Risk Assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Water

University of Texas-Houston School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA.
Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology (Impact Factor: 3.74). 02/2009; 201:71-115. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0032-6_3
Source: PubMed


Pseudomonads are a large group of free-living bacteria that live primarily in soil, seawater, and fresh water. They also colonize plants and animals, and are frequently found in home and clinical settings. Pseudomonads are highly versatile and can adapt to a wide range of habitats, and can even grow in distilled water. This adaptability accounts for their constant presence in the environment. They have an extensive impact on ecology, agriculture, and commerce. They are responsible for food spoilage and degradation of petroleum products and materials. In agriculture, pseudomonads rank among the most important plant pathogens. In normal healthy humans, they are responsible for eye and skin diseases. They also cause serious life-threatening illnesses in burn and surgical patients and in immunocompromised individuals. Contamination of recreational waters and tap water has been associated with outbreaks of Pseudomonas; however, the relative role water plays in the transmission of this bacterium to humans is still unclear. The goal of this review is to assess existing literature on the potential risks associated with waterborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    • "Some members of the genus Pseudomonas are known for their beneficial role to plants, while others are used for bioremediation and as biocontrol agents (Ghyselinck et al., 2013; Haas and Défago, 2005; Scherwinski et al., 2008). In addition, some members play an important role as plant pathogens (Mansfield et al., 2012) or opportunistic animal and human pathogens (Gershman et al., 2008; Mena and Gerba, 2009). Thus, pseudomonads have an extensive impact on ecology , agriculture, and commerce. "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Pseudomonas plays an important role in the lettuce leaf microbiota and certain species can induce spoilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of Pseudomonas spp. on oak leaf lettuce and to follow their community shift during a six day cold storage with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. In total, 21 analysed partial Pseudomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences matched closely (> 98.3%) to the different reference strain sequences, which were distributed among 13 different phylogenetic groups or subgroups within the genus Pseudomonas. It could be shown that all detected Pseudomonas species belonged to the P. fluorescens lineage. In the culture-dependent analysis, 73% of the isolates at day 0 and 79% of the isolates at day 6 belonged to the P. fluorescens subgroup. The second most frequent group, with 12% of the isolates, was the P. koreensis subgroup. This subgroup was only detected at day 0. In the culture-independent analysis the P. fluorescens subgroup and P. extremaustralis could not be differentiated by RFLP. Both groups were most abundant and amounted to approximately 46% at day 0 and 79% at day 6. The phytopathogenic species P. salmonii, P. viridiflava and P. marginalis increased during storage. Both approaches identified the P. fluorescens group as the main phylogenetic group. The results of the present study suggest that pseudomonads found by plating methods indeed represent the most abundant part of the Pseudomonas community on oak leaf lettuce.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · International journal of food microbiology
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    • "M.S. Rodriguez-Alvarez et al. / International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 3 to common drinking and waste water disinfectants such as chlorine or chloramines, however, P. aeruginosa has a reputation for being resistant to some medical disinfection (Mena and Gerba, 2009). Giardia is an anaerobic flagellated protozoa capable of encystation , and known pathogenic hazard in warm blooded animals, including man (Erlandsen and Meyer, 1984) Clinical features could be from asymptomatic carriage to diarrhea, abdominal pain and rapid weight loss (Thompson, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Argentina is a developing Latin American nation that has an aim of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals for potable water supplies. Their current regulations however, limit the continued development of improved potable water quality and infrastructure from a microbiological viewpoint. This is since the current regulations are focused solely to pathogenic Eschericia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and fecal indicators. Regions of lower socioeconomic status such as peri-urban areas are particularly at risk due to lessened financial and political ability to influence their environmental quality and infrastructure needs. Therefore, a combined microbiological sampling, analysis and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) modeling effort were engaged for a peri-urban area of Salta Argentina. Drinking water samples from home taps were analyzed and a QMRA model was developed, results of which were compared against a general 1:10,000 risk level for lack of a current Argentinian standard. This QMRA model was able to demonstrate that the current regulations were being achieved for E. coli but were less than acceptable for P. aeruginosa in some instances. Appropriate health protections are far from acceptable for Giardia for almost all water sources. Untreated water sources were sampled and analyzed then QMRA modeled as well, since a significant number of the community (∼9%) still use them for potable water supplies. For untreated water E. coli risks were near 1:10,000, however, P. aeruginosa and Giardia risks failed to be acceptable in almost all instances. The QMRA model and microbiological analyses demonstrate the need for improved regulatory efforts for the peri-urban area along with improved investment in their water infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · International journal of hygiene and environmental health
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    • "often invades the host tissue and cause infection and bacteremia in immunocompromised hosts (e.g., HIV/AIDS, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, burns, malignancy, or diabetes mellitus)[5,6]. Infections also include endocarditis, osteomyelitis, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, meningitis, and, commonly, septicaemia[3,7,8]. Resistant Pseudomonas and coliform species is a public health problem that affects many countries of the world. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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