Laparoscopic treatment of colovesical fistulas due to complicated colonic diverticular disease: a systematic review
Colovesical fistulas originating from complicated sigmoid diverticular disease are rare. The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of this complication. The secondary aim was to determine the best surgical treatment for this disease. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between 1992 and 2012 in PubMed, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, Scopus, and Publish or Perish. Studies enrolling adults undergoing fully laparoscopic, laparoscopic-assisted, or hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for colovesical fistula secondary to complicated sigmoid diverticular disease were considered. Data extracted concerned the surgical technique, intraoperative outcomes, and postoperative outcomes based on the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group's template. Descriptive statistics were reported according to the PRISMA statement. In all, 202 patients from 25 studies were included in this review. The standard treatment was laparoscopic colonic resection and primary anastomosis or temporary colostomy with or without resection of the bladder wall. Operative time ranged from 150 to 321 min. It was not possible to evaluate the conversion rate to open surgery because colovesical fistulas were not distinguished from other types of enteric fistulas in most of the studies. One anastomotic leak after bowel anastomosis was reported. There was zero mortality. Few studies conducted follow-up longer than 12 months. One patient required two reoperations. Laparoscopic treatment of colovesical fistulas secondary to sigmoid diverticular disease appears to be a feasible and safe approach. However, further studies are needed to establish whether laparoscopy is preferable to other surgical approaches.
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