solely intertidal birds and although
they sometimes forage on sandy tidal ats, they appear to
prefer beaches or dry land above the shoreline in coastal
habitats. This is also typical preferred Kentish Plover habitat
(van de Kam et al. 2004). On Bangka Island, Javan Plovers
have been observed hunting crabs at low tide in the typical
Field identification of Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus
Muhammad Iqbal1, Imam Tauqurrahman2, Mat Gilfedder3 & Karyadi Baskoro4
1 KPB-SOS, Jalan Tanjung api-api km 9 Komplek P & K Blok E 1, Palembang 30152, Indonesia. email@example.com
2 Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia, Kompleks Perkantoran UPT Taman Kuliner Condongcatur Blok K1-K3,
Jl. Anggajaya III Condongcatur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3 PO Box 6011, St Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia
4 Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
Iqbal, M., Tauqurrahman, I., Gilfedder, M. & Baskoro, K. 2013. Field identication of Javan Plover Charadrius
javanicus. Wader Study Group Bull. 120(2): 96–101.
Keywords: eld identication, Javan Plover, Charadrius javanicus, Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus,
Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus is a poorly known Charadrius plover from the Oriental region, which has
been recorded from Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Detailed accounts of the identication of Javan Plover are
relatively few. At around 15 cm in length, it is about the same size as Kentish Plover C. alexandrinus and also
has similar plumage. Here we describe several eld observable characteristics which can be used to help identify
Javan Plover, and distinguish it from Kentish Plover. We have divided these characters into three categories of
relative value: important, supportive and inconclusive. Important characters are an incomplete hindneck collar,
lone lateral breast patches, paler leg colour and longer tibia length; supportive characters are blunt and thick-
based bill shape, oval head pattern and call; and inconclusive characters are tarsus/bill length ratio (although
this character may be of use on birds in the hand or photographs) and length of feet beyond tail (in ight). It is
hoped that these characters will help observers to better identify Javan Plovers in the eld.
Iqbal et al.: Field identication of Javan Plover
manner of other Charadrius plovers, i.e. head lowered, dash-
ing across the sand to seize prey before it can retreat into its
burrow (Syahputra Putra, pers. comm.).
During the breeding season, both male and female Javan
Plovers incubate the eggs and share parenting of the chicks
(Figs 1 & 2). However, it is not known whether, like Kentish
Plover, there is a strong relationship between incubating sex
and time of day, with females incubating by day and males at
night (Amat & Masero 2004, Fraga & Amat 1996).
As described by Hellebrekers & Hoogerwerf (1967), Javan
Plover eggs are isabelline to dark olive cream in colour, with
numerous very irregular black or almost black markings,
often mixed with a grayish or sepia tint. These markings
present as similar to hieroglyphic characters. The hatchlings
of Javan Plover are similar to other Charadriidae hatchlings.
The peak breeding season of Javan Plover is thought to be
May to August. Eggs have been collected in May and June
(West Java), chicks found in July (east coast Sumatra, Bali),
recently edged young have also been found in July (Timor-
Leste), and downy young found in August (West and Central
Java) (Hellebrekers & Hoogerwerf 1967, Hoogerwerf 1967,
Iqbal et al. 2011, Trainor 2011, Ferry Hasudungan & Adhy
Maruly in litt.). Grantham (1998) reported May to September
as the observed breeding season in Alas Purwo National Park
A second breeding season occurs between September
and January/February. Birds have been observed mating in
September or October on Sulawesi (Tebb et al. 2008), downy
young in early October (Bali), and an adult attending a nest in
Fig. 1. Breeding female Javan Plover (W Java, Apr 2010): supercilium
white in front of eye with obvious pale buff extension behind eye,
white hind-collar incomplete, grey-brown on mantle and upper-parts,
well-marked russet-toned Ioral line, extensive lateral breast patches
although not complete (photo: Imam Tauqurrahman).
Fig. 2. Breeding female Javan Plover sheltering chick (Bali, Oct 2011):
complete lateral breast patches, grey brown on crown, upper-parts,
mantle and wing coverts (photo: Mat & Cathy Gilfedder).
Fig. 4. Head pattern of Kentish Plover (Hong Kong, Mar 2009):
round shape, taper-tipped, thin-based bill and clear, complete white
hindneck collar (photo: Martin Hale).
Fig. 3. Head pattern of Javan Plover (Bali, Aug 2010): oval shape,
blunt-tipped, heavy-based bill and indistinct, incomplete white hind-
neckcollar (photo: Mat & Cathy Gilfedder).
January on the south coast of Java (Adhy Maruly in litt.). We
consider May–August as the main breeding season, so the rst
calendar year for most young covers the period from hatching
to the end of December. This is similar to the breeding period
of many N hemisphere waders that will have hatched during
April–July. The second calendar year for the young is the fol-
lowing January to December (Chandler 2009). Therefore the
terminology and timing of Javan Plover plumage and moult
are similar to that of many other migratory waders.
Aggressive behaviour has been observed during the breed-
ing period. Adult Javan Plovers have been observed to attack
Little Terns Sterna albifrons (both chicks and adults) (Radityo
Pradipta, pers. comm).
Further studies are needed to learn about Javan Plover
breeding biology and habitat so that the species can be
BARE PARTS, SIZE, STRUCTURE AND VOICE
There are very few biometric records for Javan Plover.
Hoogerwerf (1967) examined only four specimens. Further
study is needed to verify the size data described below and
conrm the validity of differences between Javan Plover and
Javan Plover is about 15 cm in length, which is similar
to Kentish Plover. The head-shape of Javan Plover is gener-
ally oval, unlike the rounded head of Kentish Plover. As a
general impression, Javan Plover tends to look more erect
when relaxed than Kentish Plover, possibly due to its slightly
longer-legged appearance. Also Kentish Plover often has a
more horizontal stance, with its head held “hunched” into its
shoulders (Rheindt et al. 2011).
Javan Plover bill length is about 12–16 mm (Grantham
1998, Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia, unpubl. data) which
overlaps with that of Kentish Plover (14–17 mm), although
the most likely subspecies of Kentish Plover to occur in
Indonesia is C. alexandrinus dealbatus, which is longer-billed
98 Wader Study Group Bulletin 120(2) 2013
(17–19 mm) than the nominate subspecies (Prater et al. 1977).
Both species have a black bill (Figs 3 & 4). In combination
with head-shape, this gives the impression that Javan Plover
has a proportionately much longer bill than Kentish Plover.
From specimens collected between 1934 and 1936, the bill
of Javan Plover averages heavier though not longer than
Kentish Plover (Hoogerwerf 1967), and can show a thicker
bill base (M. Grantham pers. comm.). Kentish Plover has a
more pointed bill; that of Javan Plover has a blunt tip (Figs 3
& 4), although this is difcult to see clearly from a distance.
Javan Plover usually has pale olive or pale grey legs (Figs
2, 5–9), although its legs are occasionally darker. This darker
variation is sometimes seen in adults while breeding. The pale
leg-colour of Javan Plover is a useful criterion for distinguish-
ing it from Kentish Plover, which usually has dark coloured
legs (Hayman et al. 1986). However, Kentish Plover has been
recorded with pale brown legs. This may be typical of some
(or even all) rst-summer Kentish Plovers that do not acquire
breeding plumage (perhaps only a small proportion) (Shar-
rock 1980). Leg colour is often hard to observe accurately in
the eld due to soiling from mud.
Tarsus length of Javan Plover is 25–30 mm, while in Kent-
ish Plover it is 23–30 mm (Hoogerwerf 1967, Prater et al.
1977, Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia, unpubl. data). The tibia
of Javan Plover is longer than in Kentish Plover. So while
tarsus length overlaps, Javan Plover has longer legs overall
(Iqbal et al. 2011, Tebb et al. 2008).
MacKinnon & Phillipps (1993) describe the voice of Javan
Plover as a “soft, rising single note, kweek repeated”, while
Kentish Plover is described as a “soft, single, unmusical
rising note pik, repeated”. The Javan Plover’s whistle seems
a bit coarser than that of Kentish Plover (N.D. van Swelm,
pers. comm.). We examined the call of Kentish Plover C. a.
alexandrinus and Javan Plover at Xeno-Canto (http://www.
xeno-canto.org). Kentish Plover has “krk-krk…pik” or “pik”
with a shorter note, while Javan Plover has “kweek……
kweek” or single “kweek” with a longer note.
PLUMAGE AND MOULT
Early descriptions of Javan Plover were based on a small
series of specimens collected during 1934–1940 in Java
(West Java, Central Java, East Java and Kangean Islands).
These show: a darker upperpart colour (more earth brown
instead of the sandy colour of Kentish Plover); the presence
(or indication) of a narrow yellowish-brown or earth-brown
breast collar; a heavier bill than Kentish Plover (although not
longer); a more brownish tint to the sides of head (less black);
the occipital and nuchal areas (the hind-neck) containing
Fig. 9. Typical breeding male Javan Plover (north coast Central
Java, Jun 2012): grey brown on upperparts, dull russet-brown on
breast patches, crown, lores and eye-stripe (photo: Karyadi Baskoro).
Fig. 5. Typical posture of Javan Plover: slim appearance, pale and
long legs (especially tibia) (photo: Muhammad Iqbal).
Fig. 6. Head-on view of Javan Plover (Bangka, Mar 2011): extensive
lateral breast-patches, long tibia and pale legs (photo: Muhammad Iqbal).
Fig. 7. Juvenile to non-breeding plumage Javan Plover (north-west
coast Java, Mar 2012): Diffuse breast patches clearly seen, wing
coverts are small and neatly arranged (photo: Khaleb Yordan).
Fig. 8. Variant breeding male Javan Plover (Jakarta, 24 May 2012):
dark frontal bar, pale brown on upperparts, dark buffy-brown lateral
breast patches, lores, eye-stripe and crown (photo: Khaleb Yordan).
Iqbal et al.: Field identication of Javan Plover
some rusty brown; the spots on both sides of the breast are
dark rusty instead of black (as in the seebohmi subspecies of
Kentish Plover); and an uninterrupted breast-collar (Hooger-
Similar species to Javan Plover are Kentish Plover,
Malaysian Plover and Red-capped Plover. Malaysian Plover
can easily be distinguished by its variegated upper-parts
when compared to the uniform upperparts of Javan Plover
and Kentish Plover. Red-capped Plover lacks the white col-
lar across the hind-neck, making it easy to distinguish from
Javan or Kentish Plover (Hayman et al. 1986, Piersma &
Distinguishing Javan Plover from Kentish Plover can be
difcult, especially for observers with limited experience of
the two species. Javan Plover is similar to Kentish Plover,
and some authors treat it as a subspecies of Kentish Plover.
There are two subspecies of Kentish Plover in the East Asian
Australasian Flyway: C. a. alexandrinus and C. a. dealbatus
(Bamford et al. 2008). The subspecies C. a. alexandrinus is
widely distributed through Europe, Africa and the Middle
East to NE China, and winters south to sub-Saharan Africa,
S Asia and W Indonesia (Piersma & Wiersma 1996). The
subspecies C. a. dealbatus (sometimes considered as a
full species as White-faced Plover C. dealbatus) has been
described as having signicantly paler plumage than other
small Charadrius Plovers in E and SE Asia (Bakewell &
Kennerley 2008, Kennerley et al. 2008) and are likely to
account for birds seen in E Indonesia. Two accepted Austra-
Table 1. A summary of the principal features for eld identication of Javan Plover and Kentish Plovers. Most Kentish Plover descriptions
are derived from Bakewell & Kennerley (2008).
Features Javan Plover Kentish Plover
Bill Black. Blunt-tipped with a thick base. Combination of head pattern and
bill shape usually show that Javan Plover has a proportionately longer,
thicker bill, although they can overlap in length.
Black. Tapered tip.
Leg Usually pale, olive-grey, rarely dark. The tibia length is proportionately
longer than Kentish Plover, but tarsus lengths can overlap.
Extends level with tail-tip in ight.
Usually dark, but occasionally pinkish, pale or olive.
Extends level with tail-tip in ight.
Head: male Both sexes show a well-marked brown loral line and extensive lateral
breast patches. Male usually has fairly well-marked frontal bar, ear-
coverts, lores and lateral breast patches are dull russet-brown rather
than black as in Kentish Plover or chestnut tones on the ear covert.
While breeding, male usually shows a combination of black or dark
brown frontal bar and lores, or uniform dark buffy-brown lateral breast
patches, lores, eye stripe and crown.
White on forehead less extensive, supercilium narrower,
lores marked with a heavy black line.
Frontal bar black.
Head: female Supercilium white in front of eye with obvious pale buff extension
Well-marked russet-toned loral lines.
While breeding female usually has grey-brown on crown (uniform with
upperparts, mantle and wing coverts); or somewhat browner cap, with
drab brown on fore-crown, lateral breast patches, lores and eye-stripe.
Supercilium usually dusky-brown and very indistinct
Crown, lores and entire ear-coverts cold, dark brown.
Some individuals show rich rufous or orange wash to
Nape White hind-collar always incomplete. White collar split at rear by brown line coming down
from hind-crown, though usually looks complete in most
Breast or lateral
Breast whiter and breast band is sometimes complete.
Lateral breast-patches yellowish-brown or earth-brown, and dark
brown while breeding.
Shorter than Javan Plover, often more rounded at lower
Viewed head-on, white area between breast-patches
narrower than length of breast-patches. On male, black;
on female dark brown. Lateral breast-patches on Kentish
Plover rarely meet to form a complete band.
Uniform mid sandy brown or dark brown and sometime very pale-buff. Cold, dark brown.
Upright stance, neck visible. Horizontal stance, head held “hunched” into shoulders.
lian records for Nov 1988 and Feb 2002 were also considered
to be dealbatus (Hollands & Minton 2012, McCrie 1995).
A third subspecies (C. a. seebohmi) breeds in SE India and
Sri Lanka. This may in fact be closest in plumage to Javan
Plover. Both Kentish (White-faced) Plover C. a. dealbatus
and Javan Plover occur in Sumatra, but show no overlap in
their distribution (Iqbal et al. 2010, 2011). Thus, within its
range, Javan Plover is only likely to be confused with Kent-
ish Plover C. a. alexandrinus. A summary of the principal
features for eld identication of Javan Plover and Kentish
Plover is listed in Table 1.
The plumage and moult features of Javan Plover can be
divided to three major types: juvenile, adult non-breeding
and adult breeding. In ight, all juvenile, non-breeding and
breeding birds show an obvious white bar across the upper-
wing, as well as white outer-tail feathers (Fig. 10).
Juvenile Javan Plovers differ from other small plovers
in having a combination of plain upper-parts, being some-
what paler-headed on the forehead and supercilium, having
washed-buff upperparts, buff fringes to wing-coverts, lateral
paler and more diffuse breast-patches, and upper-parts and
wing coverts that are small and neatly arranged (Fig. 11).
Juvenile wing coverts are retained after post-juvenile moult,
although most of the upperparts are replaced.
Adult non-breeding plumage has a white nuchal (hind-
neck) collar (which is always incomplete) and less diffuse
lateral breast-patches than in breeding birds, especially during
the May–September breeding period (Fig. 7).
100 Wader Study Group Bulletin 120(2) 2013
Javan Plovers in breeding plumage have well-dened lat-
eral breast-patches that are usually complete (earth brown or
yellowish brown) (Figs 2, 8 & 9). Males in breeding plumage
have a clear white forehead and short white supercilium (only
occasionally extending behind the eye); the upperparts are
brown or grey brown (including the mantle and scapulars) or
sometimes darker brown while breeding. While breeding, the
male usually shows darker lateral breast patches and a black
frontal bar, lores and ear-coverts (Figs 8 & 9); but not as dark
as the lateral breast patches and frontal bar of breeding male
Kentish Plovers (Fig. 12).
Breeding plumage females have russet-toned loral lines,
but they lack the russet tones of the male; they have com-
plete lateral breast patches and a pale-buff supercilium that
extends well behind the eye (unlike in Kentish Plover). While
breeding, females usually have grey-brown on the crown, up-
perparts, mantle and wing coverts (Fig. 1); sometimes darker
brown uniform upper-parts, mantle, wing-coverts, lateral
breast patches, lores, eye-stripe and crown; or a combination
of grey-brown on the upperparts, mantle and wing coverts
with buffy-brown lateral breast patches, lores, eye-stripe and
crown (Figs 1 & 2).
Javan Plovers usually have a white supercilium in front of
the eye with an obvious pale buff extension behind the eye
and a white hind-collar that is invariably incomplete; this
Table 2. Relative importance of eld characters for distinguishing Javan Plover from Kentish Plover.
Important Supportive Inconclusive
l Incomplete hindneck collar
l Long lateral breast patches
l Paler leg colour
l Longer tibia length
l Blunt, thick-based bill shape
l Oval head pattern
l Tarsus/bill length ratio (although this character may be of use for
birds in the hand or photographs)
l Length of feet beyond tail (in ight)
Fig. 10. Javan Plover in ight showing broad white wing bar, white
side to upper-tail and tail, and legs extending to level with tail-tip in
ight (Bali, 28 Jun 2012) (photo: Mat & Cathy Gilfedder).
Fig. 11. Juvenile Javan Plover (south coast Java, Dec 2012): Shows
diffuse breast patches, pale on head especially on forehead, upper-
parts and wing-coverts; wing-coverts are small and neatly arranged
(photo: Waskito Kukuh Wibowo).
Fig. 12. Typical breeding male Kentish Plover (Fujian, China, Apr
2012): Clear black frontal bar and black lateral breast patches (photo:
Fig. 13. Breeding female Kentish Plover (Greece, Jun 2003): super-
cilium usually very indistinct behind eye and white collar split at rear
by brown line coming down from hind-crown, though usually looks
complete in most birds (photo: Theodosis Mamais).
contrasts with Kentish Plover which usually has a dusky-
brown supercilium that is very indistinct behind the eye and
a white collar that is split at rear by a brown line coming
down from hind-crown, though it usually looks complete in
most birds (Fig. 13).
Both sexes usually have darkish or blackish around the
eye, especially while breeding. At that time, the male usually
shows a black or dark brown frontal bar and lores as described
by Piersma & Wiersma (1996).
In this paper we have described several eld observable char-
acteristics which can be used to aid the identication of Javan
Plovers, and distinguish them from the similar Kentish Plover.
These characters are listed in Table 1 and in Table 2 we have
divided these characters into three categories of relative value:
important, supportive and inconclusive. These characters will
help observers to better identify Javan Plovers in the eld.
We would like to thank Bas van Balen, Colin Trainor, Iwan
“Londo” Febrianto, Richard Noske and Swiss Winnasis
for discussions about Javan Plover features, and for their
Iqbal et al.: Field identication of Javan Plover
support in providing signicance references. We are very
grateful to AbdulRahman Al-Sirhan (Kuwait), Adhy Maruly,
Ahmad Yanuar, Asman Adi Purwanto, Ferry Hasudungan,
Ige Kristianto, Khaleb Yordan, Yayasan Kutilang Indonesia,
Martin Hale (Hong Kong), Myron Tay (China), Norman
Deans van Swelm (Netherlands), Pete Morris (UK), Radityo
Pradipta, Syahputra, Theodosis Mamais (Greece), Waskito
Kukuh Wibowo, Ahmad Zulkar Abdullah for the use of
their photos and sharing additional Javan Plover knowledge.
We would also like to thank Humphrey Sitters who reviewed
this paper. Finally, we are very grateful to Mark Grantham
who improved the manuscript, and shared his knowledge and
experience of Javan Plovers and other small plovers.
Amat, J.A. & Masero, J.A. 2004. How Kentish Plovers Charadrius
alexandrinus, cope with heat stress during incubation. Behav. Ecol. &
Sociobiol. 56: 26–33.
Bakewell, D.N. & Kennerley, P.R. 2008. Field characteristics and distribu-
tion of an overlooked Charadrius plover from South-East Asia. Birding
Asia 9: 46–57.
Bamford, M., Watkins, D., Bancroft, W., Tischler, G. & Wahl, J. 2008.
Migratory shorebirds of the East Asian–Australasian Flyway; population
estimates and Internationally Important Sites. Wetlands International-
Oceania, Canberra, Australia.
Chandler, R. 2009. Shorebirds of the Northern Hemisphere. Christopher
Coates, B. & Bishop, K. 2000. Burung-burung di kawasan Wallacea. Dove
Publication/BirdLife International Indonesia Programme.
Fraga, R.M. & Amat, J.A. 1996. Breeding biology of a Kentish Plover
(Charadrius alexandrinus) population in an inland saline lake. Ardeola
Grantham, M.J. 1998. Status and eld identication of four small Cha-
radrius plovers in Indonesia, with relevant records from Alas Purwo
National Park, East Java (unpublished).
Hayman, P., Marchant, J. & Prater, T. 1986. Shorebirds – an identication
guide to the waders of the world. Houghton Mifin, USA.
Hellebrekers, W.Ph.J. & Hoogerwerf, A. 1967. A further contribution to
our oological knowledge of the island of Java (Indonesia). Zoologische
Verhandelingen 88: 1–164.
Hollands, D. & Minton, C. 2012. Waders: the shorebirds of Australia.
Blooming Books, Melbourne.
Hoogerwerf, A. 1967. On the validity of Charadrius alexandrinus javanicus
Chasen and the occurrence of Charadrius rucapillus Temm. and of
Charadrius peronii Schl. on Java in New Guinea. Phillipine J. Science
Iqbal, M., Mulyono, H., Kadarisman, R. & Surahman. 2010. A new
southernmost record of White-faced Plover Charadrius dealbatus. Wader
Study Group Bull. 117: 190–191.
Iqbal, M., Febrianto, I. & Zulkii, H. 2011. The occurrence of the Javan
Plover Charadrius javanicus in Sumatra, Indonesia. Wader Study Group
Bull. 118: 49–51.
Iqbal, M., Tauqurrahman, I., Yordan, K. & van Balen, S. 2013. An
overview of the distribution, abundance and conservation status of the
Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus. Wader Study Group Bull. 120: 75–79.
Kennerley, P.R., Bakewell, D.N. & Round, P.D. 2008. Rediscovery of a
long-lost Charadrius plover from South-East Asia. Forktail 24: 63–79.
MacKinnon, J. & Phillipps, K. 1993. A eld guide to the birds of Borneo,
Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford Univ. Press, UK.
McCrie, N. 1995. First record of the Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandri-
nus in Australia. Australian Bird Watcher. 16: 91–95.
Piersma, T. & Wiersma, P. 1996. Charadriidae (Plovers). pp. 384–442. In:
J. del Hoyo, A. Elliot. & J. Sargatal (eds). Handbook of the birds of the
world. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to Auk. Lynx Editions, Barcelona.
Piersma, T., Wiersma, P. & van Gils, J. 1997. The many unknowns about
plovers and sandpipers of the world: introduction to a wealth of research
opportunities highly relevant for shorebird conservation. Wader Study
Group Bull. 82: 23–33.
Prater, A.J., Marchant, J. & Vuorinen, J. 1977. Guide to the identication
and ageing of Holarctic Waders. BTO Guide 17. Tring, UK.
Rheindt, F.E., Székely, T., Edwards, S.V., Lee, P.L.M., Burke, T., Ken-
nerley, P.R., Bakewell, D.N., Alrashidi, M., Kosztolányi, A., Weston,
M.A., Liu, W.T., Lei, W.P., Shigeta, Y., Javed, S., Zefania, S. & Küp-
per, C. 2011. Conict between genetic and phenotypic differentiation:
The evolutionary history of a ‘lost and rediscovered’ shorebird. PLoS
ONE 6(11): 1–9.
Sharrock, J.T.R. 1980. Kentish Plovers with pale brown legs. British Birds
Tebb, G., Morris, P. & Los, P. 2008. New and interesting bird records from
Sulawesi and Halmahera, Indonesia. BirdingAsia 10: 67–76.
Trainor, C. 2011. The waterbirds and coastal seabirds of Timor Leste: new
site records, clarifying residence status, distribution and taxonomy.
Forktail 27: 63–72.
van de Kam, J., Ens, B., Piersma, T. & Zwarts, L. 2004. Shorebirds,
an illustrated behavioural ecology. KNNV Publishers, Utrecht, the