ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Nanotechnology-Based Cosmeceuticals

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry, and a number of topical cosmeceutical treatments for conditions such as photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and hair damage have come into widespread use. In the cosmeceutical arena nanotechnology has played an important role. Using new techniques to manipulate matter at an atomic or molecular level, they have been at the root of numerous innovations, opening up new perspectives for the future of cosmeceutical industry. Nanotechnology-based cosmeceuticals offer the advantage of diversity in products, and increased bioavailability of active ingredients and increase the aesthetic appeal of cosmeceutical products with prolonged effects. However increased use of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals has raised concern about the possible penetration of nanoparticles through the skin and potential hazards to the human health. This review outlines the different nanoparticles used in various classes of cosmeceuticals, nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical products present in the market, and the potential risk caused by nanoparticles on exposure and recent regulatory steps taken to overcome them.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
Review Article
Nanotechnology-Based Cosmeceuticals
Alka Lohani,1Anurag Verma,1Himanshi Joshi,2Niti Yadav,1and Neha Karki3
1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh 244102, India
2GRDInstituteofManagementandTechnology,Dehradun,Uttarakhand248009,India
3Institute of Biotechnology, Patwadangar, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263128, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Alka Lohani; alkalohani@gmail.com
Received  February ; Accepted  March ; Published  May 
AcademicEditors:T.MaischandT.J.Ryan
Copyright ©  Alka Lohani et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry, and a number of topical cosmeceutical treatments
for conditions such as photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and hair damage have come into widespread use. In the
cosmeceutical arena nanotechnology has played an important role. Using new techniques to manipulate matter at an atomic or
molecular level, they have been at the root of numerous innovations, opening up new perspectives for the future of cosmeceutical
industry. Nanotechnology-based cosmeceuticals oer the advantage of diversity in products, and increased bioavailability of
active ingredients and increase the aesthetic appeal of cosmeceutical products with prolonged eects. However increased use
of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals has raised concern about the possible penetration of nanoparticles through the skin and
potential hazards to the human health. is review outlines the dierent nanoparticles used in various classes of cosmeceuticals,
nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical products present in the market, and the potential risk caused by nanoparticles on exposure
and recent regulatory steps taken to overcome them.
1. Introduction
Cosmetics are dened by the FDA as “articles intended
tobeappliedtothehumanbodyoranypartthereoffor
cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering
the appearance” []. FDA does not have the legal authority
to approve cosmetics before they go on the market. However,
cosmetics must be safe for consumers and properly labeled.
Companies and individuals who market cosmetics have
a legal responsibility for the safety and labeling of their
products []. e word “cosmeceutical” is used to dene a
product that ts the niche between a drug and cosmetics [].
It is used in the professional skin care arena to describe a
productthathasmeasurablebiologicalactionintheskin,
likeadrug,butisregulatedasacosmeticsinceitclaimsto
aect appearance []. Cosmeceuticals are not categorized by
the FDA, but this term is used by skin scientists, physicians,
and skin care professionals, to encourage the consumers
to continue buying cosmetic products especially antiaging
and sunscreen products, marketed by many manufacturers
with scientic claims and natural positioning as a way to
emphasize that using these products is not only necessary
but also natural. Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing
segment of the personal care industry []. Cosmeceutical
formulations now have expanded from skin to body to
hair and a number of topical cosmeceutical treatments for
conditions such as photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles,
and hair damage have come into widespread use []. Recent
researches focusing on cosmeceutical products highlighted
strong growth perspectives in the coming years. According
to them expanding at a rapid compound annual growth rate
of .%, the global cosmeceutical market will reach .
billion by  []. e global cosmeceutical market oers
huge potential among the Asian countries, such as Japan,
China, and India which are set to attract major players in
the future. Japan has already made a remarkable position
in the global cosmetics market and its position in the
cosmeceutical segment is eectively improving []. A report,
Cosmeceuticalsmarketto,”forecastedthattheglobal
cosmeceuticals market will reach . billion by  [].
Among the technologies used to develop elegant and
eective cosmeceuticals, nanotechnology nds special place.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
ISRN Dermatology
Volume 2014, Article ID 843687, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/843687
ISRN Dermatology
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail Water insoluble drug carried in
hydrophobic region
Water soluble drug carried in
hydrophilic region
Protein bonded onto surface
can target the liposome
(a)
Atom cluste r
(b)
Lipid
Surfactant
(c)
Polymeric membrane
Active ingredient
Inner core
(d)
F : Dierent types of nanoparticles. (a): liposome showing a phospholipid bilayer surrounding an aqueous interior, (b): nanocrystal,
(c): solid lipid nanoparticle [], and (d): nanocapsule with dierent drug-loading modalities [].
In the cosmetic arena it is believed that the smaller particles
are readily absorbed into the skin and repair damage easily
and more eciently []. Incorporation of nanotechnology
in cosmeceuticals is aimed at making incense of perfumes
last longer, sunscreens to protect the skin, antiaging creams
to ght back the years, and moisturizers to maintain the
hydration of skin. Some of the nanotechnology-based inno-
vations are nanoemulsions (which are transparent and have
unique tactile and texture properties), nanocapsules (which
areusedinskincareproducts),nanopigments(thatare
transparent and increase the eciency of sunscreen prod-
ucts), liposome formulations (which contain small vesicles
consisting of conventional cosmetic materials that protect
oxygen or light sensitive cosmetic ingredients), niosomes,
nanocrystals, solid lipid nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes,
fullerenes, and dendrimers. e primary advantages of using
nanoparticles in cosmeceuticals include improvement in the
stability of cosmetic ingredients (e.g., vitamins, unsaturated
fatty acids, and antioxidants) by encapsulating within the
nanoparticles; ecient protection of the skin from harmful
ultraviolet (UV) rays; aesthetically pleasing products (e.g., in
mineral sunscreens, using smaller particles of active mineral
allows them to be applied without leaving a noticeable white
cast); targeting of active ingredient to the desired site and
controlled release of active ingredients for prolonged eect
[,].
2. Nanoparticles in Cosmeceuticals
2.1. Liposomes. Bangham published the rst paper on lipo-
somesin,anditwasintheearlysthatMezei
and Gulasekharam reported the ecacy of liposomes in
topicaldrugdelivery[,]. Liposomes are spherical, self-
closed vesicles of colloidal dimensions, in which phospho-
lipid bilayers sequester part of the solvent, in which they
freely oat, into their interior (Figure ). Liposomes typically
vary in size between  nm and a few hundred micrometers
[]. Liposomes are used in a variety of cosmeceuticals
because they are biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic,
and exible vesicles and can encapsulate active ingredients
easily. Liposomes have an ability to protect the encapsulated
drug from external environment and are suitable for delivery
of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds []. ese
characteristics make them ideal candidate for the delivery
of vitamins and other essential molecules to regenerate the
epidermis []. One of the main ingredients of liposome is
Phosphatidylcholinewhichhasbeenusedinskincareprod-
ucts (moisturizer, lotions, creams, etc.) and hair care products
ISRN Dermatology
(shampoo, conditioner) due to its soening and conditioning
properties. Several active ingredients (e.g., vitamins A, E, and
K) and antioxidants (e.g., Carotenoids, lycopene, and CoQ)
have been incorporated into liposomes which increases their
physical and chemical stability when dispersed in water.
Lipophilic compounds such as cholesterol and ceramides
have been used in topical skin creams for many years, because
theyarethelipidsfoundinnormalskintissue,andareeasily
incorporated into liposomes to improve skin hydration and
tomaketheskintexturesoerandsmoother.“Capture”was
therstliposomalantiageingcreamlaunchedbyDiorin
[].
2.2. Nanocapsule. e potential dermatological use of nano-
capsules was investigated when the rst nanocapsule-based
cosmetic product was launched by the French company
L’Oreal in  in order to improve the impact of their
cosmetics []. e term nanocapsule is used for vesicular
systems that are made up of a polymeric membrane in which
an inner liquid core is encapsulated at the nanoscale level
( nm to  nm) (Figure )[].
2.3. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles. Solid lipid nanoparticles
(SLNs) (Figure ) are submicron colloidal carriers whose size
ranges from  to  nm and are composed of physio-
logical lipid, dispersed in water or in aqueous solution of
surfactant []. SLNs are popular in cosmeceuticals because
of various advantages: these are composed of physiologi-
cal and biodegradable lipids that exhibit low toxicity; the
small size of SLNs ensures close contact with the stratum
corneum and increases the penetration of active ingredients
through the skin; SLNs provide occlusive properties that
result in increased skin hydration []. e products Nano
Repair Q cream and Nano Repair Q Serum (Dr. Kurt
Richter Laboratorien GmbH, Berlin, Germany) introduced
to the cosmetic market in October  revealed the success
of lipid nanoparticles in the antiageing eld []. It has
been found that SLNs possess characteristics of physical
UV blockers on their own, thus oering the choice for
developing a more eective sunscreen system with reduced
side eects []. In an in vivo study it has been shown
that skin hydration increases by % aer  weeks by the
addition of % SLNs to a conventional cream []. SLNs
are also advantageous as topical vehicle for perfumes. By
incorporating perfumes/fragrances in SLNs, the release can
be slowed down to provide prolonged eect [].
2.4. Nanocrystals. Nanocrystals are aggregates composed of
several hundreds to thousands of atoms that combine into
aclusterandareinthesizerangeofnmused
for the delivery of poorly soluble actives (Figure )[].
Nanocrystals appeared rst in the cosmeceutical market in
 by Juvena with the product Juvedical having rutin [].
In a study it was observed that, compared to the water-soluble
rutin glucoside (rutin with attached glucose), the nanocrystal
formulation of original rutin molecule possesses  times
higher bioactivity []. A rutin nanosuspension with %
rutin as nondissolved nanocrystals was applied to the skin
of human volunteers and compared to a % solution of a
water-soluble rutin glucoside regarding photoprotection of
the skin. In the aqueous nanosuspension, the solubility of
rutinwastimeslowerascomparedtothewater-soluble
derivative. It was observed that, despite the  times lower
concentration of dissolved rutin in the water phase of the
nanocrystal suspension, the nanosuspension was about %
more eective in photoprotection and the concentration of
activesformulatedasnanocrystalsintheskinweremuch
higher compared to water-soluble derivative or using the
active in normal powder form.
2.5. Dendrimers. Dendrimers are organic chemical entities
with a semipolymeric tree-like structure (Figure ). e ter-
minals of the branches provide a rich source of nanoparticles
surface functionality. eir dimensions are extremely small,
having diameters in the range of  to  nm []. Dendrimers
are an exciting new class of macromolecular architecture
and an important component in the area of nanotechnology-
based cosmeceuticals to treat varieties of skin conditions.
LOreal, Unilever, and e Dow Chemical Company have
several patents for the application of dendrimers in hair care,
skin care, and nail care products []. A patent on cosmetic
formulation containing carbosiloxane dendrimer claimed
that it can provide good water resistance, sebum resistance,
glossiness, tactile sensation, and/or adhesive properties to the
hair and/or skin [].
2.6. Nanogold and Nanosilver. Gold and silver nanoparticles
have been studied as a valuable material in cosmeceuti-
cal industry for their strong antibacterial and antifungal
properties. ese particles are widely used in cosmeceutical
products like deodorant, face pack, antiaging cream, and
so forth. An ointment containing silver nanoparticle was
claimed to have antibacterial activity and can be used for
skin inammation and skin wound disinfection []. A
study conducted by French scientist Dr. Philippe Walter
and his team, published in ACS Nanoletters, describes the
synthesis of uorescent gold nanoparticles inside human
hair. It involved soaking white hairs in a solution of a gold
compound. e hairs turned pale yellow and then darkened
to a deep brown. Using an electron microscope, the scientists
conrmed that the particles were forming inside the hair’s
central core cortex. e color remained even aer repeated
washings [].
2.7. Cubosomes. Cubosomes are discrete, submicron, nanos-
tructured particles of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline
phase (Figure )[]. Recent research activities on the use
of cubosome in personal care product areas varied from
skin care to hair care and antiperspirants. e number
of researches in association with cosmetic companies like
L’Oreal and Nivea is trying to use cubosome particles as
oil-in-water emulsion stabilizers and pollutant absorbents in
cosmeceuticals [].
2.8. Niosomes. Niosomes are nonionic surfactant vesicles
devised by using nonionic surfactants (Figure )[].
ISRN Dermatology
Drug or
chemical
group
Drug
G0
G1
G2G3G4
(a)
Hydrophilic
drug
drug
Hydrophobic
(b)
Ligand
Hydrophilic head
Hydrophobic tail
Bilayer
Hydrophobic drug
Hydrophilic drug
(c) (d)
F : Dierent types of nanoparticles. (a): dendrimer with its dierent drug-loading modalities, (b): cubosome and its membrane
composition with dierent drug-loading modalities. (c): niosome and its internal synthetic surfactant surrounding drug, and (d): fullerene
[].
ese vesicles possess high entrapment eciency, improved
chemical stability, and enhanced penetration, as well as lower
production cost as compared to liposomes. In morphology, a
niosome is a nanostructure with  nm to 𝜇mindiameter,
whose center is an aqueous cavity enveloped by layers of
nonionic surfactant in lamellar phase []. ese have been
evaluated as vesicular carriers for variety of drugs and cos-
metics topically. Niosomes are found to be ecient in topical
delivery of active ingredients as they can enhance residence
timeoftheactiveingredientsinthestratumcorneumaswell
as epidermis and also reduce the system absorption []. By
using niosomes, targeted delivery can also be achieved as the
active ingredient is directly delivered to the specic site where
therapeutic eect is desired [].
2.9. Fullerene. Other nanoscale materials such as carbon
fullerene have been used in some cosmetic products because
of their antioxidative properties. ey display potent scaveng-
ing capacities against radical oxygen species and they have
been considered for their use in the preparation of skin reju-
venation cosmeceutical formulations []. ese structures
are comprised of carbon rings and contain odd-numbered
(likePentagonandheptagon)carbonrings,conferringathree
dimensional spherical shape []. ese structures have thus
been called fullerenes or “Bucky Balls” (Figure ). Fullerenes
are highly hydrophobic and thus are not soluble in aqueous
solutions, which initially limited their applications, but the
use of surfactants or surface modications has increased the
ability of fullerenes to solubilize in water and brought more
attention to their potential pharmaceutical uses [].
3. Major Classes of Nanocosmeceuticals
3.1. Moisturizers. Stratum corneum is the primary barrier
oftheskinwhosemainpurposeistokeepinsideinand
outside out. Water from the stratum corneum gets evaporated
quickly leading to dehydration. is dehydration of skin can
be averted by using moisturizers which provide exibility to
theskin.Whenmoisturizersareappliedtotheskin,athin
ISRN Dermatology
(a) Hair before treatment (b) Hairaertreatment
F : Eect of sericin nanoparticles on hair cuticle. Increased hair gloss (b) obtained in damaged hair (a) aer treating with sericin
nanoparticles [].
lm of humectant is formed which retains moisture and gives
better appearance to the skin. Liposomes, nanoemulsions,
SLNs are widely used moisturizing formulations because of
their prolonged eects. ese are considered to be the most
useful product for the management of various skin conditions
(e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and pruritus).
3.2. Sunscreens. Sunscreens are widely used to protect the
skin from harmful eects of sun rays on exposure. Zinc oxide
(ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2)arethemosteective
approved mineral-based ingredient which protects the skin
from sun damage. is mineral forms a materialistic barrier
on the skin, reects UVA and UVB rays from penetrating
down to the deeper layers of skin, and is less irritating [].
e main drawback of traditional or conventional sunscreen
isthat,whenapplied,itleavesawhitechalkylayeronthe
skin []. is is where nanoparticles come in. Improved
sunscreens are just one of the many innovative uses of
nanotechnology. Sunscreen products using nanoparticles of
ZnO or TiO2are transparent, less greasy, and less smelly and
have increased aesthetic appeal.
3.3. Antiaging Products. Chemical products, pollution, stress,
irradiation from infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sources,
and abrasion are involved in skin aging. Collagen plays an
important role in skin rejuvenation and wrinkle reversal
eect. e quantity of collagen in the skin decreases along
with age. e aging of the skin manifests itself in many
ways: drying out, loss of elasticity and texture, thinning,
damaged barrier function, appearance of spots, modica-
tionofsurfacelineisotropy,and,nally,wrinkles.Most
ofthecosmeceuticalshavebeendevelopedwithclaimsof
antiwrinkle and rming, moisturizing and liing, and skin
toning and whitening activity. Antiaging products are the
main cosmeceuticals in the market currently being made
usingnanotechnology.LOrealhasemployednanotechnology
in products such as Revitali antiwrinkle cream which
contains nanosomes of Pro-Retinol A, and claims that it
instantly retautens the skin and reduces the appearance of
wrinkles []. Application of retinol can increase epidermal
water content, epidermal hyperplasia, and cell renewal while
enhancing collagen synthesis []. Retinol also interferes
with melanogenesis and inhibits matrix metalloproteinases,
which are involved in collagen breakdown. e clinical
benets include a reduction in the appearance of ne lines
and wrinkles and lightening of lentigines []. Lancˆ
ome
introduces Hydra Zen Cream to renew the skin’s healthy look
which contains nanoencapsulated Triceramide [].
3.4. Hair Care. Hair care is another promising eld for
nanotechnology. Companies are using nanotechnology in
hair care products and research is ongoing to discover the
ways of how nanoparticles can be used to prevent hair loss
and to maintain shine, silkiness, and health of hairs. Unlike
ordinary hair straightening products nanoemulsion in hair
cosmetics does not destroy the outer structure of the hair
bers, called cuticles, to penetrate into the hair strands [].
Sericin (composed of cationic sericin nanoparticles) is an
active area of hair cosmeceuticals. Studies have shown that
sericin nanoparticles in hair cosmeceuticals easily adhere
tothesurfaceofhairsealandtreatthedamagedcuticles
(Figure )[].
3.5. Skin Cleanser. e skin is covered with a hydrolipid
lm that, depending on the area of the body, comprises
secretions from sebaceous glands and from apocrine and
eccrine sweat glands. Decomposition products from corneo-
cytes and cornication (cellular debris and stratum corneum
lipids) in the process of being shed are also present. is
lm provides a natural defense against pathogenic organisms
but also attracts dirt and pollutants from the environment.
Sometimes the microorganisms present on the skin surface
act on components of the surface lm and create undesirable
by-products, such as those resulting from the metabolism of
ISRN Dermatology
compounds found in apocrine sweat that create body odor
[]. us, periodic cleansing to remove debris, dirt, and
odor is essential to maintain skin health. Cleansing is also
necessarytoremovesoil(whichmayincludebacteria)from
the skin surface that is acquired by incidental contact or by
intentional application (medications or makeup and other
cosmetic products). Silver nanoparticles are used as skin
disinfectant and decontamination. Nano Cyclic Inc. produces
Nano Cyclic cleanser pink soap which is a scientically
balanced blend of nanosilver and natural ingredients and
claims that it kills harmful bacteria and fungi, ghts acne, and
diminishesagespotsandsundamagedskin[].
3.6. Lip Care. Lip care is another promising class of cosme-
ceuticals. Dierent nanoparticles can be incorporated into
lipstick and lip gloss which will soen or soothe the lips
by preventing transepidermal water loss. Korea Research
Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology holds a patent that
described that it is possible to prepare pigments exhibiting
wide range of colors using gold or silver nanoparticles by
mixing in various compositional ratios and whose color
canbemaintainedforalongperiodoftime[]. Silica
nanoparticles used in lipsticks improve the homogenous
distribution of pigments. Once applied, they prevent the
pigments from migrating or bleeding into the ne line of lips
[].
3.7. Nail Care. Nanotechnology-based nail cosmeceuticals
have various advantages over conventional products. A study
revealed that nail paints having nanosized particles improve
toughness, mar resistance, and impact resistance of the
mammalian nails []. Nano Labs Corp. (a nanotechnology
research and development company) was awarded a pro-
visional patent for its original nanonail polish and lacquer
having advantages that it dries to a very hard state, resists
shock, cracking, scratching, and chipping and its elasticity
oers superior ease of application without cracking []. One
of the new strategies which may have great potential in the
cosmeceuticals is the incorporation of nanoparticles having
antifungal activity (like silver and metal oxide nanoparticles)
in nail polish to treat fungal toenail infections.
A review on various nanotechnology-based cosmeceuti-
cal products in the market and patents have been tabulated in
Tables and .
4. Exposure to Nanoparticles
Industrial use of nanoparticles has created new opportunities,
butitalsopresentssomerisksanduncertainties.Increasing
production and use of nanomaterials results in an increasing
number of workers and consumers exposed to nanomate-
rials. is shows that there is greater need for information
on their exposure routes. Human routes of exposure to
nanoparticles are inhalation, ingestion, and dermal routes
[]. Inhalation is the most common route of exposure to
airborne nanoparticles []. Workers may inhale nanoparti-
cles while production or consumers may inhale on the use
of aerosolized cosmeceuticals (deodorant, perfumes, etc.).
e deposition of nanoparticles in the respiratory system
depends on their interactions with respiratory epithelium
membrane. Nanoparticles may travel via the nasal nerves to
the brain (transsynaptic transport aer inhalation through
the olfactory epithelium) and gain access to the nervous
system []. Because of their size, these nanoparticles can
easily gain access to the blood stream inhalation or skin
and from there they are transported to the various organs
[]. Ingestion may occur from unintentional hand to mouth
transfer of nanoparticles or from those cosmeceuticals that
are applied near mouth or lips (e.g., lip color, lip gloss). Large
fractions of nanoparticles rapidly pass out of the body aer
ingestion, but a small fraction may be taken up by the body
which migrates into the dierent organs []. e other route
of exposure of nanoparticles into the systemic circulation is
dermal absorption. Majority of cosmeceuticals are applied to
the skin. ree pathways of penetration across the skin have
been identied: intercellular, transfollicular, and transcellular
[].
5. Skin Penetration of Nanoparticles
eskinisthelargestorganofthebody.Humanskinismade
up of three layers (Figure ): the epidermis (the outermost
layer of skin), the dermis (contains tough connective tissue,
hair follicles, and sweat glands), and the hypodermis (made
up of fat and connective tissue). e epidermis is divided into
several layers and its outermost layer, the stratum corneum,
is responsible for the barrier function of the skin due to its
lipophilicity and high cohesion between cells []. Passive
routes by which a molecule can cross the stratum corneum are
intercellular, transcellular, and appendageal routes (Figure )
[].
A variety of cosmeceutical products having nanopar-
ticlesareinthemarketthatareappliedtotheskinand
concerns have been raised regarding the potential dangers
which may occur on their skin penetration. e transport
ofnanoparticlesthroughtheskinisrelatedtothenature
and physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles and
vehicles, the nature of the substance, and the conditions of the
skin []. Nanoparticles can be divided into two groups: ()
soluble and/or biodegradable nanoparticles (e.g., liposomes
and nanoemulsion); () insoluble and/or nonbiodegradable
nanoparticles (e.g., TiO2, fullerenes, and quantum dots).
Dermal absorption of nanoparticles does not occur readily
but can take place under certain conditions. Although cos-
metic products are meant to be used on normal skin, it is
known that they are also applied on nonhealthy skin. In such
conditions the barrier properties of skin may be impaired.
Most of the study reported that nanoproducts applied to the
skin only penetrate through hair follicular openings and skin
pores, with minimal amount being found below the stratum
corneum [].
Research on the fate of these nanoparticles when applied
to mammalian skin by employing laser scanning confocal
microscopy to see whether uorescently tagged particles (
to  nm) were absorbed into the skin showed that nanopar-
ticles contacting intact or partially damaged skin cannot
ISRN Dermatology
Epidermis
Dermis
Hair follicle
Sweat glands
Hypodermis
Fat
Connective tissue Blood vessels
F:Humanskinlayers.
Penetration pathways through
stratum corneum (closeup)
Intracellular pathway Intercellular pathway Follicular pathway
Intracellular
Intercellular
Fibroblast
e langerhans cells
Dermic dendritic cell
Melano cyte
Desmosome
Tight junction
Keratinosome
Odland body
Top i c al
formulation
Stratum
corneum
Viab le
epidermis
Dermis
Elastin and
collagen bers
pathway
pathway
F : Skin penetration pathways (intracellular, intercellular, and follicular) by which a molecule can cross the stratum corneum [].
ISRN Dermatology
T : Various nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical products in the market.
Product Proposed use Manufacturer Marketing claims
Hydra Flash Bronzer Daily
Face moisturizer Moisturizer Lancˆ
ome
Nanocapsules of pure vitamin E provide powerful
antioxidant protection. A light touch of
self-tanner ensures a natural, healthy glowing
skin.
Hydra Zen Cream Moisturizer Lancˆ
ome
Containing Nanoencapsulated Triceramides,
Hydra Zen helps restore perfect comfort and
soness and renew skin’s healthy look. Protected
from signs of daily stress and fully hydrated, your
skin is beautifully so and smooth all day long.
Nano-In Hand and Nail
Moisturizing Serum and
Foot Moisturizing Serum
Moisturizer Nano-Innity
Nanotech
Fine crystals of ZnO nanoparticles will go straight
into skin tissue to prevent hand and nails from
being hurt and restore skin health
Lancˆ
ome Renergie
Microli Antiwrinkle Lancˆ
ome
Formulated with colloidal silica and soy protein
nanoparticles to provide the closest possible
face-li eect.
RevitaLi Anti-Wrinkle
and Firming Face and Neck
Contour Cream
Antiwrinkle LOreal
e Revitali formula is enriched with
Pro-Retinol A, a powerful antiwrinkle agent,
which is encapsulated in nanosomes. Nanosomes
penetrate deep into the epidermis to work at the
heart of wrinkles.
Revitali Double Liing Antiwrinkle LOreal
It contains nanosomes of Pro-Retinol A.
RevitaLi Double Liing is a unique dual action
treatment that instantly retightens skin and
eectively ghts wrinkles.
Eye Tender Antiwrinkle Kara Vita
It contains nanospheres, delivers  bioactives
including proven, wrinkle-reducing peptides to
stimulate broblasts, build collagen, brighten
skin, and reduce inammation for a younger,
healthier appearance.
Eye Contour Nanoli Antiwrinkle
Antiaging Euoko
It is based on nanocapsules technology. Liing
nanocapsules join seven other immediate and
long-term ghters of ne lines, wrinkles, and
puness. It provides instant and long-term
smoothness, gives the eye area more radiance, and
diminishes the appearance of dark circles and
puness.
Soleil So-Touch
Anti-Wrinkle Sun Cream
SPF 
Antiwrinkle
sunscreen Lancˆ
ome
It contains vitamin nanocapsules which help to
preserve skin’s youth eectively. SPF  oers
optimal protection against the sun. It contains
exclusive ingredients to guarantee a long-lasting
eect.
Nano Gold Firming
Tre a t m e nt Antiaging Chantecaille
Innitely small nanoparticles of pure gold are
bound to silk microbers to rm and tone skin,
while delivering incredible anti-inammatory,
healing, and age defying power.
Nanosphere Plus Antiaging DermaSwiss
A stem cells revolutionary antiaging therapy
Nanosphere Plus serum has been specially
formulated to allow natural stem cells to preser ve
and protect skin cells. Using the cells from a rare
Swiss apple (Uttwiler Spatlauber), Nanosphere
Plus protects longevity and combats chronological
aging.
Zelens Fullerene C-
Night Cream Antiaging Zelens
Fullerene C- is a naturally occurring
microscopic form of carbon which was found to
have remarkable antioxidant properties.
ISRN Dermatology
T : C o n t i n u e d .
Product Proposed use Manufacturer Marketing claims
Clearly It! Complexion
Mist Antiacne Kara Vita
is nanosphere technology-based product
tackles acne conditions and balances sebum
production. Nanosphere time-released bioactives
stimulatecapillaryactivityforall-daydetoxifying
results.
DiorSnow Pure UV Base
SPF  Sunscreen Dior
Contains nano-UV lters for ultraprotection
against the damaging eects of UVA and UVB
rays.
Soleil Instant Cooling Sun
Spritz SPF 
Sun
protection
spray
Lancˆ
ome
Contains vitamin nanocapsule. Instant cooling
sun spray SPF  immediately oers a sensation of
freshness. SPF  provides optimal protection
against the sun.
Fresh As A Daisy Body
Lotion Body lotion Kara Vita is lotion uses nanospheres to quickly penetrate,
moisturize, and nourish all types of skin.
Cosil Nano Beauty Soap Cleanser Natural
Korea
Silver nanoparticles are highly eective as
disinfectant and guarantee protection of skin.
Cosil Whitening Mask Face mask Natural
Korea
Made with nanocolloidal silver used for the eect
of getting rid of germs from your face,
compressing pores, soothing the skin condition,
and keeping your skin radiant and so.
Nanorama—Nano Gold
Mask Pack Face mask LEXON
NanoTech
It contains pure nanosized gold that is highly
eective in penetrating small pores and
disinfecting skin, helps to reduce pore size, and
prevents and treats acne. It is well known that
nanogold is very eective disinfectants.
Primordiale Optimum Lip Lip treatment Lancˆ
ome
Delivers % botanically pure vitamin E via
nanocapsule technology to reduce lip bleeding
and feathering due to ne lines and wrinkles.
Lip Tender Lip
moisturizer Kara Vita
Ten bioactive ingredients are precisely calculated
to work within lyphazomes, delivering a -in-
formula and bringing long-lasting hydration for
fast and dramatic lip repair.
Nano Cyclic Cleanser Silver Cleanser Nano Cyclic
Cyclic cleanser is a scientically balanced blend of
nanosilver and natural ingredients. It kills
harmful bacteria and fungi, treats acne, exfoliates
dead skin on all parts of the body, diminishes age
spots, deodorizes the body, and ghts wrinkles.
LifePak Nano Face gel Pharmanex
LifePakNanoisanutritionalantiagingprogram
formulated to nourish and protect cells, tissues,
and organs in the body with the specic purpose
of guarding against the ravages of aging.
Nanoencapsulation increases bioavailability
coenzyme Q by – times.
penetrateskinbarrieranddonotreachtheviablecellsofthe
epidermis or beyond and hence proved that the nanotopical
delivery systems are useful and safe for cosmeceuticals [].
In a study on dermal absorption of ZnO nanoparticles from
sunscreen applied to humans at the beach, Gulson et al.
revealed that zinc from ZnO particles in sunscreen penetrates
healthy skin and is observed in blood and urine. Whether the
Zn was present as particles or soluble Zn ion was unknown
at that stage []. A review on the use of nanoparticles in
personal care products done by the Environmental Working
Group, a US-based NGO, concluded aer peer review of
more than  documents that: “zinc and titanium-based
formulations are among the safest, most eective sunscreens
on the market based on available evidence” and of  studies
on skin absorption, “nearly all showing no absorption of
smallscale zinc and titanium sunscreen ingredients through
healthy skin” []. e controversy has intensied, with
numerous studies reporting that they do not cross the skin
barrier,whilstothersleadustosuspectnewriskstohumans,
though without any of them providing a denitive answer. A
review of percutaneous absorption studies of TiO2and ZnO
nanoparticles has been shown in Table  [].
Continued research is required to evaluate the behavior
of nanoparticles, including whether the nanoparticles remain
 ISRN Dermatology
T : Patent review on nanotechnology-based cosmeceuticals.
Title Publication number Publication date Applicant
Cosmetic composition containing retinol
stabilized by porous polymer beads and
nanoemulsion
EP A April ,  Act Co., Ltd
Multiactive microtargeted antiaging
skincream polymer technology EP  April ,  NY Derm LLC
Semipermanent mascara and method of
applying US A March ,  Cry Baby Culture
Topically administered, skin-penetrating
glycosaminoglycan formulations suitable
for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical
applications
US A March ,  Eva Turley
Biodegradable, biocompatible, and
nontoxic material sheets consisting of
said material and the use thereof in food,
pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and cleaning
products
US A February ,  Inis Biotech LLC
Metal oxide nanocomposites for UV
protection US A January ,  BASF SE
Oil-in-water-type emulsion sunscreen
cosmetic composition US A January ,  Tomiko Takakura
Synthetic collagen threads for cosmetic
uses including skin wrinkle treatments
andassociatedmethods
US A January ,  Rebeccah Brown
Deodorant composition WO A August ,  Ilios Srl
Preparation of cationic nanoparticles and
personal care compositions comprising
said nanoparticles
EP A December ,  BASF SE
Gel technology suitable for use in
cosmetic compositions US A October ,  Avon Products, Inc.
Nanocrystals for use in topical cosmetic
formulations and thereof method of
production
EP A September ,  Abbott GmbH & Co.KG
Nanodiamond UV protectant
formulations US A September ,  International Technology Center
Nanoparticle compositions providing
enhanced color for cosmetic formulations USA July ,  Avon Products, Inc.
Nanocomposite pigments in a topical
cosmetic application WO A July ,  Avon Products, Inc.
Cosmetic pigment composition
containing gold or silver nanoparticles EP A April ,  Korea Research Institute of
Bioscience and Biotechnology
Antimicrobial silver compositions WO A March ,  Acry Med, Inc.
Long-lasting coatings for modifying hard
surfaces and processes for applying the
same
US B October ,  e Proctor & Gamble Company
Nail polish compositions comprised of
nanoscale particles free of reactive groups US A October ,  Martinez Francisco
Use of nanoscale deodorants EP B June ,  Cognis Deutschland GmbH &
Co.KG
Cosmetic compositions comprising
nanoparticles and processes for using the
same
US A March ,  Danuvio Carrion
Acontrolleddeliverysystemforhaircare
products WO A August ,  Salvona LLC
Antimicrobial body care product WO A December ,  Bernhard Hanke
ISRN Dermatology 
T : Research studies done on percutaneous absorption of TiOand ZnO nanoparticles.
Test material Skin model Particle size Results Reference
TiO2Dermatomed skin
– nm,
(noncoating),
– nm (alu-
mina/silica/silicon
coated), and – ×
 nm (mixture of
alumina and silicon
coated)
No penetration was observed
regardless of TiO2type in intact
and stripped skin. SEM-EDS
observation showed that Ti
penetrated into vacant hair
follicles (greater than  mm
below the skin surface); however
it did not penetrate into dermis
and viable epidermis.
[]
TiO2Human skin in vitro  nm
Penetration in restricted to the
topmost corneocyte layers in the
stratum corneum. No
penetration into living skin was
observed.
[]
TiOalone or in
combination with ZnO Human skin (biopsy)  nm
TiOor ZnO nanoparticles are
absent or their concentration is
too low to be tested under the
stratum corneum in human
viable epidermis. erefore,
signicant penetration towards
the underlying keratinocytes is
unlikely.
[]
TiO2in a sunscreen
formulation
Human skin in vitro and
human subjects  nm
Results showed penetration is
limited to upper layers of stratum
corneum. No penetration in skin
furrows or follicular opening
may be mistaken for penetration
in the epidermal compartment.
[]
TiO2Human skin in vitro  nm to  nm
Results showed penetration of
particlesintotheupperlayersof
stratum corneum. No
penetration into living skin.
[]
TiO2in various
formulations Pig skin in vitro Needles:  to  nm
× to 
Particles on/in the stratum
corneum; minimal penetration
into stratum granulosum. No
penetration into living skin.
[]
TiO2Human subjects (biopsy)  nm to  nm
Results showed particles in the
upper layers of stratum corneum.
About % of particles in the
follicle ostium. No penetration
into living skin.
[]
TiO2and ZnO Human skin in vitro TiO2:tonm
ZnO:  to  nm
Results showed that penetration
is limited to upper layers of
stratum corneum.
[]
on the surface of skin and/or stratum corneum or absorbed
into the blood stream to reach dierent organs.
6. Toxicity of Nanoparticles
Nanoparticles from various cosmeceutical products applied
on skin can have toxic eects if reaching to blood stream.
A research on toxicity of TiO2nanoparticles demonstrated
that when nano-sized TiO2administered subcutaneously to
pregnant mice, they transferred to the ospring and result
in brain damage and reduced sperm production in male
ospring []. Various researches have shown that TiO2
nanoparticles can produce free radicals and cause cell toxicity
in test tube studies, when exposed to UV light [,]. Stud-
ies have shown that cobalt-chromium nanoparticles (. nm
in diameter) can destroy human broblast cells across an
intact cellular barrier. If nanoparticles are inhaled and eaten
accidentallyorabsorbedthroughskin,theycouldcauseskin
and lung damage and organ toxicity or can harm unborn
children []. Silver nanoparticles are used in cosmeceuticals
fortheirantimicrobialactivity.Concentrationofsilverthat
is lethal for bacteria is also lethal for both keratinocytes
and broblasts []. e cosmeceutical industry debates
that consumer risks are low, as there is no evidence that
 ISRN Dermatology
nanoparticles from the product penetrate healthy, intact adult
skin.
7. Recent Advances in
Nanoproduct Regulation
Recently USFDA has published an Import Alert -, for
skin care products labeled as antiaging creams []. is is
because there are numerous skin care products in the market
which claim that the products counteract, retard, or control
the aging process. According to USFDA, A claim such as
“molecules absorb and expand, exerting upward pressure to
li wrinkles upward” is a claim for an inner structural change
thatwouldusuallycauseaproducttobeadrug.FDAhas
stated such claims are illegal on cosmetic labeling.
IntheEuropeanUnion(EU),thenewCosmeticProd-
ucts Regulation / attempts to go some way in
addressing concerns over nanomaterials. According to this
regulation all ingredients present as nanomaterials must be
indicated on the package, from July , , with the word
“nano” []. e format distinguishes a nanoparticle with
the sux “nano,” so TiO2becomes TiO2-nano [,]. e
regulation also requires that all marketed cosmetics and
sunscreens using nanoparticles be individually tested for
safety. Cosmetic products containing nanomaterials must be
notied by electronic means to the commission, providing
data on identication, specication, quantity, toxicological
prole, safety data, and foreseeable exposure conditions. Such
notication must occur six months before a cosmetic product
containing nanomaterials is placed on the market [].
8. Conclusion
Growthofcosmeceuticalindustryisincreasingdaybydayas
the cosmeceuticals market is highly diversied, with products
coming from major and small manufacturers and local
companies around the world. Nanotechnology represents the
key technologies of the twenty-rst century, oering excellent
opportunities for both research and business. e rapid
spread and commercialization of nanotechnology in cosme-
ceuticals have given rise to great technical and economic
aspirations but also question about the emerging risks to
health and safety of consumers. us, cosmeceutical products
basedonnanotechnologyshouldbedesignedandsoldin
a way that fully respects the health of consumers and the
environment.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that there is no conict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
References
[] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Is it a cosmetic, a drug,
or both? (Or is it soap?),” http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/gui-
dancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/ucm.htm.
[] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Cosmetics Q&A: FDAs
Authority,http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ResourcesForYou/
Consumers/CosmeticsQA/ucm.htm.
[] M.H.Fulekar,Nanotechnology: Importance and Application,IK
International Publishing House, New Delhi, India, .
[] S. Mukta and F. Adam, “Cosmeceuticals in day-to-day clinical
practice,Journal of Drugs in Dermatology,vol.,no.,pp.s
s, .
[] “Cosmeceuticals: Products and Global Markets,http://www
.bccresearch.com/market-research/advanced-materials/cosme-
ceuticals-global-markets-avma.html.
[] F. S. Brandt, A. Cazzaniga, and M. Hann, “Cosmeceuticals:
current trends and market analysis,Seminars in Cutaneous
Medicine and Surgery,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] RNCOS E-Services Pvt. Ltd., “Global cosmeceuticals market
outlook ,http://www.giiresearch.com/report/rnc-
global-cosmeceuticals-marketoutlook.html.
[] GBI Research, “Cosmeceuticals market to —Technological
advances and consumer awareness boost commercial
potential for innovative and premium-priced products,
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports//cosme-
ceuticals market to  technological.
[] R.Singh,S.Tiwari,andJ.Tawaniya,“Reviewonnanotechnol-
ogy with several aspects,International Journal of Research in
Computer Engineering and Electronics,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] M. N. Padamwar and V. B. Pokharkar, “Development of vitamin
loaded topical liposomal formulation using factorial design
approach: drug deposition and stability,International Journal
of Pharmaceutics,vol.,no.-,pp.,.
[] L. Mu and R. L. Sprando, “Application of nanotechnology in
cosmetics,Pharmaceutical Research,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] P. Ekambaram, A. A. H. Sathali, and K. Priyanka, “Solid
lipid nanoparticles: a review,Scientic Reviews & Chemical
Communications,vol.,pp.,.
[] D. Bei, J. Meng, and B.-B. C. Youan, “Engineering
nanomedicines for improved melanoma therapy: progress
and promises,Nanomedicine,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] A. D. Bangham, “Physical structure and behavior of lipids and
lipid enzymes,Advances in Lipid Research, vol. , pp. –,
.
[] M. Mezei and V. Gulasekharam, “Liposomes - a selective drug
delivery system for the topical route of administration. I. Lotion
dosage form,Life Sciences, vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] I. P. Kaur and R. Agrawal, “Nanotechnology: a new paradigm
in cosmeceuticals,Recent Patents on Drug Deliver y & Formula-
tion,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] D. D. Lasic, “Novel applications of liposomes,Trend s i n
Biotechnology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. C. M ¨
uller-Goymann, “Physicochemical characterization of
colloidal drug delivery systems such as reverse micelles, vesicles,
liquid crystals and nanoparticles for topical administration,
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics,vol.
,no.,pp.,.
[]F.S.Poletto,R.C.R.Beck,S.S.Guterres,andA.R.
Pohlmann, “Polymeric nanocapsule: concepts and applica-
tions,” in Nanocosmetics and Nanomedicines: New Approaches
for Skin Care,R.Beck,S.Guterres,andA.Pohlmann,Eds.,pp.
–, Springer, Berlin, Germany, .
[] P. Kothamasu, H. Kanumur, N. Ravur et al., “Nanocapsules: the
weapons for novel drug delivery systems,BioImpacts,vol.,no.
, pp. –, .
ISRN Dermatology 
[] J.Pardeike,A.Hommoss,andR.H.M¨
uller, “Lipid nanoparticles
(SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products,
International Journal of Pharmaceutics,vol.,no.-,pp.
, .
[] R. H. M ¨
uller,R.D.Petersen,A.Hommoss,andJ.Pardeike,
“Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic dermal prod-
ucts,Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] S. A. Wissing, K. Mader, and R. H. Muller, “Solid lipid
nanopartices (SLN) as a novel carrier system oering prolonged
release of the perfume Allure (Chanel),” in Proceedings of the
InternationalSymposiumonControlledReleaseofBioactive
Materials,vol.,pp.,Paris,France,.
[] Z.Mei,Q.Wu,S.Hu,X.Li,andX.Yang,“Triptolideloaded
solid lipid nanoparticle hydrogel for topical application,Drug
Development and IndustrialPharmacy,vol.,no.,pp.,
.
[] E. B. Souto and R. H. M¨
uller, “Cosmetic features and applica-
tions of lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC),International Journal
of Cosmetic Science,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. M. Keck and R. H. M¨
uller, “Drug nanocrystals of poorly
soluble drugs produced by high pressure homogenisation,
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics,vol.
,no.,pp.,.
[]J.Sakamoto,A.Annapragada,P.Decuzzi,andM.Ferrari,
Antibiological barrier nanovector technology for cancer appli-
cations,Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery,vol.,no.,pp.
, .
[] R. Petersen, “Nanocrystals for use in topical cosmetic for-
mulations and method of production thereof,” US Patent US
A. February .
[] “Dendrimers & Dendrons: Facets of Pharmaceutical Nanotech-
nology, Drug-Dev Newsletter, http://www.kellerfoundation
.com/ME/dirmod.asp?sid=BECCCEADEF-
BDBC&nm=Back+Issues&type=Publishing&mod=Publica-
tions%A%AArticle&mid=FAFBEF-
F&tier=&id=BBADAABEAADFE.
[] F. Tournihac and P. Simon, “Cosmetic or dermatological topical
compositions comprising dendritic polyesters,” U.S. Patent
,,, September .
[] H. Furukawa and T. Limura, “Copolymer having carbosiloxane
dendrimer structure, and composition and cosmetic containing
the same,” U.S. Patent A, October .
[] Y. Lin and L. Yan, “Broad spectrum anti-bactericidal ointment
nano.,” CN Patent. CN  A. March .
[] “First synthesis of gold nanoparticles inside human hair for
dyeing and much more,http://www.nanowerk.com/news/
newsid=.php.
[] S.Hyde,A.Andersson,K.Larssonetal.,e Language of Shape,
Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, st edition, .
[] S. C. Kimmes and C. Feltin, “Cosmetic composition comprising
an oil and a polymer both bearing a hydrogen-bond-generating
joining group, and cosmetic treatment process,” European
Patent A, April .
[] A. Ribier and B. Biatry, “Cosmetic or dermatologic oil/water
dispersion stabilized with cubic gel particles and method of
preparation,” European Patent B, May .
[] H. Albrecht and J. Schreiber, “Hair care products with dis-
perse liquid crystals exhibiting the cubic phases,” W.O. Patent
A, May .
[] J. T. Simonnet, O. Sonneville, and S. Legret, “Nanoemulsion
based on phosphoric acid fatty acid esters and its uses in the
cosmetics, dermatological, pharmaceutical, and/or ophthalmo-
logical elds,” U.S. Patent  B, August .
[]S.Anisha,S.P.Kumar,G.V.Kumar,andG.Garima,
Approaches used for penetration enhancement in transdermal
drug delivery system,International Journal of Pharmaceutical
Sciences,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] A. Sankhyan and P. Pawar, “Recent trends in noisome as vesic-
ular drug delivery system,Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical
Science,vol.,pp.,.
[] M. Lens, “Use of fullerenes in cosmetics,Recent Patents on
Biotechnology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, R. F. Curl, and R. E.
Smalley, “C60: Buckminsterfullerene,Nature,vol.,no.,
pp.,.
[] C. Cusan, T. Da Ros, G. Spalluto et al., “A new multi-charged
C60 derivative: synthesis and biological properties,European
Journal of Organic Chemistr y, no. , pp. –, .
[] M. D. Carmen, V. Pereda, A. Polezel et al., “Sericin cationic
nanoparticles for application in products for hair and dyed hair,
U.S. Patent , June .
[] T. G. Smijs and S. Pavel, “Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide
nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and eective-
ness,Nanotechnology, Science and Applications,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] T. Faunce, “Exploring the safety of nanoparticles in Australian
Sunscreens,” International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience
and Nanotechnology,vol.,pp.,.
[] LOreal Paris, http://www.lorealparisusa.com/en/Products/
SkinCare/Moisturizers/RevitaLi-Anti-Wrinkle-Firming-Day-
Cream-SPF-.aspx.
[] Z. D. Draelos, “Retinoids in cosmetics,Cosmetic Dermatology,
vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. M. Choi and D. S. Berson, “Cosmeceuticals,Seminars in
Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery,vol.,no.,pp.,
.
[] “e project on emerging nanotechnologies,http://ww w.nano-
techproject.org/inventories/consumer/browse/products//.
[] D. Ereno, “Well-grounded Beauty,” http://revistapesquisa
.fapesp.br/en////wellgrounded-beauty/.
[] K. Ertel, “Personal cleansing products: properties and use,” in
Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products,Z.D.Draelosand
L. A. aman, Eds., pp. –, Taylor & Francis, New York, NY,
USA, .
[] “Nanocyclic cleanser pink,http://www.nanocyclic.com/Prod-
uctDetails.asp?ProductCode=CY-P.
[] T.H.Ha,J.Y.Jeong,B.T.Y.H.Jung,andJ.K.Kim,“Cosmetic
pigment composition containing gold or silver nano-particles,
European Patent A, April .
[] P. J. L. Viladot, G. R. Delgado, and B. A. Fernandez, “Lipid
nanoparticle capsules.,” European Patent A, January
.
[] S. W. Amato, A. Farer, W. M. Hoyte, M. Pavlovsky et al., “Coat-
ings for mammalian nails that include nanosized particles,” U.S.
Patent /, August .
[] NanoLabs, http://nanolabs.us/press-releases/green-chemistry-
and-new-thinking-at-playas-nano-labs-ctle- receives-provi-
sional-patent-for-unique-nanotech-nail-polish/.
 ISRN Dermatology
[] G. Oberd¨
orster, E. Oberd¨
orster, and J. Oberd¨
orster, “Nan-
otoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of
ultrane particles,Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. ,
no.,pp.,.
[] C. S. Yah, G. Simate, and S. E. Iyuke, “Nanoparticles toxicity and
their routes of exposures,Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical
Sciences,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] J. A. B. Paul and P. F. S. Roel, “Toxicological characterization of
engineered nanoparticles,” in Nanoparticle Technology for Drug
Delivery,R.B.GuptaandU.B.Kompella,Eds.,pp.,
Tay lor & F r a n c i s , N e w Yo r k , N Y, US A ,  .
[] S.Raj,S.Jose,U.S.Sumod,andM.Sabitha,“Nanotechnologyin
cosmetics: opportunities and challenges,Journal of Pharmacy
and Bioallied Sciences,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] C. Buzea, I. I. P. Blandino, and K. Robbie, “Nanomaterials and
nanoparticles: sources and toxicity,” Biointerphases,vol.,pp.
MR–MR, .
[] H. A. E. Benson, “Transdermal drug delivery: penetration
enhancement techniques,Current Drug Delivery,vol.,no.,
pp.,.
[]M.-A.Bolzinger,S.Brianc¸on, J. Pelletier, and Y. Chevalier,
“Penetration of drugs through skin, a complex rate-controlling
membrane,Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science,
vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] G. Cevc and U. Vierl, “Nanotechnology and the transdermal
route. A state of the art review and critical appraisal,Journal
of Controlled Release,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] R. Toll, U. Jacobi, H. Richter, J. Lademann, H. Schaefer, and U.
Blume-Peytavi, “Penetration prole of microspheres in follicu-
lar targeting of terminal hair follicles,Journal of Investigative
Dermatology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[]S.J.Christopher,L.Campbell,L.R.Contreras-Rojasetal.,
“Objective assessment of nanoparticle disposition in mam-
malian skin aer topical exposure,Journal of Controlled
Release,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] B. Gulson, M. Mccall, M. Korsch et al., “Small amounts of zinc
from zinc oxide particles in sunscreens applied outdoors are
absorbed through human skin,Toxicological Sciences,vol.,
no. , pp. –, .
[] B. Gulson, M. McCall, L. Gomez, M. Korsch et al., “Dermal
absorption of Z nO particles from sunscreens applied to humans
at the beach,” in International Conference on Nanoscience and
Nanotechnology,Sydney,Australia,February.
[] M. Senzui, T. Tamura, K. Miura, Y. Ikarashi, Y. Watanabe, and
M. Fujii, “Study on penetration of titanium dioxide (TiO2)
nanoparticles into intact and damaged skin in vitro,” Journal of
Toxicological Sciences,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] T. Butz, “Dermal penetration of nanoparticles: what we know
and what we don’t. Cosmetic. Science Conference Proceedings,
Munich,S¨
OFW Journal,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[]P.Filipe,J.N.Silva,R.Silvaetal.,“Stratumcorneumisan
eective barrier to TiO2and ZnO nanoparticle percutaneous
absorption,” Skin Pharmacology and Physiology,vol.,no.,
pp.,.
[] A. Mavon, C. Miquel, O. Lejeune, B. Payre, and P. Moretto, “In
vitro percutaneous absorption and in vivo stratum corneum
distribution of an organic and a mineral sunscreen,Skin
Pharmacology and Physiology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] F. P¨
ucker,V. Wendel, H. Hohenberg et al., “e human stratum
corneum layer: an eective barrier against dermal uptake
of dierent forms of topically applied micronised titanium
dioxide,Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology,vol.
,no.,pp.,.
[]F.Menzel,T.Reinert,J.Vogt,andT.Butz,“Investigationsof
percutaneous uptake of ultrane TiO2particles at the high
energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION,Nuclear Instruments and
Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with
Materials and Atoms,vol.-,no.-,pp.,.
[] J. Lademann, H.-J. Weigmann, C. Rickmeyer et al., “Penetration
of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation
into the horny layer and the follicular orice,Skin Pharmacol-
ogy and Applied Skin Physiology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] A. S. Dussert and E. Gooris, “Characterisation of the mineral
content of a physical sunscreen emulsion and its distribution
onto human stratum corneum,International Journal of Cos-
metic Science,vol.,pp.,.
[] K. Takeda, K.-I. Suzuki, A. Ishihara et al., “Nanoparticles
transferred from pregnant mice to their ospring can damage
the genital and cranial nerve systems,Journal of Health Science,
vol. , no. , pp. –, .
[] R. Dunford, A. Salinaro, L. Cai et al., “Chemical oxidation and
DNA damage catalysed by inorganic sunscreen ingredients,
FEBS Letters, vol. , pp. –, .
[] S. Arora, J. M. Rajwade, and K. M. Paknikar, “Nanotoxicology
and in vitro studies: the need of the hour,Tox i c o l o g y and
Applied Pharmacology,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] W. H. De Jong and P. J. A. Borm, “Drug delivery and
nanoparticles: applications and hazards,International Journal
of Nanomedicine,vol.,no.,pp.,.
[] V. K. M. Poon and A. Burd, “In vitro cytotoxity of silver:
implication for clinical wound care,Burns,vol.,no.,pp.
–, .
[] U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Import Alert -,
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cms ia/importalert .html.
[] “Nanomaterials and the EU Cosmetics Regulation: Impli-
cations for Your Company,http://www.gcimagazine.com/
business/management/regulation/.html?pa.
[] “New EU Cosmetics Regulations:A Quick Guide for Busy
Formulators,” http://chemistscorner.com/new-eu-cosmetics-
regulations-a-quick-guide-for-busyformulators/.
[] N. Staord, “New nano rule for EU cosmetics. Royal society of
Chemistry,http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News//
November/.asp.
Submit your manuscripts at
http://www.hindawi.com
... The nano-sized particles are able to impart numerous important properties in topical applications. Firstly, the minuscule size of nanoparticles allows for a high surface area to volume ratio which enables greater exposure of active molecules per dose administrated to the stratum corneum [6]. Secondly, nanoparticles are able to improve the absorption through the skin along with sustained release in order to increase blood circulation time of the encapsulated compound and improve the delivery of the active ingredients to the targeted site [7]. ...
... Although the use of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals has been widely reported [4,6,[19][20][21], specific details focusing on nanoparticles in improving the efficacy of depigmenting active ingredients have yet to be reviewed. Herein, we provide a general overview on the use of nanotechnology and the advantages it brings in improving the efficacy of anti-hyperpigmentation compounds. ...
... Lipid-based nanoparticles include vesicular nanoparticles such as niosomes and liposomes [1]. These vesicular nanocarriers are spherical, in-closed vesicles that are made up of naturally self-assembly phospholipid bilayers or non-ionized synthetic amphiphilic lipids such as alkyl esters [6]. Liposomes range from 10 to 3000 nm, which is comparatively larger than niosomes which range from 10 to 100 nm. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperpigmentation is a common and major skin problem that affects people of all skin types. Despite the availability of various depigmentation active ingredients for skin hyperpigmentation disorder, none of them are completely satisfactory due to their poor permeability through the skin layer and significant toxicity, thereby causing severe side effects such as irritative dermatitis, erythema, itching, and skin flaking. Nanotechnology plays an important role in advancing the cosmeceutical formulation by improving the solubility, stability, safety, loading efficiency, and dermal permeability of the active ingredients. The aim of this review is to offer a comprehensive discussion on the application of various nanomaterials in improving cosmeceutical formulations used to treat hyperpigmentation. Focus is placed on elucidating the advantages that nanotechnology can bring to some common hyperpigmentation active ingredients such as hydroquinone, arbutin, kojic acid, azelaic acid, and retinoic acid to improve their efficacy in treating hyperpigmentation. Lastly, a total of 44 reported patents and articles of depigmenting compounds encapsulated by nanoparticles were filed and analyzed. Overall, lipid nanoparticles were found to be the most widely used nanomaterial in treating hyperpigmentation. Graphical abstract
... 84 uniform layers (films) on the skin. 200 Hence, NPs are frequently employed in the formulations of various cosmetic products in the cosmeceutical arena. There is a broad scope of nanotechnology in the cosmetic and dermatological industries, as the technology is used to manufacture multiple products, including toothpastes, soaps, perfumes, sunscreens, anti-wrinkle creams, moisturizers, skin cleansers, lipsticks, hair care products, and nail care products. ...
... Based on the size and functionality of NPs, they are classified into eight classes of product, namely, cubosomes, dendrimers, niosomes, nanogold, nanocrystals, nanosilver, nanocapsules, liposomes, and solid lipid nanoparticles. 200 Novel eco-friendly approaches for manufacturing metal NPs of Au, Ag and Pt are highlighted. 201 The approach is considered eco-friendly because they are produced through bio-factories like plants, fungi, bacteria, and yeasts cells. ...
... 205 There is extensive use of these nanoparticles in cosmetic products, including face packs, anti-aging creams, and deodorants. 200 It was stated by Gajbhiye and Sakharwade (2016) that the Ag-NPs are also used as preservatives in shampoos and toothpastes owing to their antibacterial action. Ag-NPs are biologically synthesized through Penicillium, which is an endophytic fungal genus. ...
Article
Full-text available
In today's time, nanotechnology is being utilized to develop efficient products in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The application of nanotechnology in transforming bioactive material into nanoscale products substantially improves their biocompatibility and enhances their effectiveness, even when used in lower quantities. There is a significant global market potential for these nanoparticles because of which research teams around the world are interested in the advancements in nanotechnology. These recent advances have shown that fungi can synthesize metallic nanoparticles via extra- and intracellular mechanisms. Moreover, the chemical and physical properties of novel metallic nanoparticles synthesised by fungi are improved by regulating the surface chemistry, size, and surface morphology of the nanoparticles. Compared to chemical synthesis, the green synthesis of nanoparticles offers a safe and sustainable approach for developing nanoparticles. Biosynthesised nanoparticles can potentially enhance the bioactivities of different cellular fractions, such as plant extracts, fungal extracts, and metabolites. The nanoparticles synthesised by fungi offer a wide range of applications. Recently, the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using fungi has become popular, and various ways are being explored to maximize nanoparticles synthesis. This manuscript reviews the characteristics and applications of the nanoparticles synthesised using the different taxa of fungi. The key focus is given to the applications of these nanoparticles in medicine and cosmetology.
... However, NF migration and dissolution studies in exposure-relevant formulations/products, with emphasis on potential changes in agglomeration/aggregation state and surface properties, would allow this gap to be filled. Some reviews on the dermal penetration of NFs, are available (Poland et al. 2007;Lohani et al. 2014;Marquart et al. 2020), including our recent review which has an emphasis on quantitative parameters (Gimeno-Benito et al. 2021). Lohani et al. (2014) reported that NF penetration was restricted to the uppermost layers of the stratum corneum. ...
... Some reviews on the dermal penetration of NFs, are available (Poland et al. 2007;Lohani et al. 2014;Marquart et al. 2020), including our recent review which has an emphasis on quantitative parameters (Gimeno-Benito et al. 2021). Lohani et al. (2014) reported that NF penetration was restricted to the uppermost layers of the stratum corneum. Poland et al. (2007) concluded that, despite many conflicting results, absorption of particles in the nano range through the skin is possible, although to a very low degree. ...
Article
Get access Share icon Skip to Main Content Log in | Register Search in: Nanotoxicology Latest Articles 0 Views 0 CrossRef citations to date 0 Altmetric Article Integrated approaches to testing and assessment for grouping nanomaterials following dermal exposure Exposure to different nanoforms (NFs) via the dermal route is expected in occupational and consumer settings and thus it is important to assess their dermal toxicity and the contribution of dermal exposure to systemic bioavailability. We have formulated four grouping hypotheses for dermal toxicity endpoints which allow NFs to be grouped to streamline and facilitate risk assessment. The grouping hypotheses are developed based on insight into how physicochemical properties of NFs (i.e. composition, dissolution kinetics, size, and flexibility) influence their fate and hazard following dermal exposure. Each hypothesis is accompanied by a tailored Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment (IATA) that is structured as a decision tree and tiered testing strategies (TTS) for each relevant question (at decision nodes) that indicate what information is needed to guide the user to accept or reject the grouping hypothesis. To develop these hypotheses and IATAs, we gathered and analyzed existing information on skin irritation, skin sensitization, and dermal penetration of NFs from the published literature and performed experimental work to generate data on NF dissolution in sweat simulant fluids. We investigated the dissolution of zinc oxide and silicon dioxide NFs in different artificial sweat fluids, demonstrating the importance of using physiologically relevant conditions for dermal exposure. All existing and generated data informed the formulation of the grouping hypotheses, the IATAs, and the design of the TTS. It is expected that the presented IATAs will accelerate the NF risk assessment for dermal toxicity via the application of read-across.
... The chemical sciences have also found application in cosmetics, leading to the experimental use of 'nonmaterials' in cosmetic formulation. According to studies, famous companies now use nanosized materials in their different products [9]. Since nanotechnology offers so many possibilities, ''it's a good idea to put it to use. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nanotechnology is the most trendsetting innovation in the 21st century. In this new technology, industries are also developing new formulations combined with nanotechnology. In the 'Nanocentury' nano and cosmetic are combined and developed cosmeceuticals like cream for wrinkling, hyperpigmentation, skin inelastic, and dehydration. We also know the history of cosmetics or their development from 4000 BCE to the 21st century. Such include also type of nanotechnology according to their particle size and uppermost use of bio cosmetics.
Chapter
Full-text available
Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology. In other words, myconanotechnology represents the green synthesis of nanoparticles using fungi. The field is recently gaining attention due to the simple, resource efficient, and ecofriendly nature of fungal biotechnology. Therefore, Myconanotechnology is at the core of cost-effective and sustainable solutions for many industrial processes. This volume provides readers at all academic levels with a broad background on some of the fastest developing areas in myconanotechnology. It is organised into two sections, A and B. Section A updates readers on several cutting-edge aspects of the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles through the use of fungi. Section B describes applications of myconanotechnology including: the management of bacterial and fungal diseases, pest control, among other applications in medicine and agriculture. The breadth of topics covered in the contents make this volume an informative resource on the field. Contributions are written by experts in industrial biotechnology, and include extensive references to published studies. This book is a timely reference for researchers, teachers and students, and all readers who are interested in new developments in industrial mycology and nanotechnology.
Chapter
Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology. In other words, myconanotechnology represents the green synthesis of nanoparticles using fungi. The field is recently gaining attention due to the simple, resource efficient, and ecofriendly nature of fungal biotechnology. Therefore, Myconanotechnology is at the core of cost-effective and sustainable solutions for many industrial processes. This volume provides readers at all academic levels with a broad background on some of the fastest developing areas in myconanotechnology. It is organised into two sections, A and B. Section A updates readers on several cutting-edge aspects of the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles through the use of fungi. Section B describes applications of myconanotechnology including: the management of bacterial and fungal diseases, pest control, among other applications in medicine and agriculture. The breadth of topics covered in the contents make this volume an informative resource on the field. Contributions are written by experts in industrial biotechnology, and include extensive references to published studies. This book is a timely reference for researchers, teachers and students, and all readers who are interested in new developments in industrial mycology and nanotechnology.
Article
Background: Cosmeceuticals are drugs, cosmetics, or a combination of both. Cosmeceuticals are personal care products that not only beautify but need to have healing, therapeutic, and disease-fighting characteristics. For decades, phytocompounds have been employed in cosmeceuticals and have shown promise in applications such as moisturizing, sunscreen, antiaging, and hair-based therapy. The inability of phytocompounds to easily penetrate through the skin and instability limit their usage in cosmetic products. This can be overcome by incorporating nanotechnology into cosmetic products for a more stable and long-lasting release. Nanotechnology's substantial impact on the cosmetics industry is due to the improved properties attained by particles at the nano scale, such as colour, solubility, and transparency. Liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, niosomes, and many varieties of nanoparticulate systems are commonly used in cosmetics. Safety concerns for the usage of nanomaterials in cosmeceuticals have been raised lately, hence causing the restriction on the use of nanomaterials by cosmetic companies and enforcing laws demanding thorough safety testing prior to market entry. Aim: This review focuses on the types of nanomaterials used in Phyto-cosmetics, along with the potential hazards they pose to human life and the environment, and what legislation has been enacted or can be enacted to address them. Methods: For relevant literature, a literature search was conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Nanotechnology, cosmeceuticals, herbal cosmetics, and other related topics were researched and evaluated in articles published between 2016 and 2022. Results: Herbal drugs provide a tremendous range of therapeutic benefits. And when nanoparticles were introduced to the personal care industry, the quality of the final product containing Phyto-compounds continued to rise. Unfortunately, because these nano components can permeate intact skin barriers and create unwanted consequences, this revolution comes with a slew of health risks. Conclusion: The cosmeceutical industry's expansion and growth in the application of herbal compounds, as well as the entrance of nanotechnology into the cosmeceuticals business, entail the urgent need for scientific research into their efficacy, safety profile, and use.
Chapter
The recent research progress in the area of nanoscience and photocatalysis technology has attracted considerable interest in cosmetic and personal care enterprises, a market that had been expected to experience a growth of USD 429.8 billion by 2022. In the class of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and beauty care products, metal oxides (MOs) are of particular importance due to their widespread features that can bring about concomitant changes to the traditional systems. The optoelectronic and photonic properties of MO nanoparticles (MONPs) are intrinsically explored for the development of cosmetic products, which can be projected to drive the market to reach USD 9.48 billion by 2025, at a CAGR (compound average growth rate) of 9.5%. MONPs are also projected to contribute to the global photocatalyst market, estimated to reach USD 4.58 billion by 2025 and USD 5.23 billion by the year 2027. With these merit of business expectations, it is, however, pertinent that MONPs employed in cosmetics and beauty products should be free from both inbuilt toxicity and uneven performance, considering the fact that NPs are not entirely safe, mainly rooted in the unintended and often negative side effects stemming from their biochemical interactions and varying physicochemical properties. Therefore, this chapter has tried to narrow its discussion to cover the recent innovative information about MONPs, starting from their fundamental properties and linking them with cosmetic-related applications, mechanisms involved, etc. Based on the construction strategies of functional nanomaterials, this book chapter further discusses the emerging MONP-based functional nanomaterials and their integrative photocatalytic sunscreen properties by focusing on their preparation, unique properties, and performances in addition to their physicochemical properties. Finally, the perspectives and current challenges of MONPs in future functional materials are further outlined with a view to gain a fundamental understanding of MO chemistry and biological interactions to underpin the use of MOs as next-generation nanoparticles for developing sustainable, reusable, nontoxic products and photocatalysts.
Article
Carp (Cyprinus carpio) has the potential which is not only consumed from flesh as an edible portion but it is also able to be utilized from waste. One of waste is the scales of the carp known potentially contain of collagens. Micro-collagen has been extensively applied in various fields which were health and cosmetics. The problem to find the supply of collagens from non-halal animal sources and prone to infectious diseases is the fundamental consideration of this research to be undertaken in order to discover alternative sources of them. It was aimed at production and characterization of micro-collagen by utilizing carp scales waste. The stages of the proximate test, deproteinization, extraction, analysis, and characterization were series of processes to acquire collagen. The extraction results found that the yield of collagen extracted from carp scales waste was 8.62% with a yellowish-white color. Physical characterization of collagen obtained was pH of 6.59. The maximum of UV absorption at a wave length of 268nm was originated from the structure of collagen fibrils with amide bonds of A, B, I, II, and III. Furthermore, the characterization of micro-collagen showed a particle size distribution from the smallest particles which was 668 – 1581nm with the highest intensity at a particle size of 1146 nm according to PSA analysis and corresponding with the morphology of micro-collagen through visualization using SEM. It indicates that the carp scales waste have the potential to be used as an alternative source to find supply micro-collagen.
Patent
Full-text available
A nanoemulsion, the oily globules of which have a number-average size of less than 100 nm, comprising a surfactant which is solid at a temperature of less than or equal to 45° C., which surfactant is chosen from esters of a fatty acid and of a sugar and ethers of a fatty alcohol and of a sugar, and at least one oil having a molecular weight of greater than 400, the ratio by weight of the amount of oily phase to the amount of surfactant ranging from 2 to 10. The nanoemulsion may be used for cosmetics and dermatological applications, in particular for moisturizing the skin and/or mucous membranes, as well as for treating the hair, and in the ophthalmological field, as an eye lotion for treating the eyes.
Article
Full-text available
This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac death. We show that possible adverse effects of nanoparticles on human health depend on individual factors such as genetics and existing disease, as well as exposure, and nanoparticle chemistry, size, shape, and agglomeration state. The faster we will understand their causes and mechanisms, the more likely we are to find cures for diseases associated with nanoparticle exposure. We foresee a future with better-informed, and hopefully more cautious manipulation of engineered nanomaterials, as well as the development of laws and policies for safely managing all aspects of nanomaterial manufacturing, industrial and commercial use, and recycling.
Article
Transdermal route of drug delivery is preferred over the other routes for administration of drugs as it has several additional advantages, to name a few, it is a non-invasive technique requiring less dosing frequency and abolishes the first pass metabolism. However, the drug is unable to permeate the skin barriers properly, so penetration enhancers are used to overcome this problem. The present review focuses on transdermal drug delivery system, the role of penetration enhancers and various techniques which are used to increase the penetration of drug through the skin.
Article
Over decades researchers are striving to use the drugs in an efficient manner to treat various diseases. The efficient use can be explained as reduced dose, reduced side effects, reduced dosage frequency, greater patient compliance and maximum concentration of the drug at the site of action so as to reduce the undue exposure to the entire body. The article focuses on various advantages of vesicular systems (niosomes) to develop the effective delivery system to achieve maximum effective concentration. Niosomes, nonionic surfactant vesicles with lamellar structure which may be unilamellar and multilamellar serve to be efficient in providing these required advantages. The bilayer structure of niosomes being amphiphillic in nature can be used to deliver hydrophilic drugs in its aqueous core and lipophilic drugs in the bilayer made up of surfactants. Various additives in niosomes include nonionic surfactant as film forming agent, cholesterol as stabilizing and rigidizing agent for the bilayer and various charge inducers which develop a charge on the surface of niosomes and stabilize the prepared formulation by the resulting repulsive forces. This article also comprises of various breakthroughs in niosomal delivery of drugs representing various classes. On the basis of above information, the niosomes have been thoroughly exploited for the drug delivery system and still offer scope for research on various drugs for their maximum therapeutic utilization in management and treatment of various dreadful diseases.
Article
Long-term chemical instability is an inherent characteristic of all retinoids, which readily degrade when exposed to oxygen and/or sunlight. The advent of new formulations and packaging techniques appear to have circumvented this obstacle, and over-the-counter (OTC) products containing retinol are now available for the rejuvenation of photodamaged skin. Once applied to the skin, retinol is protected from photodegradation by the epidermis, serum, and keratinocytes. The improvements in manufacturing and packaging of retinol have catapulted this agent into the antiaging armamentarium.
Article
Opinions of the usefulness of liposomes in various biotechnological applications range from unsubstantiated optimism to undeserved pessimism. This article reviews the background and development of liposomes, describes products that are commercially available and speculates optimistically about some future applications. The current deepening and widening of interest in liposomes in many scientific disciplines, and their application in medicine, immunology, diagnostics, cosmetics, ecology, cleansing and the food industry are promising novel breakthroughs and products.
Article
During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser irradiation, producing a remarkably stable cluster consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Concerning the question of what kind of 60-carbon atom structure might give rise to a superstable species, we suggest a truncated icosahedron, a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagonal and 20 hexagonal. This object is commonly encountered as the football shown in Fig. 1. The C60 molecule which results when a carbon atom is placed at each vertex of this structure has all valences satisfied by two single bonds and one double bond, has many resonance structures, and appears to be aromatic.