Thermal stability and thermal decomposition of sucralose

Abstract and Figures

Several papers have been described on the thermal stability of the sweetener, C12H19Cl3O8 (Sucralose). Nevertheless no study using thermoanalytical techniques was found in the literature. Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy, have been used to study the thermal stability and thermal decomposition of sweetener.
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Volume 34, número 4, 2009
Thermal stability and thermal decomposition of sucralose.
Gilbert Bannach1, Rafael R. Almeida2, Luis. G. Lacerda3, Egon Schnitzler2, Massao Ionashiro4*.
1Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP, CEP 17033-360, Bauru, SP, Brazil
2Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, UEPG, CEP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil.
3Universidade Federal do Paraná, UFPR, CEP 80060-000, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
4Instituto de Química, UNESP, C.P. 355, CEP 14801-970, Araraquara, SP, Brazil
Abstract: Several papers have been described on the thermal stability of the sweetener,
C12H19Cl3O8 (Sucralose). Nevertheless no study using thermoanalytical techniques was found
in the literature. Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA),
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy, have been used to study the
thermal stability and thermal decomposition of sweetener.
Keywords: Sucralose, thermal behavior, TG, DTA, DSC
1. Introduction
Nowadays, human beings are permanently
in contact with different compounds biologically
active. These are: medicaments, plant growth re-
gulators, active components of food additives as
antioxidants, sweeteners and many other com-
Escalating prevalence of worldwide obe-
sity and its correlation to other chronic diseases
has led to low calorie and sugar free products to
move into the main stream of food market. The
use of high potency sweeteners has emerged as a
major way of reducing calorie intake via complete
or partial replacement of calorie laden sucrose in
numerous food products [1].
The dietary options that such products pro-
vide may be especially helpful in the management
of obesity or diabetes mellitus [2]. Consumers
also often select such foods and beverages becau-
se they want the sweet taste without addition of
calories or because they want to reduce the risk of
tooth damage.
One group of sweeteners consists of non
caloric substances with a very intense sweet taste
that are used in small amounts to replace the swe-
etness of a much larger amount of sugar. The swe-
eteners of this type that are currently approved for
use in worldwide are acesulfame-K, aspartame,
neotame, saccharin, alitame, cyclamate, stevia/
steviol glycosides and sucralose [2].
A 2nd group of sweeteners consists of calo-
ric ingredients that can substitute both the physi-
cal bulk and sweetness of sugar. Products of this
type, sometimes called “sugar replacers” or “bulk
sweeteners,” include the sugar alcohols (also cal-
led “polyols”) sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, isomalt,
erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, hydrogenated starch
hydrolysates, and hydrogenated glucose syrups
Two new sweeteners, trehalose and tagato-
se, has similar functions to the polyols although
they are actually sugars rather than sugar alco-
hols. Polyols and other bulk sweeteners are used
in food products where the volume and texture of
sugar, as well as its sweetness, are important, such
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(4): 21 - 26, 2009
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(4): 21 - 26, 200922
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(3): 27 -31, 2009
as sugar-free candies, cookies, and chewing gum.
Many of these products are marketed as “diabetic
foods” [2].
Sucralose, (1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-
galactopyranoside), is a chlorinated sucrose deri-
vative with enhanced sweetness [3-5].
Sucralose was discovered by British rese-
archers in 1976 [1]. It is obtained from sucrose by
a process that replaces three hydroxyl groups by
three chlorine atoms the sucrose molecule (Fig.
Fig. 1: Structure of sucralose
Although sucralose is made from sugar, the
human body does not recognize it as a sugar and
does not metabolize it; therefore, it provides swe-
etness with no calories. Sucralose was approved
as a food additive in USA (1988), Canada (1991),
UK (2002), European countries (2005), followed
by others [2, 6]. It is potentially 600 times sweeter
than sucrose [2].
Sucralose is marketed for home use under
the brand name SPLENDA® Low Calorie Swee-
tener that also includes other concomitants and
is available under this name as table top granular
and tablet formats. The SPLENDA® brand will
also be seen to highlight the use of sucralose as an
ingredient in a growing range of low-energy foods
and beverages [5].
The use of heat-stable, high-intensity swe-
etener, such as sucralose, can result in signicant
improvements in the preparation of reduced-ca-
lorie sweet baked goods. In addition, sucralose
offers the aqueous and thermal stabilities required
for the preparation of consumer-acceptable, redu-
ced-calorie baked goods [7].
The present work deals mainly with the
thermal behavior and thermal decomposition of
sucralose, since no study using thermoanalytical
techniques was found in the literature.
2. Experimental
Sucralose with assay > 98.0% (HPLC - gra-
de), was obtained from Sigma and commercial su-
cralose (Viafarma, lot no 1080001) was acquired
in local drugstore (Araraquara – SP – Brazil), and
studied by thermoanalytical techniques.
Simultaneous thermogravimetry and diffe-
rential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) curves were
recorded on a model SDT 2960 thermal analysis
system from TA Instruments. The purge gas was
an air ow of 100 mL min-1 and a heating rate of
10°C min-1 was adopted, with samples weighing
about 5mg. Alumina crucibles were used for re-
cording the TG-DTA curves.
DSC curves were recorded using a DSC 60
(Shimadzu) under an air ow of 100 mL min-1,
heating rate of 10°C min-1 and aluminum crucibles
with perforated cover.
The attenuate total reectance infrared
spectra were recorded on a Nicolet iS10 FT-IR
(Thermo Scientic) an ATR accessory with Ge
3. Results and Discussion
The simultaneous TG-DTA curves of the
sucralose from sigma (HPLC grade) and Via-
farma (commercial product) are shown in Fig. 2
and 3, respectively. A close similarity is obser-
ved in the TG proles of these samples, however
signicative differences are observed in the DTA
curves, above 250°C. These curves also show that
the both samples are stable up to 119°C and above
this temperature the thermal decomposition oc-
curs in three steps up to 550°C.
The rst step that occurs between 119 and
137°C, corresponding to a sharp endothermic
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(4): 21 - 26, 2009 23
peak at 132°C in both samples is attributed to the
thermal decomposition of the compound with los-
ses of 2 H2O (water of constitution) together with
1 HCl (Calcd = 18.10%; TG= 18.0%). The last
two steps observed between 160-370°C and 370-
550°C, that occur through overlapping ones with
total mass loss, corresponding to the exotherm
with two peaks at 360°C and 500°C (Sigma) or a
single exothermic peak at 360°C (Viafarma), are
attributed to the oxidation of the organic matter.
The loss of constitution water and hydrogen
chloride in the rst step were conrmed through
an experiment with samples of sucralose heated in
a tube glass up to 140°C as indicated by the TG-
DTA curves.
In this experiment, the condensation of wa-
ter in the tube glass wall was observed, and test
with pH indicator (Merck) showed pH=1. The
presence of chloride ions in the condensed water
was conrmed through a test with AgNO3/HNO3
During the heating of the sucralose in a hot
plate up to 140°C, the darkening of the sample
was observed showing that the thermal decompo-
sition occurs without melting. This observation is
in agreement with TG-DTA data and in disagree-
ment with the melting point (130°C) reported in
the literature [1, 3, 4].
This mistake was attributed to the fact that
the authors of these references did not based their
data on thermal analytical results. The TG-DTA
curves clearly revels that the sharp endothermic
peak is associated with mass loss, and can’t be as-
sociated with melting of the material.
Therefore the use of sucralose in backed
goods as in the case of cookies that are baked at
a temperature of 210oC or graham crackers usu-
ally baked at a temperature of 230oC as described
in reference [7], seem to be unsuitable since the
thermal decomposition occurs at 119oC with libe-
ration of constitution water and HCl.
A close similarity is also observed in the
DSC curves of the samples from Sigma and Via-
farma, therefore only the DSC curve of the sucra-
lose from Sigma is shown in Fig. 4, which was
obtained up to 250°C due to the elimination of
hydrogen chloride during the thermal decomposi-
tion as already conrmed by the tests previously
described. This curve shows a sharp endothermic
peak at 128°C, corresponding to the rst mass
loss observed in the TG curve. The disagreement
between the peaks temperatures observed in the
DSC or DTA curves, undoubtedly is because the
TG-DTA and DSC curves were obtained in enou-
gh different conditions.
Due to similarity between the reectance
infrared spectra of both sucralose samples, only
the reectance infrared spectra of sucralose from
Sigma as received and heated up to 130oC are sho-
wn in Fig. 5.
The infrared spectra showed signicant
structural changes between the sample before
and after heating, as can be seen in Fig. 5, where
the appearance or disappearance of several peaks
are observed. As an example the peak observed
at 1711 cm-1 attributed to the carbonyl stretching
frequency appeared after heated the sample is up
to 130ºC.
These results are in agreement with the
TG-DTA and DSC curves, indicating that the en-
dothermic peak at 131oC (DTA) or 128oC (DSC) is
not due to the melting, but is related to the thermal
decomposition of the sucralose, with releasing of
constitution water and hydrogen chloride.
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(4): 21 - 26, 200924
0100 200 300 400 500 600
Mass loss / %
Temperature / °C
DTA / °C mg
Exo up
Fig. 2: TG and DTA curves of HPLC grade sucralose. (mi = 7.195 mg).
0100 200 300 400 500 600
Mass loss / %
Temperature / ºC
DTA / µV mg
Exo up
Fig. 3: TG and DTA curves of technical grade sucralose. (mi = 5.174 mg).
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(4): 21 - 26, 2009 25
050 100 150 200 250
Heat flow / µV
Temperature / ºC
Exo up
Fig. 4: DSC curve of HPLC grade sucralose (mi = 3.004 mg).
Fig. 5: Infrared spectra of: (a) Sucralose (HPLC grade) at room temperature; (b) Sucralose (HPLC grade)
heated up to 130oC.
Ecl. Quím., São Paulo, 34(4): 21 - 26, 200926
4. Conclusion
The TG-DTA and DSC data allowed us to
verify that the sucralose is thermally stable up to
119oC and above this temperature the thermal de-
composition takes place in three steps up to 550oC
and without melting. The endothermic peak at
131°C (DTA) and 128°C (DSC) is due to the ther-
mal decomposition with release of constitution
water and hydrogen chloride.
The infrared spectra also conrm that the
thermal decomposition occurs above 119oC in di-
sagreement with the literature data.
The authors acknowledge FAPESP for the
nancial support and Prof. Dr. Marco Aurélio da
Silva Carvalho Filho, for permitting the use of his
DSC equipment from Shimadzu.
[1] G. E. Morlock, S. Prabha. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007)
[2] M. Kroger, K. Meister, R. Kava. Compr. Rev. Food Sci.
Food Saf. 5 (2006) 35-47.
[3] M. J. O`Neil, (Ed.) et al. The Merck Index. 13rd ed. Whi-
thouse Station, 2001, pp. 8965.
[4] The United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Material
Safety Data Sheet: Sucralose. Rockville. Catalog number:
1623626, 2006.
[5] N. M. Binns. Br. Nutr. Found. Nutr. Bull. 28 (2003) 53-
[6] H. C. Grice, L. A. Goldsmith, Food Chem. Toxicol. 38
(2000) S1-S6.
[7] R. L. Barndt, G. Jackson, Food Technol. 44 (1990) 62-66.
... Sucralose is a semi-synthetic derivative of sucrose and one of the most successful artificial sweeteners (Binns, 2003). It is non-toxic (Goldsmith, 2000), has good water solubility and fair chemical and thermal (up to around 119 • C) stability (AlDeeb, Mahgoub, & Foda, 2013;Bannach, Almeida, Lacerda, Schnitzler, & Ionashiro, 2009). It is also around 400-1000 times sweeter than its precursor (Wiet, Ketelsen, Davis, & Beyts, 1993). ...
Surface active agents derived from the non-toxic sweetener sucralose and fatty acids of different chain length were synthesized. Obtained compounds were characterized chemically and with regard to their properties as emulsifying agents, antimicrobial preservatives and fat-soluble sweeteners. Results show that sucralose-fatty acid esters are possible multi-purpose additives, compatible with both cosmetic and edible emulsions, as well as purely oil-based, waterless formulations. Their relative effectiveness in those applications varies, and is highly dependent on the fatty acid chain length, with hydrophobic/hydrophilic character strongly impacting both emulsifying and antimicrobial properties. While the structural differences between sucrose and sucralose proved to be enough to push all of the newly synthesized compounds out of the detergent/solubilizer category of surfactants, the retention of the substrate’s high sweetness is an indication that non-bitter compounds with washing capabilities are possible to obtain.
... Extracts, dried leaves or industrially purified Stevia compounds are widely employed as sweeteners in the food industry and claimed to be healthy as they are derived from a natural source. However, there are still some concerns about the safety of some sweeteners, as they can be added to foods that are processed at high temperatures, such as cookies, bread and all sorts of baked goods, which may result in undesirable interactions or decomposition [8][9][10][11]. In this regard, there are various studies found in the literature that deals with the stability of steviol glycosides in solution under different pH and temperatures. Although previous studies investigated the stability of Stevia-based sweeteners in solid state, it was performed only with the pure stevioside compound [8] and/or possible decomposition products were not identified [12]. ...
The thermal behavior of two commercially available sweeteners based on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni was studied by TG–DSC and EGA. The composition prior and after heating was analyzed by LC–MS/MS to identify the steviol glycosides present in each formulation and thermal degradation products, respectively. The two formulations (S1 and S2) presented thermal stability up to at least 200 °C. By DSC, it was possible to identify the presence of rebaudioside (REB) C and REB A in S1. S2 was composed mainly by erythritol (confirmed by both DSC and FTIR), REB A and E. By LC–MS/MS analyses, it was possible to observe that S1 is composed mainly by stevioside and REB A, E, C and B, and that the major products formed after heating are, basically, partially deglycosylated steviol structures. The thermal decomposition products were different depending on the formulation employed. These chemical changes in the compounds’ properties can cause a change in the desired taste and solubility of the formulations.
... According data of table 1, sucralose has sufficient solubility in water, low caloric content and zero glycemic index. The melting point allows sucralose to be stable during heat treatment in a wide pH range [9][10][11]. This sweetener is almost 600 times sweeter than sucrose. ...
Full-text available
The article presents the results of developing technology for the production of curd cake using a low-calorie sweetener sucralose. An analysis of literary sources has shown the relevance of developing food technologies with lower calories and glycemic index as a preventive measure in the fight against an increase in diabetes. The implementation of this direction in the form of a partial replacement in the sugar formulation for effective sweetenrs sucralose is proposed. The obtained integral quality estimates of sugars and sucralose at the levels of 0.82 and 0.60, respectively, using qualimetric analysis on five characteristics allowed us to conclude in favor of the predominant use of sucralose. The optimization of the technology for the production of curd cake using sugar substitute sucralose was carried out. As a prototype, a sugar-based recipe was used, in which a partial replacement (at the level of 30, 50 and 70%) of sugar with sucrose was carried out. The latter was used as a commercial sweetener TM Splenda. All samples, including the control on sugar, were subjected to organoleptic evaluation, which showed the absence of extraneous flavors in all samples and their similarity in terms of sweetness. However, unsatisfactory indicators were found for the sample with a replacement of 70%, we are talking about the color and characteristics of the crumb. This made it possible to opt for technology with sugar substitution in the range of 30-50%. All investigated samples of curd cake in terms of organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters met the requirements of regulatory documentation. Based on the results obtained, a technological scheme for the production of curd cake with sucralose was developed. Calculation of the energy value of the obtained product in comparison with the control sample on sucrose showed a decrease in the calorie content of the product by 10%. The results are important for the development of technology foods for people with diabetics.
... Since it is important to understand the thermal behavior of these compounds not only in aqueous solution but also in solid state, thermoanalytical techniques have also been used in order to elucidate the thermal behavior of food additives in general [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] and some antioxidants in particular [10]. Reda [16] studied thermal stability of BHA, BHT and TBHQ using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. ...
Thermal behavior of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), widely used as antioxidants in industry and as food additives, was studied using TG/DTG/DTA and DSC, hot stage microscopy and DRX techniques, looking for a meticulous thermal characterization of these substances. The results revealed that the compounds underwent melting followed by evaporation, without decomposition under the conditions of analysis. BHA presented a solid-solid transition before melting. BHT revealed crystallization in different phases from the melting, on cooling or reheating, depending on using or not isothermal treatment after melting. TBHQ showed two events that suggested a cold crystallization, but only one solid phase could be identified by XRD analysis. Polymorphic transformations could be found on heating/cooling processes.
... Although originally thought to be thermally stable, several studies reported the degradation of sucralose at temperatures that are expected during cooking (Hutchinson, Ho, and Ho 1999;Dong et al. 2011Dong et al. , 2013. The effect of temperature on sucralose was studied by thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry techniques and showed that degradation of sucralose starts at temperatures as low as 120 C yielding hydrochloric acid (HCl) (Bannach et al. 2009;de Oliveira, de Menezes, and Catharino 2015). Furthermore, it has been shown that heating sucralose in the presence of glycerol in some food products leads to the formation of chloropropanols that have considerable toxicity (Rahn and Yaylayan 2010;Schiffman and Rother 2013). ...
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are appealing in part because of the many flavors of the liquids used in them. Concerns have been raised that some ECIG liquid flavors, especially those that are sweet, are attracting otherwise nicotine-naïve youth to ECIGs. Sucralose is an artificial, non-caloric sweetener that is added to some ECIG liquids. In this study, we evaluated the toxicants, namely isomers of chloropropanols that can be produced when sucralose-containing ECIG liquid is aerosolized. An analytical separation method relying on solid-phase extraction (SPE) to isolate chloropropanols from the propylene glycol/glycerol matrix was developed. Chloropropanols were then derivatized by silylation before they were analyzed on GC-MS. The influence of different ECIG operating conditions on the generation of chloropropanols was studied by varying ECIG device design and power output and also the sucralose concentration of the liquid. Heated sucralose-containing ECIG liquids produce two toxic compounds that can be found in the resulting aerosols. The two chloropropanols, 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD), and 1,3-dichloropropanol (1,3-DCP) that were detected under all conditions were found to be correlated significantly with liquid sucralose content. Effective regulation of ECIGs will minimize user and bystander exposure to these and other ECIG toxicants. Copyright © 2019 American Association for Aerosol Research
The search for equivalent flavoring sugar substitutes of a non-sugar nature is an urgent direction in the development of the technology of flour confectionery products. In the course of research, a gingerbread recipe has been developed with a partial replacement of the prescription sugar with a 15 % solution of sucralose in glycerin, which most closely correspond to the organoleptic characteristics (taste, smell, texture) of traditional flour confectionery products. The results of the organoleptic evaluation of coded prototypes of gingerbread with the involvement of experts have shown that a decrease in sugar concentration by 25 % does not lead to a statistically significant change in organoleptic parameters in comparison with control samples. Substitution of more than 30 % sugar leads to an increase in the plasticity of the dough complicating the operation of the dosing mechanisms; at the same time, the taste of the products changes (these changes are noted during the tasting assessment); their consistency becomes denser. In the process of research, the stability of the quantitative and qualitative properties of gingerbread during storage has been proved. Experimental samples of gingerbread with 25 % reduced sugar content retain all the indicators established by GOST for their storage for 90 days without statistically significant changes. The decomposition of sucralose in the manufacture of the dough is 0.1 %, in the baking process - 2.6 %, during storage for 120 days - 6.7 % (of the loaded product). The developed recipe allows enterprises to expand the range of confectionery products with reduced sugar content.
Objective: Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) have been widely implemented as replacements for naturally occurring sugars in a wide array of foods, beverages, and non-consumables for the sake of reducing calories. The use of these products, whether naturally occurring or manufactured, have become commonplace and accepted as de facto beneficial. This point argues that rigorous analysis of the available data do not confirm benefit and indeed suggest harm. Methods: A literature review was conducted on all the available NNS supplements that are commonly used in all types of products. There was a focus on studies that evaluated the long-term as well as neurohormonal effects of NNS products. Key words used in the search included artificial sweeteners, nonnutritive sweeteners, saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame, sucralose, stevia, xylitol, and erythritol. Results: There was a consistent trend of no to minimal benefit when NNS were used instead of calorie-containing sweeteners particularly in persons with obesity or pre-diabetes risks. There was a consistent finding of detriment to the neurohormonal regulation of satiety, weight, and energy regulation. The only studies that were neutral to positive were biased studies funded by the large food and beverage corporations or done in healthy weight individuals without any underlying health concerns and for a very short time frame. Conclusion: Although NNS usage has become ubiquitous, there has been very little in the way of rigorous review of the neurohormonal and physiologic effects. The arguments for NNS are purely thermodynamic in nature despite the overwhelming evidence that obesity and adiposity-related diseases are not that simplistic in their pathophysiology. Given that there are differences in how individuals process nutrition signals, very few studies focus on gender or disease predisposition differences and how they affect the outcomes when NNS are used. Studies that controlled these variables showed worsening outcomes when NNS products are used in the fight against adiposity-related diseases, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Alterations in the gut microbiome towards a more inflammatory pattern of gut microbiota is a disturbing finding in acute as well as chronic users of NNS regardless of baseline weight or disease. Most importantly, there were numerous studies that found long-term damage to the neurohormonal control of satiety in chronic users of NNS. In the fight against obesity and adiposity-related diseases, we cannot afford to blindly accept their usage based on a broken paradigm of thermodynamics and false assumptions that we are all created equal biologically.
Full-text available
Regulatory agencies around the world have found sucralose to be a safe ingredient for use in food. A recent review by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) hypothesized that sucralose use in foods heated during their manufacture might pose a health risk, by resulting in the formation of certain chlorinated compounds; specifically, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinateddibenzofurans (PCDFs) and/or free or bound 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD), some of which are considered potential carcinogens. The BfR further encouraged the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is in the process of conducting a staged re-evaluation of a range of food additives, including sucralose, to specifically address their hypothesis. This paper reports the results of new studies requested by EFSA to analyze for the presence of PCDDs, PCDFs and 3-MCPDs in a range of foods. As requested, foods were prepared with typical sucralose use levels and thermally processed under typical food processing conditions. The presence of the compounds of interest were analyzed using validated and accepted analytical methods (e.g. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS)). The results of these new analytical studies show no evidence for the formation of these compounds due to sucralose presence. This paper also reports a critical analysis of the studies cited in the BfR review as the basis for its hypothesis. This analysis shows that the cited studies do not represent food manufacturing conditions and are thus not reliable for predicting the fate of sucralose in foods. This work reaffirms that sucralose is safe for use in food manufacture, including when heating is required.
Full-text available
The article presents the results of developing technology for the production of curd cake using a low-calorie sweetener sucralose. The implementation of this direction in the form of a partial replacement in the sugar formulation for effective sweeteners sucralose is proposed. As a prototype, a sugar-based recipe was used, in which a partial replacement (at the level of 50%) of sugar with sucrose was carried out. Sucralose was formulated as the commercial sweetener TM Splenda, which contains maltodextrin and sucralose. All samples, including the control on sugar, were subjected to organoleptic evaluation, which showed the absence of extraneous flavors in all samples and their similarity in terms of sweetness compared to control. IR spectra of the sweetener, curd cake with sugar, as well as curd cakes with 50% and 100% sugar substitution for sweetener were obtained and analyzed. The analysis showed the presence of identical characteristic bands on the spectra of the sweetener and samples of sucralose cakes, which suggests that the sweetener TM Splenda does not undergo thermal degradation when baking curd cake. However, the literature analysis indicates the danger of the formation of toxic gaseous substances that are obtained during the thermal treatment of products with sucralose.
Sucralose is widely used as non-caloric intense artificial sweetener. It was previously considered to be thermally stable and safe. This was based on studies performed in the early 1990s. However, significant concerns have been raised more recently regarding the physicochemical stability of sucralose at high temperatures in the context of food processing. Over the last decades different independently performed studies indicated that sucralose is decomposed at high temperatures, e.g. through cooking. This – in turn – was considered to be associated with the formation of chlorinated potentially toxic compounds, such as chloropropanols and dioxins. In this review, the literature on thermal stability of sucralose and the generation of potentially toxic compounds was assessed and comparatively discussed. Considering the validity of published data, we conclude that sucralose can be degraded at high temperatures, e.g. during cooking or baking of sucralose-containing foods. As a consequence potentially toxic chlorinated compounds might be generated.
Sugar-free or reduced-sugar foods and beverages are very popular in the United States and other countries, and the sweeteners that make them possible are among the most conspicuous ingredients in the food supply. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the 5 low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the United States–acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, and sucralose. A controversial animal cancer study of aspartame conducted using unusual methodology is currently being reviewed by regulatory authorities in several countries. No other issues about the safety of these 5 sweeteners remain unresolved at the present time. Three other low-calorie sweeteners currently used in some other countries–alitame, cyclamate, and steviol glycosides–are not approved as food ingredients in the United States. Steviol glycosides may be sold as a dietary supplement, but marketing this product as a food ingredient in the United States is illegal. A variety of polyols (sugar alcohols) and other bulk sweeteners are also accepted for use in the United States. The only significant health issue pertaining to polyols, most of which are incompletely digested, is the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort with excessive use. The availability of a variety of safe sweeteners is of benefit to consumers because it enables food manufacturers to formulate a variety of good-tasting sweet foods and beverages that are safe for the teeth and lower in calorie content than sugar-sweetened foods.
Sucralose used as high potency sweetener in foods was determined in burfi, a milk-based confection produced in-house. Therefore planar chromatography was employed as a preferred method because of a reagent-free derivatization step. Sucralose was determined on HPTLC amino plates whose amino groups reacted with sucralose to fluorescent zones by just heating the plate after chromatography. Thus derivatization was simultaneously performed for 22 separations per plate, and with ease, over 300 runs can be performed within a day of labor. The within-run precision (%RSD) of sucralose determination in milk-based confection was 4.2% (n = 5), and the mean recovery 88% +/- 4.7% (n = 6). LOD via fluorescence measurement was 6 ng/band for standard solutions and 1 mg/kg for the milk-based matrix. According to European legislation, the limits for sucralose addition ranged between 10 and 3000 mg/kg for various foods and thus were fully met with this method. The fluorescence measurement at 366/>400 nm turned out to be slightly more robust and intense than the absorbance measurement at UV 254 nm. The stability of sucralose in milk-based confection was proved under the usual storage conditions at 5, 30, and 45 degrees C for up to 28 days. Potential hydrolysis products of sucralose caused by various modes of storing the confection were not observed up to 28 days.
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G. E. Morlock, S. Prabha. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 7217-7223.
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H. C. Grice, L. A. Goldsmith, Food Chem. Toxicol. 38 (2000) S1-S6.
The United States Pharmacopeial Convention
The United States Pharmacopeial Convention. Material Safety Data Sheet: Sucralose. Rockville. Catalog number: 1623626, 2006.
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R. L. Barndt, G. Jackson, Food Technol. 44 (1990) 62-66.