The utility of lecture note-taking is well documented, with most studies dedicated to understanding how to maximize the benefits of note-taking. Far less attention has been focused on understanding the cognitive processes that underlie note-taking and how the benefits of note-taking vary with individual differences in the ability to carry out these processes. One cognitive ability that has been hypothesized to be important for note-taking is working memory: the ability to temporarily store and manipulate limited amounts of information. The current paper addresses why working memory is important for lecture note-taking and reviews studies that have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory abilities and individual differences in note-taking. There is currently a lack of consensus regarding the nature of this relationship, and this review addresses possible reasons for what may appear to be inconsistent results, including differences in how working memory and its role in note-taking have been assessed, note-taking modality, and individual differences in note-taking strategy.